Terms in this set (96)
Every person or entity which could be included in the research.
Subset of a population
A process or technique of choosing a sub-group from a population to participate in the study.
is used to calculate the sample size (n) given the population size (N) and a margin of error (e).
the degree to which a sample selected from a population can be said to be representative of that population.
criteria potential participants must meet in order be included in the study.
criteria in which potential participants will be excluded from participation in the study.
Each case, individual or element has an equal probability of being selected.
In situation where it is not possible to compile a complete sampling frame, researcher use non-probability sampling techniques.
Simple Random Sampling
involves selecting a random from a sampling frame
selected based on some known characteristics of the population, a characteristics which will have an impact on research
involves selecting items at systematic or regular intervals from the sampling frame
used when the population of the study can be divided into discreet group based on any particular characteristics
the researcher fills a sample of participants in the research using different _______ sampling
the researchers find a suitable participant , ask them to recommend another participant and so on
using the techniques the researchers engages conveniently located participants
the researchers decides who to include in the research
is a data collection method used to record observation of the phenomena.
is the same as observation with one major difference, the researcher is the participant in the action he/she is observing.
is observation carried out generally covertly or secretly.
simple, detailed note of the researcher while conducting observation in the field.
Descriptive field notes
describe the actual setting of the study and accounts of actual events.
Reflective field notes
refers to the researcher's thoughts on what he/she observed during the observation period.
refer to the quick notes on something the researcher would like to recall later.
refers to the personal statement of the researcher's thoughts, feelings or opinions on others whom he has close encounter with during the course of the study. Are the traditional way in social research and in particular in anthropological and ethnographical research, through which observation in the field are recorded.
refers to schedule or your daily activities while conducting interview or observation in the actual field.
the act of observing will influence the phenomenon being observed. Because people may not behave or act normally o naturally when aware of being watched while doing an activity.
refers to the possibility that certain characteristics or ideas of the researcher may "affect what they observe" (i.e., bias).
a conversation between two or more people where the interviewer ask questions to gather specific information from the interviewee
are interviews carried out generally face to face and on a one-to-one basis between the interviewer and interviewee
are interviews conducted generally on one-to-one basis over the telephone.
are interviews conducted face to face between the interviewer and a group of interviewees.
can be synchronous, in real time, using chat room or using conferencing software, or asynchronous, outside of real time, using e-mail or message boards or discussion board and so on.
are among the most widely used data collection methods
Drop and collect questionnaires
is where a researcher drop a questionnaire with respondents and then return to collect the questionnaire when respondent completed filling in the questionnaire
Group administered questionnaires
are questionnaires which the researcher administer to a group.
are questionnaires which are administered online.
the researcher brings group of people together, to focus on particular issue.
is research conducted on the internet
is a second hand source.
are used widely in attitude measurement. It is also used to generate quantitative data.
are used to explore people's instinctive responses to stimuli.
is a research method that involves the analysis of content, analysis of any kind of content.
Visual methods and image-based research
is the use of any kind of visual image as data in a research project.
calls for the analysis of narratives.
is a data in the form of documents, or data drawn from documents.
is a way of analyzing the social world as it is produced and represented in language.
- is the study of signs in society.
is a data collection method by which oral testimony is gathered from the research participants on their experience of the phenomenon.
wherein two groups are established, with individuals or units being randomly assigned to both groups
are data collection methods that can be employed by the researcher without the intruding in the way on the site of the research or on the population of the research.
Critical incident technique
this method involves gathering data about the critical incident or a series of critical incident and the consequences of those incidents.
is a data which the researcher makes and create themselves.
data that already exists; it is not created by the researcher
provide new insight into any phenomenon. Sometimes called original sources
various data from different streams.
There must be a system in place and the action is carried out in a systematic manner, using the system.
the researcher does not participate in the action or in the phenomenon being observed.
researcher does not know what aspects or elements of the actions or the phenomenon should or could be observed.
the researcher knows broadly speaking what aspects or elements of the research should or could be observed.
the researchers knows precisely what aspects or elements of the research should or could be observed.
requires the researcher observes the participants under study in their natural setting.
simulates or creates a situations, environment or system then observe the participants.
adherence to the scientific principles of research, e.g. systematic and valid research.
means by which data gathering is undertaken in order to provide primary data for a research project.
focuses on words rather than numbers in the collection of data. Qualitative research as a research strategy inductive and subjective, constructivist and/or interpretivist.
focuses on the gathering of numeric data or data in numerical form. It is deductive and objective and situated in the framework of positivism.
Focus Groups 1
Data collection where a researcher uses a group of participants in a focused discussion on the issue under investigation, designed to produce new knowledge and new insights.
energy that develops naturally within a group. It can be positive or negative and is often affected by strong personalities.
the researcher takes the interviewee through an exploration and analysis of a series of photographs.
also known as closed-ended questions, these are questions that elicit short responses, like: yes/no. often used to establish factual information.
also called open-ended questions used to explore understandings, feelings and beliefs. Usually require thought and reflection generate longer responses.
Anything that contaminates or compromises the research or data.
The researchers influence the findings of the research through the design of the body.
Occurs when the sampling procedure used in the research is flawed or compromised in some way.
Happens when the respondents can respond in a patterned way to each question.
respondents agree to everything researcher says
Social desirability bias
giving socially desirable responses/politically correct response
influence through their perception of prestige
specially designed, highly structured, very focused and usually short data collection instruments.
developed by RENSIS LIKERT. Used to measure the direction and force of attitudes on three, five or seven point scale.
Semantic Differential Scale
uses opposite objectives and asks respondents to indicate which of the adjectives best describes the phenomenon under investigation.
Bogardus Social Distance Scale
developed by psychologist E.S. Bogardus. Measures the social distance between different social and/or ethnic groups.
Refers to the degree to which the data collection methods as they are designed can accomplish what it is that they are designed to accomplish.
Used to tests equivalence reliability. The researcher halves the questionnaire and then tests whether or not both halves yield consistent results.
Test Re-test Method
Used to estimate reliability. A questionnaire is used in a pilot test, then later, the same test is repeated and compared for consistency.
Inter Coder Reliability
Two or more researchers, observers or coders measure the same phenomenon and then compare their results. If their results are consistent, inter coding can be deemed reliable.
Skips and Filters
Devices used in questionnaires to allow respondents to skip over questions that do not relate to them.
SPSS( Statistical package for the Social Science )
a computer software package designed for the analysis of quantitative data .
the correct, safe and secure management of data while data is being gathered , stored and analyzed.
Emerges from the conceptual framework, the theoretical framework and the methodological framework. Contained in the data analysis chapter in the thesis.
evidences that the researcher gathers for the research project.
Analysing Quantitative Data
Simple and small quantitative data sets can be analyzed by simply counting the numbers and calculating simple statistics in relation to them.
Analysing Qualitative Data
Simple approach to qualitative data analysis is to read through all of the data and while reading, make a list all the themes that occur to in the data .
A count of the number of valid responses received to a data gathering exercise
The application of the findings of a researchh project beyond the specific context of the study