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practice exam 4
What type of immunity results from the transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection?
artificially acquired passive immunity
what type of immunity results from recovery from mumps?
naturally acquired active immunity
Which of the following is the best definition of epitope?
specific regions on antigens that interact with antibodies
which of the following cells is NOT an APC?
natural killer cells
when an antibody binds to a toxin, the resulting action is referred to as
CD4+ T cells are activated by
interaction between CD4+ and MHC II or interaction between TCRs and MHC II
The specificity of an antibody is due to
the variable portions of the H and L chains
In addition to IgG, the antibodies that can fix complement are
The most abundant class of antibodies in serum is
The presence of which of the following indicates a current infection rather than a previous infection or vaccination?
Cytokines released by TH1 cells
actuvate CD8+ cells to CTLs (cytotoxic T cells)
A Treg cell deficiency could result in
Some antibodies can be produced without T helper cells
NK cells recognize only those cells expressing low levels of MHC 1 due, for example, to infection with a virus
In inflammation, the release of ______ kinens, and progestaglandins causes vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
complement activation can result in cell lysis, opsonization, and
lysozyme and ____ are found on the skin and are part of the "first line of defense"
unsaturated fatty acids
alpha- and beta- _____ are produced by virus infected cells and prevent virus replication in uninfected cells
immunity resulting from ____ is called artificially acquired active immunity
serum containing antibodies is often called ___
the ____ immune system involves antibodies produced by B cells (plasma cells)
antibodies are formed against specific regions on the surface of an antigen called
IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and ____ and are involved in allergic reactions
the response of the body to the first contact with an antigen is called the primary response. It is characterized by the initial appearance of __-
Localized ___ is exemplified by hives, hay fever, and asthma
in the disease ___ platelets are destroyed by antibodies and complement
___ is a type II autoimmune disease involving the reaction of antibodies to thyroid receptors
graves disease- type 2
__ is a type IV autoimmune disease involving T cell attack on the thyroid
Hashimoto's disease - type 4
transplants recognized as foreign antigens may be lysed by __ and attacked by macrophages and complement fixing antibodies
cytotoxic T cells
__ is secreted as a dimer in mucus and saliva
Exotoxins are generally more potent (toxins) than endotoxins
administration of gamma-globulin is an example of artificial passive immunity
complement can aid phagocytosis
immunity due to injection of tetanus toxoid is an example of artificially acquired active immunity
B cells originate in bone marrow
glomerulonephritis is an immune complex disease
allergic contact dermatitis is due to
sensitized T cells
the complement fixation test uses sheep red blood cells
the indirect ELISA is useful for determining the presence of HIV (AIDS) antibodies
dendrites and __ are the most important antigen-presenting cells
Patient's serum, influenza virus, and red blood cells are mixed in a tube. What happens if the patient has antibodies against influenza virus?
a DNA plasmid encoding a protein antigen from West Nice virus is injected into muscle cells of a horse. this is an example of:
nucleic acid vaccine
EMB agar is selective and differential medium
fecal coliforms form blue colonies on m-FC medium
true- elevated temp
greater than 1,000 baceria/ml of urine is indicative of infection of the urinary tract
.45 um membrane filters remove bacteria from a solution
e coli ferments
if you had 48 colonies on a plate where you plated .1 ml from a 10^-4 dilution, the final report would be ___ CFU's/gram (think of the food plate counts)
4.8 X 10^-6
which gives you more information
EC-MUG- tells you e coli present