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5th Grade SOL 5.7 Changing Earth
Concepts regarding Changing Earth for 5th Grade Virginia SOL review
Terms in this set (30)
a scientist who studies the Earth's crust, rocks, fossils, and minerals.
any hardened remains or prints of plants or animals that are found from many years ago.
a mountain that may form around the opening as the lava or cinders are built up.
the bending and stretching of the Earth's crust until the breaking point occurs causing a sudden jolt releasing energy as vibrations through the Earth.
the theory scientists use to explain plate movements.
the supercontinent that was formed when all continents were together as one land mass.
the process as magma slowly pushes up through cracks in the rift or deep valley and cools to form new sea floor.
the natural process of breaking rock into smaller pieces
the movement of sediment to a new location
melted rock within the Earth
magma that reaches the Earth's surface
the changing of rocks from one type of rock to another that takes place over time
a non-living, solid material that was formed in nature and has particles arranged in a repeating pattern.
rocks formed when magma is pushed up from the mantle into the cool crust and hardens into rock. Often found near volcanoes.
Ex: Obsidian, pumice, granite.
rocks formed from layers of sediments that are compacted and cemented together over a long period of time. Ex: conglomerate, shale, limestone
the dropping of sediment from wind or water that slows down, or from ice that melts.
layers of sediment built up over millions of years
sediment is "glued" together to form a rock
rocks formed when heat and pressure change a rock into a new rock. Ex: slate, gneiss, marble.
the process by which any kind of rock is changed into a metamorphic rock by heat and pressure.
4 Major structures of Earth
Crust - thinnest layer of Earth made up of solid rock
Mantle - partially melted rock. putty-like.
Outer core - mostly liquid iron and nickel
Inner core - made up of solid iron and nickel. Has the greatest pressure and heat.
a large, slow-moving river of ice, formed from compacted layers of snow, that flows very slowly down a mountain valley.
landform where the mouth of a river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake or another river.
plates collide with each other. One plate is forced down and melted while the other is forced upward and folded into mountains. A trench is formed where the two plates meet.
plates move apart from each other. As plates are forced apart melted rock comes to the surface and hardens into new crust. The area between the two plates where the melted rock comes to the surface is called a rift valley. A large chain of volcanic mountains can form along the rift as the melted rock rises and cools into new rock.
plates slide along beside each other. Since plate boundaries are not smooth, plates do not slide smoothly. The plates can suddenly break free of each other and cause powerful earthquakes. Slide plate boundaries are also called transform-fault boundaries or strike slip boundaries.
cinder cone volcano
steep sides, made of cinders and ash, looks like a giant ant hill.
composite cone volcano
explosive, made from cinders and lava, most dangerous volcano, mountain.
broad/wide, gently sloping sides, made of lava flows, largest volcano (form islands)
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