Unit 3 Periodic Table Vocabulary

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Terms in this set (...)

Periodic Table
Organization of elements based on atomic number
Group
Vertical columns, elements share similar properties, # of valence electrons
Period
Horizontal rows, elements have the same # of orbitals as their period #
Metalloids
Along zig-zag
Metals
To the left of the zig-zag
Non Metals
To the right of the zig-zag
Electron Shell
Energy levels or orbitals, where the electrons are located
Physical Properties
Characteristics that can be observed using the 5 senses
Chemical Properties
Characteristics that can only be observed after you CHANGE the substance
Element
A pure substance, made of atoms, that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means.
Chemical Symbol
A one or two letter notation used to
represent an atom of a particular element.
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Mass
The average mass of one atom of an element.
Valence Electrons
The electrons in the outermost energy level
of an atom that influence how an element will react with other substances.
Reactivity
The rate it takes a substance to undergo a chemical reaction
Chemical Bond
The attraction between atomsThe attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substancesThe attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges
Conductivity
How well the substance allows heat, sound, or electricity to travel through it
Corrosiveness
The ability of a substance to permanently alter another substance
Ductility
The extent to which a substance can be stretched out without breaking
Flammability
How easily something will burn or ignite
Luster
The way the surface of a mineral reflects light
Malleability
Capability of being shaped or formed
Oxidation
A substance combines with oxygen and a chemical reaction takes place
Solubility
The rate at which a solute dissolves in a solvent
Viscosity
A liquids resistance to movement or flow
Density
Amount of matter in a given volume

Density = Mass/Volume
Insulation
A substance that reduces the transfer of thermal energy
Compound
A substance made of two or more elements that are chemically combined.
Isotope
One of two or more atoms with the same atomic number that contains different numbers of neutrons
Molecule
The smallest complete unit of a compound with the same properties of the compound.
Neutrons
A neutral particle that is part of the atom's nucleus with a mass of 1 amu.
Electrons
A negatively charged particle found in the space around the nucleus of an atom with nearly a mass of zero amu.
Protons
A positively charged particle that is part of an atom's nucleus with a mass of 1 amu.
Atom
The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element, they are the building blocks of matter
Noble Gasses
Unreactive non-metals in Group 18 of the Periodic Table.

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