developmental test 4

theories of language disorders
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Terms in this set (78)
Learning occurs when an environmental stimulus triggers a response or behavior
Strongly influenced by the empiricist viewpoint.
Behavioral principles suggest that:
When we reward or punish behaviors, we can either increase the frequency of positive behaviors or decrease or alter negative behaviors.

B. F. Skinner (1957) closely associated with behaviorism.
Skinner proposed that language, like other behavior, is produced because caregivers selectively reinforce words.
E.g.: the parent says the word "cracker," and the child responds by saying "ka-ka."
The parent says, "Yes, this is a cracker!" and gives the child a cracker.
1) Reinforcement: Reinforcing a child's behavior makes it more likely that the behavior will occur in the future.
Positive reinforcement & negative reinforcement
2) Extinction: based on the behavioral principle that when a child's response is not reinforced, the ignored behavior will decrease or disappear.
3)Antecedent: An antecedent event is a stimulus that precedes a behavior.
4)Punishment: Punishment is a negative response that a child views as undesirable.
5)Chaining: Behavioral chaining occurs when an activity requires a number of linked steps;
A complex behavioral sequence is broken down into smaller units so the child can be trained to complete a multistep task
Behaviorist theory helps explain how children learn discrete behaviors.
Drill-and-practice activities within intervention sessions are based on behaviorist theory (Fey, 1986).
Behaviorist theory principles underlie the practitioner's focus on observable and measurable behaviors
Jean Piaget (1952)
He examined children's logical reasoning abilities (i.e., problem solving)
He proposed a sequence of progressively sophisticated cognitive skills
From primitive thinking to advanced cognitive ability
Influenced by empiricist theory
The cognitive processes underlying language are innate
But language itself is not innate.
He proposed that children actively contribute to the language-learning process.
He emphasized that
Children use the symbolic properties of language to represent conceptual knowledge about the world
Specific cognitive achievements are required for linguistic development.
Linkages exist between children's motor ability, play behavior, and language development.

look @ notes for piagets stages of cog development