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ENWC456 Exam 1
Terms in this set (80)
What type of science is Conservation Biology?
Multidisciplinary, crisis, inexact, value-laden, evolutionary time scale, eternal vigilence
The age we are in now
A new geological epoch (age of humans, future)
Diversity of life in all its forms and at all levels of organization
Dimensions of Biodiversity
Genetic, spatial, functional, temporal
Diversity measured locally at a single site
Diversity that measures the uniqueness between two sites
Diversity measured over a large scale
Where does gamma=alpha, and beta diversity=0?
Antarctica- a single grass species
Is maximizing species diversity the main goal?
No. Adding non-natives can be harmful
Outcome of fragmentation
Net increase in alpha diversity and net decrease in gamma diversity
Inter-species reactions, niches, etc.
Variation within and between individuals and populations of organisms
Measuring gene diversity
Processes to measure genetic diversity
Protein electrophoresis, restriction fragement length polymorphism, random amplification of polymorphic DNA, DNA sequencing
What is key to preserving evolutionary potential and ecological adaptedness?
Loss of adaptedness leads to?
Loss of fitness
What three things are needed for evolution?
Variation, Selection, Heredity
What are the 3 selective pressures?
Directional, Stabilizing, Disruptive
What is a species?
Human constructed concept
Species Diversity can be broken up into
Morphological, Biological and Phylogenetic definitions
Morphological Definition of Species
Distinguishable by ordinary means, distinct morphological characters
Biological Definition of Species
Interbreeding natural populations that are unable to successfully mate or reproduce with other such groups
Phylogenetic Definition of Species
Smallest distinguishable cluster of organisms with which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and descent
Problems with Determining Species
Hybridization, cryptic species
Estimated range of living species?
3-117 million, most range from 13-20 million
Species differ in abundance, and thus in role
Weigh species by their relative abundance
the equitability of relative abundance
include abiotic components, requires taxonomy, mapping
Management tool, 30m pixels you can zoom in to US to see ecosystem distributions, incentives for not building a road/devloping etc.
Course filter approach
If you conserve one thing, you'll conserve anyother
Mostly an issue for vertebrate animals, certain mammals have knowledge of migration routes, water holes, etc. information is passed to young
Birth control in Greece, now extinct
The value of biodiversity independent of its utility to anyone or anything else
Sees biodiversity as a good/service to benefit humans
Role of Earthworms
churn and mix soil, bring soil to surface
Grassy Stunt Disease in Asia
Threat to rice production, prevented by immunity-conveying gene from wild strain of rice in India
1845 in Ireland: Irish potatoes lacked genetic diversity, vulnerable to fungus
1/3 of world's food production relies either directly or indirectly on insect pollination
naturally occuring endospore forming bacteria, toxic to insects , reducing cost of pesticide application,
Used in PCR to amplify segments of DNA - can exist in high temperatures
Idea that our love of nature may have been hardwired into our genes by natural selection
Spiritual Value of Biodiversity
religious ideas that all things on earth is interconnected, order in universe must be respected
Species is the lowest level of classification at which there are good chances that organisms with different descriptive names will also possess substantial genetic differences
Individual thatt best represents the species being described
Individual from a species that will reinforce understanding of the species
Study of the classification of organisms based on phylogenetic inferences
Study of evolutionary relationships among species
Crisis in Taxonomy
Low tech, declining interests, relies on expert eye and recall
Expansion into pacific islands, eliminated many flightless birds, 2,000 bird species
90% birds extinct on Islands, 41% mammals on continents
How many mammals have gone extinct since 1600?
85 mammals, 113 birds
What is the problem with low population sizes?
First extinction from climate change
Bramble cay melomys in great barrier reef
What makes extinction now different from in the past?
The rate of extinction is higher, and the extinction is human caused. Current extinction rate is 100-1000x greater than the background rate
Where are most extinctions occurring?
United states, Australia & meixco
What pushes immigration vs. extinction rates out of equilibrium?
Natural disasters, catastrophic events
Area effect of islands
Size of patch matters (less extinction on larger islands)
Distance effect of isalnds
Length of patch from mainland matters (less immigration at far islands)
Species-Area Curve Formula
S=C(A^Z) ; log(S)=C + zlog(A)
Problems with species-area curve
only tells how many species will be lost, not which ones
Non Equilibrium Island Biogeography
When isolation is increased, the island is no longer in equilibrium and the number of species is expected to decline
What percent of species are affected by habitat loss and fragmentation?
A group of different patch populations, exists when occasional movement is between patches, demographically independently but not genetically
reduces patch and population sizes, increasing extinction rates
The Rescue Effect
Immigration from a large, productive subpopulation can keep a declining population from going extinct
Interior(specialists) vs. edge (generalist). Interior habitat and species decrease, edge habitat and species increase. --> increase access for humans, predators, fire, etc.
Assumption of reducing fragmentation
increase connectivity- increase corridors-increase movement-less extinction-more colonization
Advantages of corridors
increase effective population sizes of a species, reduce inbreeding depression, provide increased foraging area, provide predator escape cover
Disadvantages of corridors
may facilitate spread of epidemic disease, insect pests, exotic species, weeds, etc.
Global trade, local trade, inexact science of harvest management
Common examples of overharvested species
whale sharks, crocodiles, elephants, seahorses, mahogany, etc.
Adjustment of survival rates among two or more mortality factors- mortality increases from one factor, but decreases from another
When there is no compensation and each factor adds to mortality
Issues with MSY
Oversimplified theory, theory implies that remaining animals after a harvest will increase their reproductive rate to compensate, environmental variability not included in models
Exploitation is exacerbated by
competition for resources; if you don't harvest it, someone else will
Are subsidies on the resource good?
No, encourages more exploitation
Horn of rhino most valuable appendage, illegal to sell but can be cut off with permit
First, Second, and third strain
Conserving endangered species, conserving functional and structural aspects of important ecosystems, working within political and social realites