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EXAM 2 NOTES
Terms in this set (20)
What does it mean to be "related"?
to share a common ancestor
Who invented traditional taxonomy?
What is the problem with traditional taxonomy?
It is based on similar characteristics and we have many paraphyletic groups (e.g class reptilia)
What are monophyletic groups also called?
Who invented cladistics?
What are some advantages to cladistics?
1. objective (all researchers will come to the same phylogeny)
2. it is a testable hypothesis
3. reflects real evolutionary
What is a splitting in a clade called?
cladogenesis (essentially speciation)
What are the two sides of the split in a clade called?
How do you identify monophyletic groups?
1. use synapomorphy
- e.g., pentadactyl limb - horses, birds, and snakes do not form a clade
- identify with outgroup
- result from convergent evolution or evolutionary reversal (especially common in nucleotide substitutions)(Acanthostega and Ichthyosaurus Both have more than 5 digits)
How is the "best" cladogram picked?
use parsimony, the simplest explanation is most likely
How can apomorphic characters get in weird places?
horizontal gene transfer
(ex. genes that encode the nezymes that synth carotenoid compounds (fungus) are found in 1 group of aphids but not in any other animal that has been studied)
When gene duplication is followed by speciation what two types of relationships exist among the four copies of locus?
What does it mean to be paralogous?
The genes have diverged independently
What does it mean to be orthologous?
2 duplication's share an ancestor
How do people estimate time since divergence?
What is the equation to estimate time since divergence if the rate of sequence evolution is approximately constant?
D=2rt (D = dif. b/w 2 taxa, t= rate it takes to accumlate)
True or False. Convergent evolution is common?
How is it possible for chicken to grow teeth?
the genes are not being expressed (vestigial genes)
What are some examples of adaptive radiation?
-Darwins finches, hawaiian honey creepers, mammals post mass extinction
-lots of speciation and different forms that take advantage of niche openings
What is an example of sub optimal design?
-"Pandas Thumb" is a modified wrist bone
- vertebrate blind spot is not necessary (e.g vert. eye vs octopus eye)
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