45 terms

Middle East Vocabulary Review

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Abraham
This individual, who is very important in both Christianity and Judaism, is widely considered the Father of the Jews. He also is part of the lineage of Muhammed, the founder of Islam.
Afghanistan
This land-locked country is located between Iran and Pakistan and was ruled for more than two dacades by the Taliban.
Arabian Sea
This is the body of water found between the Arabian Peninsula and the country of India.
Arabian Desert
This desert occupies approximately 900,000 square miles, mostly in the Arabian penninsula.
Arabic
This language is spoken not only by many people in the Middle East but also by some groups living in North Africa.
Autocratic
This is a type of government in which power is held by a single, self-appointed ruler.
Bible
This is the Christian holy text.
Christianity
This is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
Ethnic
This is the term given to a group of people who share a common heritage.
Euphrates
This river flows from Turkey through Iraq and was the western-most of the two major Mesopotamian Rivers.
Five Pillars
This is the name for the number of basic acts and actions all Muslims must commit to during their lifetime.
Gaza
This is the piece of land that lies between Israel and Egypt and is one of the Palestinian territories whose boundaries were formed following the Arab-Israeli War of 1948.
Iran
This Middle Eastern country was once the center of the Persian empires, and was the site of an Islamic Revolution in 1979.
Iraq
This country was the site of war with its neighbors in the 1980s and wars with the U.S. and its allies in the early 1990s and early 2000s
Irrigation
This term refers to one way that humans can adapt land in a dry climate for farming.
Islam
This is a monothesistic religion that originated from the teachings of the prophet Muhammad.
Israel
This country was formed in 1948 from the land once known as Palestine and has served as a homeland for the Jewish people.
Jesus Christ
The Christian faithful consider this person to be not only the Son of God but the spiritual savior of humanity.
Jewish
This is a group of Hebrew people who came from Israel
Judaism
This is the oldest, monotheistic religion and is based on the Hebrew Bible
Koran
This is the religious text of Islam
Kurdish
This ethnic group is found in northern Iran, northern Iraq, and eastern Turkey, and was targeted by Saddam Hussein in the 1990s when they wanted independence from Iraq.
Mecca
This city was key in Arabian trade routes and was where Muhammed centered the Islamic faith.
Middle East
This is the modern-day name given to the region east of the Mediterranean Sea, north and east of the Red Sea, and North of the Arabian Peninsula.
Mohammad
This individual founded Islam in the 600s CE
Mosque
Therm refers to the place of worship for followers of Islam
Muslim
This refers to a person who follows the teachings of the Prophet Muhammed and the Holy Quran
Palestine
This is the name of the region in the Middle East whose people have been without a homeland since the formatioin of Israel after World War II.
Persia
This was another name for the area that is now known as Iran.
Persian Gulf
This body of water is found between Saudi Arabia and Iran and was a focus of both the Iran-Iraq War and the war following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in 1990.
Ramadan
This is the Muslim month-long holiday that is one of the "Five Pillars of Islam"
Red Sea
This body of water lies between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and is conneted to the Mediterranean Sea by the Suez Canal.
River Jordan
This river connects the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, serves as the border between Israel and Jordan, and is where Jesus was baptised by John the Baptist.
Saudi Arabia
This country is home to massive oil wealth and the two most important cities (Mecca and Medina) of the Islamic faith.
Sharia
This terms refers to Islamic law as spelled out and interpreted from the Koran and from the Prophet Muhammad.
Shia Islam
This is the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. Though a manority in the Muslim world, this group constitutes the absolute majority of the populations in Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, and Iraq. This group believed that a decendent of Muhammad should be in power.
Straight of Hormuz
This waterway connects the Gulf of Oman with the Persian Gulf, and serves as an important passage way for the export of oil from the region.
Suez
This canal was built in the 19th century to connect the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea and is owned and operated by Egypt.
Sunni
This is the largest denomination of Islam, embracing up to 90% of the world's Muslims. It considers itself to be the "orthodox" form of Islam. This group did not want a decendent of Muhammad to be in power.
Synagogue
This commonly refers to the "house of prayer" used by members of the Jewish faith.
Theocracy
This is a form of government in which a god is placed as the head of state and all rules are based solely along religious doctrine.
Tigris
This river flows from Turkey throught Iraq and was the eastern-most of the two major Mesopotamian Rivers.
Turkey
This country is located between the Black Sea and the Mediterrranean Sea, and was once the heart of the Ottomon Empire.
Water Pollution
This is the specific type of contamination or poisoning, of lakes, rivers, oceans, and other bodies by harmful compounds such as raw sewage and industrial chemicals.
Zionism
This term refers to the movement which started a 19th century movement to establish a homeland for Jewish people.
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