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44 terms

Respiratory System "Words to Know"

Respiratory System
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Nares aka nostrils
the external openings leading into the nasal cavities
Nasal cavity
a space within & posterior to the external nose
Pharynx aka throat
the muscular tube extending from the nasal cavity to the esophagus & larynx
Trachea
the respiratory tube that extends from the larynx to the main (primary) bronchi
Main (primary) bronchus
one of the two large respiratory tubes (right & left) that branches from the trachea & enters the lung
Lung
one of the paired respiratory system organs (right & left) in which gas exchange occurs
Diaphragm
the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity which contracts during inspiration (pulls down toward your toes)
Serous membrane
moist membranes found in closed ventral (anterior) body cavities
Pleurae
the serous membranes associated with the lungs
Visceral pleura
the serous membrane which covers the external surface of each lung
Parietal pleura
-serous membrane which lines the thoracic wall & the mediastinum
-covers the superior surface of the diaphragm on each side of the thoracic cavity
Pleural cavity
the slit-like space between the visceral & parietal pleurae
Pleural fluid
serous lubricating fluid within the pleural cavity that is secreted by the pleurae
Mediastinum
the region of the thoracic cavity between the lungs
Bronchial tree
the branching network of airways, from the main bronchi through the terminal bronchioles, that conducts air with each lung
Cartilage
a tough, flexible, supporting connective tissue
Lobar (secondary) bronchus
a respiratory tube that branches from a main bronchus & leads into one lung lobe
Segmental (tertiary) bronchus
a respiratory tube that branches from a secondary bronchus & leads into one bronchiopulmonary segment of the lung
Bronchiole
a very small air passage without supporting cartilage
Terminal bronchiole
the smallest, final type of bronchiole the "conducting zone"
Respiratory zone
the lung region containing alveoli, where gas exchange occurs
Conducting zone
the airways from the nasal cavity through the terminal bronchioles, that conduct air to the respiratory zones of the lungs
Alveolar duct
an elongated air passageway completely lined by alveoli
Alveoli
thin-walled, air-filled sacs in which gas exchange occurs
Alveolar sac
clusters of alveoli that open into a common space
What tissue lines the alveoli?
simple squamous epithelium (aka type 1 cell)
Alveolar fluid
the liquid film that coats the alveolar walls, composed primarily of water
Surface tension
the force of attraction between water molecules at an air-water surface, which draws water molecules closer together
Surfactant
a mixture of phospholipids & lipoproteins which lowers the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
Respiratory membrane
the very thin membrane across which gas exchange occurs in the lungs
What is the respiratory membrane composed of?
-simple squamous epithelium lining the alveoli
-endothelium of the pulmonary capillary walls
-both the above's fused basement membrane
Larynx (voice box)
-passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea
-contains vocal cords
Ventilation
the bodily process of inhalation & exhalation
Carbonic acid
a weak acid that forms when water mixes with carbon dioxide from air
Carbonic anhydrase
an enzyme found in red blood cells that speeds the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid
Internal respiration
exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body
External respiration
exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
Dust cell
-aka alveolar macrophage
-a type of macrophage found in the pulmonary alveolus which reside on respiratory surfaces & cleans off particles such as dust or microorganisms
Pneumothorax
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
a condition most often caused by absence or impairment of the surfactant in the fluid that lines the alveoli
Dead space
air that occupies the space between the mouth and alveoli but that does not actually reach the area of gas exchange
Dalton's Law
the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures exerted by each individual gas
Henry's Law
the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
Buffer
a chemical substance or a system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding hydrogen ions