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vernacular language

while latin was considered the talking style of most educated people, those less educated spoke in a ____________________ that varied from region to region

Italian, French, German

Present day _________, ________, and __________ are all products of Middle Ages vernacular languages

Dante Alighieri

wrote poems and fmaous plays; he is considered to be the father of the Italian language

Geoffrey Chaucer

wrote the Canterbury Tales

Peter Abelard

his writings raised questions about the church's teachings by using the church;s words against themselves

thomas aquinas

summarized medieval thought (Summa Theologiae)


type of architecture that used Arches, Domes, Vaults and low horizontal lines in their churches


type of architecture that used Pointed arches, tall spires, and high walls

Pepin II

who is responsible for uniting the Frankish kingdoms?


Around What time period did the Franks start to become influential in the Rhine River?


what were clovis's successors called?

the Carolingians, a new line of Frankish rulers

what did Pepin's reign establish?

Lombards, a germanic tribe

what group did pepin's armies defeat?

Lombards, Saxons, and the Avars

what are three groups that Charlemagne conquered?

Charlemagne was given the title the "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III because the title indicated Charlemagne's importance to western Europe.

What title did Pope Leo III grant him on Christmas Day in 800? Why?


Charlemagne's empire was split into regions, and each region was governed by an offical known as a _________

Frankish city of Aix-la-Chapelle

what was the capital of Charlemagne's empiire?


who was one of Europe's greatest thinkers that Charlemagne appointed to head his school>

-Burials at sea on sea vessels
-democrats with assemblies of landowners making laws
-had long narrow ships with sections for rowers and huge sails

contributions of vikings

The land was given to the lesser noble, but ownership still stayed with the powerful noble. The products that were made on the land went to the powerful noble and a small percentage to the lesser Nobel. In exchange for living on the land as well as maintaining it, the lesser noble would pledge loyalty, military assistance to the powerful Nobel. The land given was called a fief.

How was land granted by a noble to a lesser noble? What was the grant of land exchanged called?

Women were able to hold land, however when they married it became part of their dowry and their new husbands would be the primary landowners.

Were women able to own land

Armor was made of chain mail, iron helmet, and they carried a sword. Invention of gunpowder issued in the first bullet-proof vest as knights usually fought on horseback.

What would be the attire for a typical knight in Medieval Europe?

Feudal justice: more about a person's character or physical attributes than Regular Justice: trials were decided by judges and juries

What is feudal justice, and how did it differ from regular justice?

Clermont, France

Where did church leaders meet in 1095 to discuss the situation with the Turks in the Holy Land?

King Richard

Who is responsible for establishing a truce with Saladin during the Third Crusade


What was the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land that was captured during the last Crusade?

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