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Chapter 24 Postwar Society and Culture:Change and Adjustment

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During the 1920's, how were immigrants from souhtern and eastern Europe affected by the new quota system of immigration?
They found it much more difficult to immigrate.
In addition to closing its gates to eastern European immigrants in the 1920's, the United States also
expirenced increasing anti-Semitism.
One of the new urban social patterns of the 1920's was the
emergence of the idea of intrafamily democracy.
During the 1920's young men and women
replaced "dating" with "paying a call"
"The Chicago School" of urban sociology and accounts of the "lady murderesses" Beluah Annan and Belva Gaertner rflected societal concerns about
city life
Feminist Maragaret Sanger was one of the
strongest proponents of birth control
Those considered "social feminists" in the 1920's
sought protective legislation for working women.
After winning the vote, most women in the 1920's
lost interest in agitatiing for change.
In the 1920's,______________led the campaign for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution
Alice Paul
The 1920's saw immnese changes in popular culture becaue of the two new technologies of
motion pictures and radios
The first significant talking movie was
The Jazz Singer
The greatest film star of his, who won fame as a sad litle tramp, was
Charlie Chaplin
During the 1920's , American sports were
extraordinarily popular
The Sac and Fox Indian who was propbably the greatest all-around athlete of the twentieth century was
Jim Thorpe
The "Sultan of Swat" who trasnformed baseball during the 1920's with his hitting prowess was
Babe Ruth
In the 1920's, many rural Americans thought of the new city-oriented culture as
blighted by sin and materialism
Utban-rural tensions of the twenties produced a resurgence of
religious fundamentalism
The popular politician who was the greates asset of religious fundamentalists campaigning against teaching Darwin's theory of evolution in the schools was
William Jenning's Bryan
The chif councel for the defendant, John T. Scopes, in the famous "Monkey Trial" was
Clarence Darrow
The 1925 Dayton, Tennessee "Monkey Trial" dealt with
teaching evolution in the public schools.
The prohibition movement was most strongly supported by ___________Americans
rural
Prohibition was a typical progressive reform becasue it was
designed to frustrate "the interests"
The infamous gangster who grabbed wealth and power in Chicago during prohibition was
Al Capone
The most horrible exmaple of the social malaise of the 1920's, was the
revival of the Ku Klux Klan.
A major factor in the collapse of the Ku Klux Klan in the late 190's was the
growing public awareness of its cruelty.
The literature of the 1920's reflected the
disillusionment of the intellectuals
The Sacco-Vanzetti case that inspired many intectuals implied that American justice had little sympathy towards
religous fundamentalism
The symbol of the "lost generation" and the author of the Great Gatsby was
F. Scott Fitzgerald.
The expatriate novelist Ernest Hemingway
portrayed a world of rootless desperation, amorality, and outrage at life's meaninlessness.
In an effort to escape postwar life and culture, which of the following authored a potrait of the nineteenth century?
Edith Wharton
America's foremost cynic of the 1920's, who displayed witty contempt for almost everything was?
H. L. Mencken
Probably America's most popular novelist of the 1920's,___________satirized contemporary society in Main Street and Babbit
Sinclair Lweis.
During the 1920's black Americans experienced
discrimination and concentration in northern ghettos
The leader of the Universal Negro Imprvement Association, whose slogan was "Back to Africa," was
Marcus Garvey
The flourishing of black literature, theatre, and music during the twenties was known as the
Harlem Renaissance
The most important cause of prosperity during the "new era" was the
imporved efficiency among American manufacturers.
Bruce Barton's best-selling book, The Man Nobody Knows, described
Jesus as the founder of modern business
During the 1920's, the___________industry had the single most important impact on the nation's booming economy.
automobile
The individual most responsible for the most growth of the automobile industry was
Henry Ford
It would be accurate to say that Henry Ford
realized mass production could make a car cheap enough for the average consumer
Henry Ford believed that an important apsect in increasing output was
increasing wages
The almost simultaneous developments in airplanes and automobiles in the early twentieth century were due to the fact that both developments were stimulated by the
invention of the internal combustion engine
In May 1927, the first solo non-stop flight form New York to Paris was made in the Spirit of St. Louis by
Charles Lindbergh
In retrospect, the era of the 1920's seems to be clearly a period of
rapid transition during which the complex modern world was emerging.
The term with which President Warren G. Harding is frequently identified is
"normalcy".
The Ohio gang is asscociated with President
Warren G. Harding
Of his life in the White House, which of the following presidents referred to it as "prison"?
Warren G. Harding
His admirers regarded Andrew Mellon as the greatest secretary of the treasury since Alexander Hamilton because he
proposed reducing the income tax on high incomes and abolishing the inheritance tax.
During the 1920's, appointments to federal regulatory agencies such as the
interstate Commerce Commision and the Federal Reserve Board were generally
pro-big business.
Charles R. Forbes, a Harding appointee, stole millions of dollars from the
Veterans Bureau
The illegal leasing of government oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming was the worst scandal involving the adminsitration of President
Warren G. Harding
Harding's Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, was
implicated in the Teapot Dome Scandal.
Immeadiately after the Great War, Americans generally were
retreating into isolationism.
The Five-Power Treaty signed by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy in 1922 committed them to
limiting their battleships to a fixed ratio
Under the Kellog-Briand Pact of 1928, the United States agreed to
renounce war as a solution in international controversies
Members of the peace movement of the 1920's believed that
peace could be attained by pointing out the moral disadvantages of war.
Herbert Hoover's administration reversed the policies of President Wilson toward Latin America by
declaring the right to intervene dependent on the doctrine of self-preservation
The significant change in American policy toward the Carribean that occurred in the 1930's was
withdrawing American marines occupyig Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.
The totalitarian challenge to the United States and the European democracies began with the 1931 invasion of Manchuria by
Japan
Under the Stimson Doctrine, the United States
declared that it would never recognize the legality of seizures made in violation of U.S. treaty rights.
The democracies failed to unite to resist totalitarianism during the 1920's and 1930's because they disagreed with each other over the
repayment of debts from the Great War
The 1924___________Plan attempted to solve Germany's post-war financial problems by granting it a $200 million loan
Dawes
The Republican elected president in 1928, the "intectual leader, almost philosopher, of the New Era," was
Herbert Hover
The Democratic candidate for president in 1928 was_________,an anti-prohibition Catholic from New York City.
Al Smith
Herbert Hoover's victory in 1928 was
a smashing triumph, appearing to doom the Democrats to extinction
During the twenties, large manufacturers
ofen sought market stability through trade associations.
The weakest element in the economy during the 1920's was
agriculture.
President Hoover believed that direct economic aid to farmers
should be opposed as a matter of principle
The primary economic weakness undermining the prosperity of the 1920's was the
maldistribution of resources.
The October 1929 collapse of _________signaled the end of the speculative boom.
the New York Stock Exchange.
The president during the stock market collapse and th start of the Great Depression was
Herbert Hoover
The Great Depression was a worldwide phenomenon caused chiefly by the
economic imbalances resulting from the chaos of the Great War
The economic problems causing the Great Depression came to a head mainly becasue of the
easy credit policies of the Federal Reserve Board.
Herbert Hoover's primary response to the Great Depression was to
try to restore public confidence.
Hoover's program for ending the Depression called for the federal government to
lend funds to banks and corporations on the verge of collapse
Hoover's plans for ending the Great Depression
might have been theoritically sound, but flexibility was needed in their implementation.
During the Great Depression, President Hoover permitted the Federal Farm Board to
establish stabilization corporations to purchase surplus wheat and cotton.
One important aspect of the way Hoover dealt with the Great Deprssion was his
refusal to allow federal funds to be used for direct relief for individuals.
In 1932, Hoover approved creating the __________to lend money to insurance companies, railroads, and banks.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Herbert Hoover's response to the Great Depression was inadequate because it was
too rigid and uncompromising
What was the effect of the federal government's attempt to balance the budget during the Depression?
It set a good example for the populance on how to live within one's means.
During the Great Depression, "Hovervilles" became homes for
Homeless people
In the early 1930's, federal immigration agents rounded up__________for deportaiton because of fear they might become dependent on public funds.
Mexican Americans
The Bonus Army which came to Washington D.C. in 1932, consisted largely of
leftwing activists.
Disgruntled by the events of the 1920's, a considerable number of members of which group became interested in communism?
Intellectuals
How were families of the unemployed affected by the Great Depression?
Wive's influence tended to increase.
Franklin D. Roosevelt owed his nomination for president to his success as
govenor of New York
During the 1920's, Franklin D. Roosevelt's political ideas were
consistent with the basic values of Coolidge prosperity.
President Franklin Roosevelt called his plan of reform and recovery the
New Deal
Unlike the policies of his opponent, Franklin Roosevelt pledged during his campaign that his administration would
do what was necessary to protect individuals and advance the public good.
The heart of Roosevelt's New Deal was
bold, persistent experimentation
By the day FDR's inauguration in 1933, banking operations
had collapsed totally throughout the country.
The "Hundred Days" refers to the enormous amount of legislation enacted during the
first three months of FDR's first administration.
The Civilian Conservation Corps was intended primairly to
create soil conservation and reforestation jobs for unemployed for unemployed young men.
In the early New Deal, FDR hoped to stimulate business recovery through the partial suspension of antitrust laws, but with worker protection, in the _________Act.
National Industrial Recovery.
Which of the following was NOT a result of the National Industrial Recovery Act?
the end of the Depression
The labor organization led by John L. Lewis, which fought to organize the semi-skilled and unskilled workers in major mass production industries in the 1930's, was the
Committee for Industrial Organization.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act sought to raise farm income by
restricting commodity production.
Perhaps the most serious weakness of the Agricultural Adjustment Act was
failing to assist tenant farmers and sharecroppers.
The philosophy of the New Deal is best described as
lacking any consistent ideological base.
The Civil Works Administration
created jobs for the unemployed.
The New Deal program that provided billions of dollars for roads, stadiums, actors, writers, and artists was the ______Administration.
Work Progress
The novel that best portrayed the desperate plight of millions impoverished by the Depression was The Grapes of Wrath writen by
John Steinbeck
The author of The Sound and the Fury, and perhaps the finest novelist of the era, was
William Faulkner
The most formidable of the extremists opposing Roosevelt and leader of the Share Our Wealth movement was
Huey P. Long
The popluar "Radio Priest" whose program criticized Roosevelt and came to resemble facism was
Charles Coughlin
FDR's critic who presented a popular scheme for old-age pensions was
Huey P. Long
Justice Brandeis urged Roosevelt to
restore competition and increase corporate taxation.
The New Deal meausre that the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional in Schechter v. United States was the ___________Act.
National Industrial Recovery.
The "Second" New Deal measure giving workers the right to bargain collectively and prohibiting employers from interfering with union organization activities in their factories was the __________Act.
National Labor Relations or Wagner
The presidential election of 1936 is most accurately seen as a
tremendous vote of confidence for FDR
The chief obstacle to New Deal legislation, which FDR trid to outmaneuver in 1937, was
the Supreme Court
FDR sought to make the Supreme Court more "pro-New Deal" in 1937 by proposing that
the number of justices should be increased.
The result of Roosevelt's "court packing" plan was
a serious loss of prestiege for Roosevelt but the saving of Second New Deal legislation.
When the United States Automobile Workers conducted "sit-down strikes" against General Motors, Roosevelt
thought them illegal, but refused to intervene.
Roosevelt's popularity slumped sharply during the late 1930's, partly because of the
recession of 1937-1938.
As the 1938 elections approached, Roosevelt sought to "purge"
a number of conservative Democratic senators
One of the problems with the New Deal was that it
increased the size of the federal bureaucracy and made government more difficult to monitor
The "most significant" aspect of the "Roosevelt revolution" was that it
committed the country to the idea of federal responsibility for the national welfare.
In addition to heading an informal network of Washington women inkey posts, Eleanor Roosevelt was noted for her special interest in better treatment for
blacks
During FDR's first two terms, ___________dramatically shifted their support from the Republicans to the Democrats
blacks
The New Deal's Commisioner of Indian Affairs who tried to implement more pluralistic policies was
John Collier
The New Deal's Indian Reorganizaion Act of 1934 encouraged
returning individually owned lands to tribal control
Franklin D. Roosevelt is best described as
one of the most effective chief executives in the nation's history.
Roosevelt communicated directly and effectively with the public through
"fireside chats"
During FDR's first term, 1933-1937, the hallmark of American foreign policy was
neutrality and isolationism.
The invasion of which African country is demonstrative of the expansionist aims of Italy during the 1930's?
Ethiopa
How did the Neutrality Act of 1935 treat the sale of munitions?
it forbade their sale to all belligerents whenever the president should proclaim that a state of war existed.
Democracy and fascism clashed in 1936 when civil war broke out in
Spain
In March of 1939 Adolph Hitler broke his promise made at Munich and seized
Czechoslovakia
In 1939, Britain and France declared war after Germany invaded
Poland
How did the German attack on Poland affect Americans' thinking?
keeping out of the war remained an almost universal hope, but preventing a Nazi victory became their ultimate objective.
The federally funded top-secret atomic bomb program established by Roosevelt in 1939 was known as the
Manhattan Project
In 1940, the Roosevelt administration "traded" 50 World War I destroyers to Great Britain for
naval bases in the Carribean
In early 1941, FDR proposed aiding the finacially exhausted British under the __________Act.
Lend-Lease
FDR spoke for the hopes of many for a better post-war world when he expressed his goal of
Four Freedoms
At the end of November, 1941, the United States was
fighting an undeclared naval war with Germany.
In conferences with the Japanese ambassador in the spring of 1941, Secretary of State Cordell Hull
insisted that Japan withdraw from China and pledge to no further agression.
The United States declared war on Japan after the surprise attack on December 7, 1941 on
Pearl Harbor.
Roosevelt's greatest accomplishment as a wartime leader was his
ability to inspire people with a sense of national purpose.
The World War II board which exercised complete control over domestic prices and wages was the
Office of War Mobilization
How did the war effort between 1941 and 1946 affect the U.S. standard of living?
it had almost no adverse effect on the average person's standard of living.
Between 1941 and 1945, spending by the federal government was
twice as much as in its enitre previous history
To pay almost 40% of the cost of World War II, the government
increased taxes.
A major social effort of World War II on American life was a
tendency for the population to shift to California and other far western states
During World War II, American families experienced
increasing marriage and birth rates
The lives of black Americans imporved during and immeadiately after World War II because
Hitler's brutal treatment of Jews led Americans to reexamine their own racial views.
During World War II, black males were
permitted to join the various military services, but were segregated.
In 1943, young__________were attacked by rioting sailors in the Los Angeles.
Hispanics
Over 100,000_________were relocated and interned in the U.S. during World War II.
Japanese Americans
"The very fact that no sabotage has taken place to date is a distrurbing and confirming indication that such an act will be taken." So said General John L. Dewitt justifying
the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans.
In regards to female entry into the traditionally male-dominated workforce, unions
doubted women could handle the work.
What happened when women entered the work force during World War II?
The government created an extensive daycare program for women with young children.
Immeadiately after Pearl Harbor, American and British strategists decided to
concentrate first against Germany
In November 1942, allied forces made their first attack on Nazi-controlled territory by landing in
French North Africa
According to the map "The Liberation of Europe," which of the following was a site of a major Allied Victory?
Stalingrad
The Allied campaign in Italy
was dissapointing, even though it weakened the enemy.
On D-Day, June 6,1944, the allies invaded
France
A desperate German counterattack in December 1944, at the German-Belgian border, almost broke the Allied lines. This was the battle of
the Bulge.
Prior to 1943, Americans
dismissed the news of Jewish prosecution as either propaganda or serious exaggeration.
In response to the slaughter of Jews by the Nazis, the Roosevelt administration
did almost nothing.
The technological development which revolutionized naval warfare in World War II was the
airplane.
The intiative in the Pacific shifted to the Americans as a result of the 1942 battles of
Coral Sea and Midway
The brilliant and egocentric commander of American land forces in the Pacific was
Douglas MacArthur
The American strategy in the Pacific called for a
two-pronged drive from New Guinea toward the Philippines and from the central Pacific toward Tokyo
The American strategy in the Pacific to conquer only strategic islands was called
"island hopping"
In August 1942, Americans began their campaign in the Pacific by attacking the island of
Guadalcanal
As a result of the Battle of the Philippines Sea and the Battle for Leyte Gulf, Japan
was destroyed as a sea power.
When President Roosevelt died in April 1945, he was succeeded by
Harry Truman
During the early 1940's, the Manhattan Project was established to create the
atomic bomb.
President Truman dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki becaue he
hoped to bring the war to a quick end and save lives.
A new period of international cooperation was entered with the signing of what in San Francisco in June 1945?
the United Nations Charter
During World War II, mass persuasion campaigns promoted a __________viewpoint.
Pacifistic
How well did the Soviets cooperate with the Americans during the war?
They shared a common commitment to defeating Hitler and seemed willing to cooperate on postwar problems.
The real center of authority in the United Nations was the
Security Council
One of the major limitations of the United Nations Security Council was that
any great power could block UN action.
How one understands the disagreements among the Allies which emerged late in the war depends on how one views the
postwar Soviet system.
A major cause of friction between the Soviets and the other Allies was
Soviet resentment of the British -American delay in opening a second front.
At the ___________Conference, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to Soviet annexation of large sections of eastern
Poland.
Yalta.
Stalin believed that dominating Poland through an unpopular pro-Soviet government
was of no strategic importance to Britain or the United States.
At the Postdam meeting in July 1945, the victorious Allies agreed to
divide Germany into four zones of occupation.
World War II "caused a fundamental change in international politcs." One aspect of this change was the
reduction of all of the western European nations to the status of second-class powers.