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What type of immunity results from the transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection?

artificially acquired passive immunity

what type of immunity results from recovery from mumps?

naturally acquired active immunity

Which of the following is the best definition of epitope?

specific regions on antigens that interact with antibodies

which of the following cells is NOT an APC?

natural killer cells

when an antibody binds to a toxin, the resulting action is referred to as


CD4+ T cells are activated by

interaction between CD4+ and MHC II or interaction between TCRs and MHC II

The specificity of an antibody is due to

the variable portions of the H and L chains

In addition to IgG, the antibodies that can fix complement are


The most abundant class of antibodies in serum is


The presence of which of the following indicates a current infection rather than a previous infection or vaccination?


Cytokines released by TH1 cells

actuvate CD8+ cells to CTLs (cytotoxic T cells)

A Treg cell deficiency could result in


Some antibodies can be produced without T helper cells


NK cells recognize only those cells expressing low levels of MHC 1 due, for example, to infection with a virus


In inflammation, the release of ______ kinens, and progestaglandins causes vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels


complement activation can result in cell lysis, opsonization, and


lysozyme and ____ are found on the skin and are part of the "first line of defense"

unsaturated fatty acids

alpha- and beta- _____ are produced by virus infected cells and prevent virus replication in uninfected cells


immunity resulting from ____ is called artificially acquired active immunity


serum containing antibodies is often called ___


the ____ immune system involves antibodies produced by B cells (plasma cells)


antibodies are formed against specific regions on the surface of an antigen called

antigenic determinants

IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and ____ and are involved in allergic reactions


the response of the body to the first contact with an antigen is called the primary response. It is characterized by the initial appearance of __-


Localized ___ is exemplified by hives, hay fever, and asthma


in the disease ___ platelets are destroyed by antibodies and complement

thrombocytopenic purpura

___ is a type II autoimmune disease involving the reaction of antibodies to thyroid receptors

graves disease- type 2

__ is a type IV autoimmune disease involving T cell attack on the thyroid

Hashimoto's disease - type 4

transplants recognized as foreign antigens may be lysed by __ and attacked by macrophages and complement fixing antibodies

cytotoxic T cells

__ is secreted as a dimer in mucus and saliva


Exotoxins are generally more potent (toxins) than endotoxins


administration of gamma-globulin is an example of artificial passive immunity


complement can aid phagocytosis


immunity due to injection of tetanus toxoid is an example of artificially acquired active immunity


B cells originate in bone marrow


glomerulonephritis is an immune complex disease


allergic contact dermatitis is due to

sensitized T cells

the complement fixation test uses sheep red blood cells


the indirect ELISA is useful for determining the presence of HIV (AIDS) antibodies


dendrites and __ are the most important antigen-presenting cells


Patient's serum, influenza virus, and red blood cells are mixed in a tube. What happens if the patient has antibodies against influenza virus?


a DNA plasmid encoding a protein antigen from West Nice virus is injected into muscle cells of a horse. this is an example of:

nucleic acid vaccine

EMB agar is selective and differential medium


fecal coliforms form blue colonies on m-FC medium

true- elevated temp

greater than 1,000 baceria/ml of urine is indicative of infection of the urinary tract

false- 100,000

.45 um membrane filters remove bacteria from a solution


e coli ferments


if you had 48 colonies on a plate where you plated .1 ml from a 10^-4 dilution, the final report would be ___ CFU's/gram (think of the food plate counts)

4.8 X 10^-6

which gives you more information

EC-MUG- tells you e coli present

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