Why is the term Middle America more accurate for this region than Latin America?
Because it's a long and densely populated area between North and South America.
The 1,969-mile land border is the longest in the world to separate a _______ realm, from a ______ realm
What are maquiladoras?
Foreign-owned factory workers that manufacture raw/primary products.; close to the US border
The Atlantic/Caribbean hurricane season is from _________ to _____________
June 1, December 1
What is altitudinal zonation?
Various forms of agriculture produced on different elevations on a mountain
What are the three causes of tropical deforestation?
Clearing land for pastures and farms, rapid logging for timber industry, and population increases.
The internal focus of each Spanish town was the ________
Who were the 4 major colonizers of the Caribbean about 1800 AD?
British, French, Spanish, and Dutch
What are 5 economic realities of the small island economies?
Natural resources are limited and thus a heavy reliance on imports. 2)Cost of government is high per capita 3) Specialized services come from elsewhere 4) Local production can't benefit from economy of sale. 5) Local producers can be put out of business by cheap imports, causing high unemployment
the densely populated "waist" of Mexico is from the state of ______________ to the state of __________
Today about 79% of Mexico's population reside in _________ and _________
What are maquiladoras and where are they primarily located?
primarily on the US border of Mexico.
The three poorest states of Mexico are __________, __________, ___________
Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guerrero
Where are the richest states located?
In the north of Mexico
Bolivian and Peruvian cocaine, illegally enters into which part of Mexico?
Via Pacific coast states of Guerrero, Michoacán, Colin, and Sinaloa.
What are the two main languages of Belize?
Spanish and English
About 90% of the people of Honduras are considered _________
El Salvador is the region's most _______ _______ _________
densely populated country
A Chinese company plans to do what in Nicaragua.
build an interoceanic canal through Nicaragua for another trade route
What is the most densely settled region of Costa Rica?
The central highland zone (Tierra templada)
Which Central American country has the region's highest standard of living?
What year did the Panama Canal open?
Why is social stratification so rigid in the Caribbean islands?
Class structures tend to be closely associated with ethnicity and island societies still carry imprints of colonial times
Which 4 Islands comprise the Greater Antilles and have 90% of the Caribbean population? p.85
Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico
Cuba has the largest ________ and the largest ________ of any Caribbean country.
population, size territory
Jamaica has an almost entirely ____________ population
The poorest country in the western Hemisphere is ________
What three mineral resources are exported from Dominican Republic?
Nickel, gold, and silver.
Are Puerto Ricans US citizens?
Yes, but they can't vote.
Which Lesser Antilles country is looking to be a future economic tiger?
Trinidad y Tobago
What is unity of place?
The belief that in a particular region there are intricate connections between climate, geology, biology, and human culture.
What is an altiplano?
A high altitude valley, typically between Andes mountain ranges.
What were some of the cultural contributions of the Inca
Incredible infrastructure and stone architecture.
Fig. 3-2 Describe the pattern of population in South America
Most of the population lives along the eastern coast or in the Andes mountain range.
Indigenous people make up 45% and 55% of the populations of _______and ___________ p. 95
Brasil has the largest _______ population in South America.
The cone shaped region of southern South America is predominantly ________________ Fig. 3-3
white (european ancestry)
Which three countries are the main producers of cocaine? Fig. 3-5
Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia
What is driving the rural to urban migration of South America?
Urban centers are perceived to provide opportunity: chance to earn regular wage, visions of education, better medical care, upward social mobility, excitement of life in a big city
What region of South America is the most urbanized?
Southern cone (Chile, Argentina, Uruguay
Why has China displaced the USA as the leading trading partner in this region?
new embassies and consulates, bought up companies, partnered joint ventures
Why has the country of Colombia failed to thrive?
Politics unstable, population divided through extreme inequality, economy damaged
What resource is most important for Venezuela?
What are the three sub regions of Ecuador?
Andean zone, coastal belt, Oriente
What are the three sub regions of Peru?
Desert coast, Sierra, Oriente
50. Why is Bolivia considered a severely challenged state? p. 111
It's landlocked, physiographically bisected, culturally bifurcated, and economically divided
50A. Today what are Bolivia's three sources of foreign revenue?
Natural gas,oil, zinc
51. Why is Paraguay considered a transitional country?
Lies between regions and exhibits properties of each
52. Most Argentinians are concentrated in the _________
Pampas sub region
53. About 90% of Chile's population is concentrated in ______________
54. The economy of Uruguay is based largely upon _____________
tourism and farming
55. Why is Brasil considered the "giant" of South America?
Has common boundaries with all the realm's other countries except Ecuador and Chile, fifth in the world territorily and in terms of population
56. Brasil's culture is infused with _______ themes.
57. What group of people came to Brasil in 1908?
58. Assess the mineral endowment of Brasil. p. 118
Enormous iron and aluminum ore reserves, extensive tin and manganese deposits, and highly promising oilfields and gas fields
About 60% of Brasil is covered by the _________
The modern core of Brasil is the _________ region.
Many people of Portuguese, German and Italian descent reside in the ____ region.
What is the dominant crop of the cerrado region?
63. What is the largest and most rapidly developing sub region of Brasil?
What and where is the rift valley area of Africa?
deep trenches that form when huge parallel fractures appear. stretch 9600km from the Red Sea to Swaziland along the east coast.
Why are the rivers of Africa considered unusual?
Because of higher elevations near the coast, they frequently flow inward
What is an escarpment?
Edge of plateau
67. Why is Africa called the cradle of humankind?
It has 7 million years of transition from Australopithecenes to hominins to homo sapiens
What was the impact of the slave trade upon Africa
30 million persons forced from their homelands in captivity, cultures destroyed
What 1884 conference led to the drawing of some of Africa's political boundaries?
Which European countries colonized Africa between 1885 and 1970? Fig. 7-7
Britain, France, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, Germany, Spain
How did colonization transform Africa?
Deep geographic imprint especially on the cultural
What are the four challenges that African farmers face?
Climatic Variability, Difficulties in national policy environments, problems reaching the world market, and growing competition from Asian and Latin American agricultural producers
How was the land tenure system of Africa different from that of Europe?
communal, not individual, rights prevail
Note the distinct population clusters in SSA. Fig. 7-8
around Lake Victoria, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and southern Africa's mineral belt.
What is the vector for Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)?
The Tsetse Fly is the vector for sleeping sickness
Which 3 countries have more 24% of the population HIV positive?
Lesotho, Swaziland, and Botswana
Which 3 countries had the Ebola virus in 2014-2015?
Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea
There are ______plus languages spoken in Africa. p. 252
What are "linguae francae"?
Dominant language spoken by various people groups with separate cultural languages
What are the two most common linguae francae in West and East Africa?
Hausa & Swahili
Fig. 7-12 China has investments of more than $55 billion in which areas of Africa?
Ghana, Nigeria, Zambia, Tanzania, Ethiopia, South Africa
Which country has the largest population in Africa? p. 260.
Sharia law is proclaimed in which area of Nigeria? Fig. 7-16
The oilfields of Nigeria are in which region of Nigeria? Fig. 7-16
Which four countries have majority Muslim populations?
Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Chad
Which was the first modern West African country to become independent?
Which country was founded in 1822 by freed slaves from the USA?
Which country in East Africa is considered[MT1] the most important from a Western perspective?
Which country has the second largest population in SSA? (94.1mil)
The thriving tourist industry of Kenya is based upon _________________________.
magnificent landscapes and wildlife preservations
What are the six characteristics of the low elevation tropics in Equatorial Africa?
heat, humidity, rainfall, little seasonal variation, rainforest vegetation, and biodiversity.
Fig.7-18 Which countries have oilfields?
Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, Gabon, Nigeria, Cameroon, Angola
Assess the resources of the Southern Africa region.