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Biology Final Exam

STUDY
PLAY
c
Chapter 1:Which of the following statements about the image shown below is not an observation?
a. the insect has three legs on the left side
b. the insect has a pattern on its back
c. the insects pattern shows that it is poisonous
d. the insect is green, white and black
quantitative observation
Chapter 1: the statement "the worm is 2cm long" is a
______________ _______________
b
Chapter 1: An inference is
a. the same as an observation
b. a logical interpretation of an observation
c. a statement involving numbers
d. a way to avoid bias
testable
Chapter 1:To be useful in science a hypothesis must be _____________.
spontaneous generation
Chapter 1: ___________ ___________ means living things can arise from nonliving matter.
b
Chapter 1: which of the following statements about controlled experiment is true.
a. all the variables must be kept the same
b. only one variable is tested at a time
c. scientists always use controlled experiments
scientific theory
Chapter 1: ________ _________ is a well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
sexual reproduction
Chapter 1: The process in which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism is called __________ ______________.
homeostasis
Chapter 1: the process by which organisms keep their internal conditions relatively stable is called _____________.
light microscope
Chapter 1: an instrument that produces images by focusing light rays is called a ________ ____________.
proton
Chapter 2: What is the positively charged particle in an atom?
compound
Chapter 2: Two or more different atoms are combined in definite proportions in any _____________.
sharing of electrons
Chapter 2: a covalent bond is formed by the ________________________.
mixture
Chapter 2: When you shake sugar and sand together in a test tube, you cause them to form a ___________.
acid
Chapter 2: A compound that produces hydrogen ions in solution is a _________.
monomers
Chapter 2: In polymerization complex molecules are formed by the joining together of ____________.
amino acid
Chapter 2: What does this represent?
H H O
] [ []
H --- N ----C----C-----OH
[
H----C---H
]
H
amino acids
Chapter 2: Proteins are polymers formed from ______ _______.
activation energy
Chapter 2: An enzyme speeds up a reaction by lowering the __________ _________.
active site
Chapter 2: In a chemical reaction, a reactant binds to an enzyme at a region known as the ___________.
biosphere
Chapter 3: All of life on Earth exists in a region known as the _____________.
community
Chapter 3: Groups of different species that live together in a defined area make up a ____________.
autotrophs
Chapter 3: __________ are organisms that use energy they take in from the environment to covert inorganic molecules into complex organic molecules
food chain
Chapter 3: The series of steps in which a large fish eats a small fish that has eaten algae is a ______ ______.
worms
Chapter 3:Which of the following organisms is a decomposer? Foxes, plants, worms, or birds?
biomass pyramid
Chapter 3:The total mass of living tissue at each trophic level can be show in _________ __________.
biogeochemical cycles
Chapter 3: Nutrients move through an ecosystem in _________________ __________.
change nitrogen gas into ammonia
Chapter 3: In the nitrogen cycle, bacteria that live on the roots of plants do what?
d
Chapter 3: Which biogeochemical cycle does NOT involve a stage where the chemical enters the atmosphere? A. water cycle B. Carbon Cycle C. Nitrogen cycle D. Phosphorus cycle
limiting nutrient
Chapter 3: When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, this substance is called __________ __________.
climate
Chapter 4: the average year after year conditions of temperature and precipitation within a particular region are its ________.
temperature
Chapter 4: an increase in the greenhouse effect causes an increase in _______________.
ecosystem
Chapter 4: All the biotic and abiotic factors in a pond form a _______________.
commensalism
Chapter 4: A relationship in which one organism is helped and another organism is neither helped nor hurt is called ___________.
mutualism
Chapter 4: A form of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit is called ___________.
parisitism
Chapter 4: A type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed is called __________.
succession
Chapter 4: Natural disturbances, such as fire or hurricanes, can result in ____________.
canopy
Chapter 4: In a tropical rain forest, the dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall trees is called the _________.
benthos
Chapter 4: organisms that live near or on the ocean floor are called ________.
coastal ocean
Chapter 4: labeled in the diagram is coastal ocean!
nucleus
Chapter 7: In many cells, the structure that controls the cell's activities is the ________.
cell membrane
Chapter 7: Despite differences in size and shape, all cells have cytoplasm and a _____________.
eukaryote
Chapter 7: If a cell of an organism contains a nucleus, the organism is a(an) ___________.
chromosomes
Chapter 7: Distinct threadlike structures containing genetic information are called __________.
mitochondria
Chapter 7: Which organelle converts the chemical energy in food into a form that cells can use?
lipid bilayers
Chapter 7: Cell membranes are consisted mainly of _______ ___________.
osmosis
Chapter 7: The movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane known as _______.
away from the area of where it is most concentrated
Chapter 7: A substance that moves across a cell membrane without using the cell's energy tends to move ____________________________________________________________________.
stomata
Chapter 7: Which cell helps in gas exchange in plants?
similar cells
Chapter 7: A tissue is composed of a group of ___________ ________.
b
Chapter 8: Which of the following are autotrophs?A)implants, B)plants, C)leopards, D)mushrooms
ATP
Chapter 8: One of the principle chemical compounds, that living things use to store energy is _____.
b
Chapter 8: Which Scientist concluded that most of a growing plant's mass comes from water?
A)Priestley, B)Van Helmont, C)Ingenhousz, D)Calvin
water and carbon dioxide
Chapter 8: In addition to light and chlorophyll, photosynthesis requires what?
green
Chapter 8: The leaves of plants appear green because chlorophyll reflects ______ light.
sugars and oxygen
Chapter 8: The products of photosynthesis are what?
Chloroplasts
Chapter 8: Which organelle contains chlorophyll?
light absorption
Chapter 8: The first processin the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is _______ ____________.
b
Chapter 8: Which substance from the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is a source of energy for the Calvin Cycle?--A)ADP, B)NADPH, C)H2O, D)pyruvic acid
calvin cycle
Chapter 8: The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are also known as the ________ ______.
atp
Chapter 9: in cells, the energy available in food is used to make an energy-rich compound called ______.
glycolysis
Chapter 9: the first step in releasing the energy of glucose in the cell is known as __________.
cellular respiration
Chapter 9: the process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen is __________ ___________.
b.
Chapter 9:Which organism perform cellular respiration?
mushroom leaf polar bear flower
a. only a and c b. all of the above
2 ATP molecules
Chapter 9: The net gain of energy from glycolysis is ____ ______ ___________.
anaerobic
Chapter 9: because fermantation takes place in the absence of oxygen, it is said to be __________.
mitochondrion
Chapter 9: the Krebs cycle takes place within the _________________.
convert ADP to ATP
Chapter 9: the electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to ________ ____ ___ ____.
cellular respiration
Chapter 9: a total of 36 molecules of ATP are produced from 1 molecule of glucose as a result of ___________ ___________.
oxygen debt
Chapter 9: during heavy exercise, the buildup of lactic acid in muscle cells results in __________ ______.
surface area
Chapter 10: the rate at which materials enter and leave through the cell membrane depends on the cells __________ ______.
2 daughter cells
Chapter 10: the process of cell division results in ____ _____________ ______.
centromere
Chapter 10: sisters chromatids are attached to each other at an area called the ___________.
12
Chapter 10: if a cell has 12 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each of its daughter cells have after mitosis?
chromatids
Chapter 10: At the beginning of cell division, a chromosome consists of two ___________.
prophase
Chapter 10: The phase of mitosis during which chromosomes become visible and the centrioles seperate from one another is __________.
metaphase
Chapter 10: know the illustration the best represents metaphase of mitosis. (type in metaphase)
cyclins
Chapter 10: the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells is believed to be controlled by a group of closely related proteins known as _________.
a
Chapter 10: in the cell cycle, external regulators direct cells to
a. speed up or slow down the cell cycle
b. remain unchanged
c. proceed and then stop the cell cycle
cancer
Chapter 10: uncontrolled cell division occurs in __________.
alleles
Chapter 11: Different forms of a gene are called ________.
a
Chapter 11: If a homzygous tall pea plant and a homzygous short plant are crossed
a. the recessive trait seems to disappear
b. the offspring are of medium height
c. no hybrids are produced
a
Chapter 11: a punnet square is used to determine the
a. probable outcome of a cross
b. actual outcome of a cross
c. result of mitosis
homozygous
Chapter 11: Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be ____________.
phenotype
Chapter 11: The physical characteristics of an organism are its ___________.
multiple alleles
Chapter 11: a situation in which a gene has more than two alleles is known as ____________ ________.
metaphase
Chapter 11: know the illustration of metaphase 1 of meiosis (type in metaphase)
c
Chapter 11: Unlike mitosis, meiosis in male mammals results in the formation of
a. one haploid cell
b. three diploid polar bodies
c. four haploid gamete cells
c
Chapter 11: to maintain the chromosomes number of an organism, the gametes must
a. become diploid
b. become recessive
c. be produced by meiosis
b
Chapter 11: A gene map shows
a. the number of possible alleles for a gene
b. the relative locations of genes on a chromosome
c. where chromosomes are in a cell
transformation
Chapter 12: the process by which one strain of bacteria is apparently changed into another strain is called ______________.
viruses
Chapter 12: Bacteriophages are ________.
polymerase
Chapter 12: A nucleotide does NOT contain ____________.
cytoplasm
Chapter 12: In prokaryotes, DNA molecules are located in the __________.
replication
Chapter 12: The diagram below shows the process of DNA ____________.
DNA polymerase
Chapter 12: The main enzyme involved in linking individual nucleotides into DNA molecules is ______ ____________.
transcription
Chapter 12: The process by which the genetic code of DNA is copied into a strand of RNA is called _____________.
amino acid
Chapter 12: In messenger RNA, each codon specifies a particular ________ _______.
mutations
Chapter 12: Changes in the DNA sequence that affect genetic information are known as ___________.
b
Chapter 12: An expressed gene is one that
a. functions as a promoter
b. is transcribed into RNA
c. codes for only one amino acid
46
Chapter 14: A normal human diploid zygote contains ____ chromosomes.
pedigree
Chapter 14: A chart that traces the inheritance of a trait in a family is called a _________.
polygenic
Chapter 14: traits that are caused by the interaction of many genes are said to be __________.
abo blood groups
Chapter 14: an example of a trait that is determined by multiple alleles is ______ _________ ________.
x
Chapter 14: Most sex linked genes are found on the ____ chromosome.
sex-linked
chapter 14: hemophilia is a genetic disorder that is ____-________.
c
Chapter 14: which parental pair could produce females with colorblindness?
a. homozygous normal vision mother, father with colorblindness
b. mother with colorblindness, normal vision father
c. heterozygous normal vision mother, father with colorblindness
sickle cell disease
Chapter 14: A common genetic disorder characterized by ben and twisted red blood cells is ________ _____ __________.
dna fingerprinting
Chapter 14: which of the following techniques takes advantage of repeated dna sequences that do not code for proteins?
gene therapy
Chapter 14: the process of attempting to cure genetic disorders by placing copies of healthy genes into cells that lack them is known as ______ _________.
charles darwin
Chapter 15: who observed variations in the characteristics of animals and plants on the different islands of the galapagos?
fossils
Chapter 15: in addition to observing living organisms, darwin studied the preserved remains of ancient organisms called?
a
Chapter 15: which of the following ideas proposed by lamarck was later found to be incorrect?
a. acquired characteristics can be inherited
b. all species were descended from other species
c. living things change over time
natural variation
Chapter 15: differences among individual species is referred to as?
artifical selection
Chapter 15: which would an animal breeder use to produce cows that give more milk?
adaptation
Chapter 15: an inherited characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in its specific environments is called an?
a
Chapter 15: the concept that each living species has descended with changes from other species over time is referred to as?
a. descent with modification
b. artificial selection
c. theory of acquired characteristics
adaptations
Chapter 15: Fitness is a result of ____________.
homologous structures
Chapter 15: Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues are ____________ ____________.
malthus
Chapter 15: The economist who reasoned that if the human population continued to grow unchecked eventually there would not be enough resources was __________.
taxonomy
Chapter 18: The science that specializes in the classification of organisms is ___________.
c
Chapter 18: Solely from its name you know that Rhizopus nigricans must be
a. a plant
b. an animal
c. in the genus Rhizopus
c
Chapter 18: A useful classification system does NOT
a. show relationships
b. reveal evolutionary trends
c. use different scientific names for the same organism
classes
Chapter 18: In classifying organisms orders are grouped together into _______.
kingdom
Chapter 18: The largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories is the ____________.
cladogram
Chapter 18: Which of the following shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms?
derived character
Chapter 18: A unique trait that is used to construct a cladogram is called a __________ ____________.
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Chapter 18: The three domains are __________, ___________, and __________ (type in 'and')
fungi
Chapter 18: A kingdom that includes only heterotrophs is ______.
a
Chapter 18: Which organism belongs in the kingdom Animalia?
a. octopus
b. tree
c. cell