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chapter 1 IRN, chapter 2 INR
Terms in this set (52)
A conceptual or theoretical perspective or framework commonly accepted within a scholarly discipline that helps to inform and guide thinking and research
The dominant post-World War II era paradigm of international relations; based on the assumption that international relations is a struggle for power among sovereign states. The _________ paradigm is increasingly under challenge in the post-Cold War era.
human nature realist
These scholars see the struggle for power that characterizes international relations
as rooted in the essential character of human nature
These scholars see the struggle for power that characterizes international relations as rooted in the structure and organization of the international system,especially the condition of anarchy
In international relations theory, this refers to the absence of an effective world government capable of enforcing rules and norms of behavior. It is central to the "structural real-
state of nature
A situation of anarchy in which there is no government. The philosopher Thomas Hobbes posited that humans once existed in a state of nature but elected to create governments, and thereby surrender some personal liberty, in exchange for order and security. International relations, according to realists, still exist in a "______________."
A condition of supreme, independent political authority answerable to no higher authority. In international relations theory, and especially among realists, states are often regarded as ___________
Peace of Westphalia
Two treaties concluded in 1648, collectively referred to as the ______________, that brought an end to theThirty
Years War in Europe. In IR theory, 1648 is often cited as marking the birth of the modern international system within which states are the primary actors
In international relations theory,the need
of states to protect their own interests through the accumulation of power or the forging of alliances.
Emphasized by "realists,"it is the opposite of rely-ing on international or supranational institutions for protection of one's interests
The notion that what one state
does for purely defensive purposes might appear
toother states as threatening to their security and interests. The_____________ helps to explain
arms races and the difficulty even well-intentioned states face in breaking out of the spiral of arms
The total benefits that accrue to a state as a consequence of its interactions with other states without regard to the benefits that accrue to others. Liberals argue that states are most concerned with _____________ and that they provide a basis for cooperation in world politics.
The benefits that accrue to a state from its international interactions assessed in comparison to the benefits that accrue to other states. Realists argue that states are most concerned with ___________ and that this concern is a source of tension and conflict in world politics.
democratic peace theory
Based on the empirical observation that democracies have historically tended not to fight wars against one another, this
theory suggests that the spread of democratic government can be the antidote to war in the international system.
The idea that international institutions (liberal institutionalism), economic interdependence (liberal commercialism), and the diffusion of democratic government (liberal internationalism) are mutually reinforcing and that together support liberal notions of a trend toward peace and cooperation among states.
An international relations paradigm emphasizing the role that norms and values have in creating or "_________" the character of international relations. Unlike realists or liberals,
____________ argue that change in world politics can occur without altering the structure of the international system.
In international relations theory, a paradigm that suggests (1) the inclusion of more women in positions of authority in international relations would change the way world politics is
conducted and (2) traditional scholarship,especially realism, reflects a gendered perspective on the conduct of international relations
balance of power
The realist approach to order, it assumes that a rough equilibrium among the great powers helps to maintain stability, since no state can initiate war and be confident of victory. The concert model of __________ assumes the balance will be maintained by one or more key states with both the interests and capabilities to maintain the balance.
balance of threat
A modification of the realist notion of balance of power, it is the idea that what drives state behavior is the subjective assessment of the threat that others pose to the national interest.
In a balance of power system, a _____________ is one with both an interest and capability to ensure that power is kept relatively in balance. The classic example is nineteenth-century Great Britain,which had an interest in maintaining a balance among the continental powers to prevent them from expanding their influence across the English Channel.
Joining sides with a dominant or rising power in order to be on the winning side. It is the opposite of balancing in international relations.
A subtpe of the liberal paradigm; suggests that commerce among states leads to a mutual economic interdependence that raises the cost of conflicts and wars. Thus, interdepenence serves as a deterrent to war.
A subtype of the liberal paradigm; suggests that international institutions such as international law, international regimes, and international organizations can mitigate anarchy and thereby facilitate cooperation in international relations.
A subtype of the liberal paradigm; suggests that domestic regime type has an impact on a state's foreign behavior. In particular, it is associated with the theory of democratic peace.
An international relations paradigm that challenges the realist assumption that the competitive, power-oriented, violent character of world politics is an inevitable fact of life. Instead,liberalism holds out the prospect that global cooperation is possible and an alternative to power politics.
A perspective on international relations and foreign policy associated with intellectuals close to the administration of George W. Bush. They argue that the diffusion of democracy sometimes has to be jump-started through military means. Part of the intellectual justification for the U.S. war in Iraq.
A paradigm in international relations theory; accepts the realist notion that conflict is inherent in world politics, but sees that conflict as driven more by the economic interest of socioeconomic classes than by the geopolitical interests of sovereign states.
transnational advocacy networks
Mixes of individuals and organizations with transnational representation who interact, exchange information, and share and promote common values. Central to the constructivist perspective as sources of the global promotion and diffusion of human rights norms.
A perspective on world politics that emerged after World War I as a challenge to realism. It assumes that ideas about reform of the international system and domestic political regimes could move us beyond the world of power politics emphasized by realism. Today, both liberalism and constructivism carry on this tradition of ___________ in IR theory. (Chapter 1)
A concept that provides an exaggerated and oversimplified version of reality as a way to promote analytical clarity and conceptual comparison. (Chapter 1)
A political unit able to exercise effective governance and control over a well-defined piece of territory and its population
A group of people who see themselves,due to shared historical and cultural experiences, as members of a common group.
A state that exists to provide territory and governance for a group of people who see themselves as a single nation
The belief that emerged in the seventeenth century that people care about their national identity and are motivated to seek national self-determination by acquiring a state of their
A balance of power system that relies on collective oversight and maintenance of the balance by the great powers.
Concert of Europe
The series of meetings and conferences, and the rules they generated, that took place among the great powers of Europe from 1815 to 1848 and that were intended to produce
stability and order.
Concept associated with political scientist Robert Putnam that suggests leaders simultaneously negotiate with other states and with key domestic actors in the conduct of international relations
An approach to international order in which a global coalition of states committed to international peace and order agrees to act collectively to repel aggression against any other state in the international system. The term is sometimes used to apply to regional alliance systems (such as NATO) that adopt a ________ approach among their own membership.
League of Nations
Established in 1919, it was the first twentieth-century effort to create a global system of collective security in which an attack on one member would be viewed as an attack upon all. Despite its advocacy by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, the United States never joined, and the League failed to live up to its collective security promise. Replaced after World War II by the United Nations
The making of concessions in order to avoid war.
The approximately 40-year period of crisis and tension between the United States and the Soviet Union that began shortly after World War II; it ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in
Cuban Missile Crisis
The two-week period of extreme tension precipitated by the U.S. discovery of offensive Soviet nuclear missiles on the island of Cuba in October 1962
A conflict in which one state confronts a main rival via third parties
(French for a "relaxation of tensions.") The term is used to refer specifically to the relaxation of Cold War tensions that took place between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1970s.
SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
Discussions and agreements signed between the United State sand Soviet Union in the 1970s intended to reduce the expansion of offensive nuclear weapons
Term used to describe the post-Vietnam War aversion on the part of both the U.S. Congress and public to foreign military intervention by the U.S. armed forces.
Henry Kissinger's strategy in the 1970s of linking Soviet access to U.S. trade to "good behavior"on the part of the Soviet Union around the world
The rift between former communist allies, the Soviet Union and China, that be-came increasingly evident over time and that led to border clashes in the late 1960s.
An international system in which only two major powers are capable of seriously threatening the security and sovereignty of one another.
The policies of economic restructuring in the Soviet Union that were initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s and that cautiously introduced elements of market economics
into the communist economic system
The policy of "openness"initiated by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid- 1980s. It allowed for relaxation of state censorship of the media and increased access to information.
An international system in which one great power has military capability far greater than its nearest rival, and no other great power is in a position to threaten its security and sovereignty.
An international system in which three or more great powers have the capability to threaten the security and sovereignty of one another.
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