Pharynx and Larynx
Terms in this set (78)
Where is the thyroid notch located?
The pharynx is a musculofascial half cylinder. What are the 3 parts that makes this?
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
What is the base of the cartilaginous portion of the auditory tube (eustachian tube, pharyngotympanic tube) lies directly under the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx, where it forms an elevation?
What is shared with the buccinator muscle and is thereby an attachment of the pharynx to the oral cavity?
More inferiorly, what attaches to the lesser horn of the hyoid bone to the greater horn?
What line of the thyroid cartilage is a fascial thickening across the cricothyroid muscle and then to the cricoid cartilage?
What muscles stack up on each other and consist of superior, middle, and inferior parts?
What sphincter is located on the deep surface of the superior constrictor and helps seal off the nasal pharynx?
What muscle attaches to the muscle of the opposite side by the pharyngeal raphe and anteriorly attache to the mandible and the pterygoid hamulus?
What muscle attaches to the stylohyoid ligament, greater/lesser horns of the hyoid bone and posteriorly attaches to the pharyngeal raphe?
What muscle attaches to oblique line of the thyroid cartilage?
The superior, middle, and inferior constrictor muscles are innervated by what nerve?
What are the three longitudinal muscles that elevate the pharynx during swallowing and speech?
Palatopharyngeus muscles are innervated by what nerve?
What longitudinal muscle is innervated by CN 9 that arises from the styloid process, passes btwn superior and middle constrictors and inserts into the posterior and superior borders of the thyroid cartilage?
What longitudinal muscle arises from cartilagenous part of the pharyngotympanic tube and blends with palatopharyngeus?
What muscle arises from the hard palate and palantine aponeurosis and inserts on the posterior border of the thyroid cartilage and side of pharynx and esophagus?
A patient comes in complaining of shortness breath and feels "something heavy in his throat". You palpate his lymph nodes and notice they are not enlarged. You take an X-Ray and notice a fish bone lodged. Where might this lodge be? Where can it be lodged that can be potentially dangerous?
Piriform fossa, enter larynx and lodge above the vocal folds
What is a vallecula?
behind the root of the tongue between the folds in the throat.
What branch of the external carotid supplies blood to the pharynx?
What branches of the facial artery supply blood to the pahrynx?
Ascedning palantine and tonsillar to palantine tonsil
What artery can supply its branches to the lower pharynx? This major artery is from where?
Inferior thyroid artery, thyrocervical trunk
Venous drainage to the pterygoid plexus ultimately drains where?
Facial and internal jugular veins to the superior part of the pharynx
What is the lymphatic drainage of the pharynx?
retropharyngeal, paratracheal and infrahyoid nodes.
Drainage form the palantine tonsils go to what large lymph nodes and are seen when the tonsils are inflammed?
What nerve is MOTOR to all pharyngeal muscles, except stylopharyngeus?
Sensation from the oropharynx is carried by what nerve?
The pharyngeal branch from where carries sensation from the nasopharynx?
The laryngopharynx has innervation from what nerve? Motor or sensory?
CN X, sensory
What artery is the first branch of the external carotid artery?
Superior thyroid artery
What artery is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk?
Inferior thyroid artery
On the left side, the vagus nerve will loop down the arch of the aorta and go up to create what nerve?
Inferior thyroid nerve
The vagus nerve on the right loops around the subclavian artery and makes what nerve?
Right recurrent laryngeal nerve
What gland is embedded in the posterior thyroid gland? If all 4 are removed what can happen?
Parathyroid gland, tetany due to low Ca2+ ad ultimately death
What nerves are at a risk of being damaged during a thyroidectomy? What will be the symptom?
Recurrent laryngeal nerves, hoarseness
The space btwn the vocal folds is known as what?
The space btwn the vestibular folds is what?
What are paired cartilages that sit on top of and move with the arytenoids, located above and in front of the corniculate cartilages, and the presence of these two pairs of cartilages result in small bulges on the surface of the mucous membrane, and support the vocal folds and lateral aspects of the epiglottis?
What are are two small conical nodules consisting of elastic cartilage, which articulate with the summits of the arytenoid cartilages and serve to prolong them posteriorly and medially?
What are the 3 unpaired cartilages?
Cricoid, thyroid, and epiglottis
What are the 3 sets of paired cartilages?
What cartilage is the most inferior laryngeal cartilage, has Signet ring-shaped with an anterior arch and a posterior lamina?
The cricoid cartilage has bilateral articular facets. For what cartilages?
INferior horn of thyroid cartilage and arytenoid cartilages
Posteriorly of the cricoid cartilage there is a ridge for the attachment of what structure? Depressions for what?
Esophagus, posterior crico-arytenoid muscles
What cartilage looks like a mandible?
What cartilage is leaf shaped, flexible, attached to the posterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage? What is the function?
Epiglottic cartilage, helps direct bolus lateally toward piriform fossae
What sits on top of the cricoid cartilage and has a depression for the vestibular ligament and vocalis muscles?
What cartilages articulate with the apices of the arytenoid cartilages?
What cartilages are embedded in the fibro-elastic membrane that attaches the arytenoid cartilages to the epiglottis?
What ligament attaches thyroid cartilage to hyoid bone?
Wat ligament runs from the midline of the epiglottis to the hyoid bone?
What ligament attaches lower border of the cricoid cartilage to the first tracheal ring?
The thyrohyoid membrane has an opening for what nerve?? The membrane is thickened to form what ligament anteriorly?
Superior laryngeal nerve, median thyrohyoid ligament
Posteriorly, the thickened margin of the ligament is the lateral thyrohyoid ligament that may contain a small cartilage, what is it?
What are the 2 intrinsic ligaments that complete the structure of the larynx?
Cricothyroid ligament and quadrangular membrane
What ligament attaches the arch of the cricoid cartilage to the vocal ligament, which lies deep to the true vocal fold and forms the median cricothyroid ligament?
What Runs inferiorly from the lateral margin of the epiglottis to the anterolateral surface of the arytenoid cartilage on the same side, and the free lower margin forms the vestibular ligament, which is deep to the vestibular or false vocal fold?
Where can you locate the cricothyroid membane?
Btwn the thyroid cartilage and the cricoid cartilage, inferior to laryngeal prominence
When performing a tracheotomy what are we looking for?
Isthmus of thyroid (2nd and 4th tracheal rings)
What larynx muscles is not innervated by CN X? what nerve?
Cricothyroid, superior laryngeal nerve
The cricothyroid has 2 parts, what are they? What is the function?
Oblique, straight, Pulls thyroid cartilage downward and forward, thereby elongating the vocal ligament producing tension of the vocal cords, resulting in higher-pitch phonation
What muscle originates in a depression on the lamina of the cricoid cartilage and inserts on the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage, and abducts and externally rotates the arytenoid cartilages?
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
What muscle arises from the superior surface of the cricoid arch, inserts into the anterior aspect of the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage?
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
What muscle attaches to the lateral border of the posterior surface of the arytenoid cartilages?
Transverse arytenoid muscle
What muscles adducts the vocal cords?
Lateral cricoarytenoid and transverse arytenoid muscles
What muscle arises from the posterior surface of the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilages and attaches to the posterior surface of the apex of the arytenoid cartilage and continues into the aryepiglottic fold?
Oblique arytenoid muscle
The posterior/lateral cricoarytenoids, transverse arytenoid, vocalis, thyroarytenoid and oblique arytenoid muscles are innervated by what nerves?
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
What muscle Attaches the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilages,
Attaches to the angle of the thyroid cartilage and along the vocal ligament and
Adjusts tension on vocal cords?
What muscle Arises from the thyroid angle and adjacent cricothyroid ligament,
Attaches to the anteriolateral surface of the arytenoid cartilage with some fibers swing up into the aryepiglottic folds, and
Relaxes vocal ligament to lower pitch of voice?
The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve innervates what?
What branch of the superior laryngeal nerve penetrates the thyrohyoid membrane and is sensory to the larynx as far inferior as the vocal folds?
The recurrent laryngeal nerve continues as the what?
inferior laryngeal nerve
What artery is a branch of the superior thyroid artery and enters the larynx with the internal laryngeal nerve?
Superior laryngeal artery
What artery gives off the inferior laryngeal artery which accompanies the recurrent laryngeal nerve?
Inferior thyroid artery
A patient comes in complaining how she cannot talk normal anymore. She says if she raises her voice she gets very tired from talking. She claims she had a thyroidectomy 1 month ago. What nerve might be damaged? What muscle would be paralyzed? Will sensation be lost?
Superior laryngeal nerve, cricothyroid, yes sensation above the vocal folds is lost
Above the vocal folds, explain the lymphatic drainage?
follows the superior laryngeal artery to deep cervical nodes at bifurcation of the common carotid.
Explain the lymphatic drainage below the vocal cords?
Follows the inferior laryngeal artery can potentially drain into the thorax
A patient comes in with laryngeal cancer and displays enlarged deep cervical lymph nodes. Is this above or below the vocal folds?
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