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Mastering Biology Test 2
Terms in this set (47)
The total energy in a molecule, its enthalpy, is given by the letter _____
When is the overall free energy change deltaG in a reaction most likely to be negative (meaning that the reaction is exergonic)?
When products have lower potential energy and higher entropy than reactants
Which of these is kinetic energy?
a space station orbiting Earth
"Conservation of energy" refers to the fact that _____
energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy
In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?
Which of these are by-products of cellular respiration?
heat, carbon dioxide, and water
When ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP and inorganic phosphate, _____
free energy is released
Redox reactions involve the gain or loss of ____
Which statement is true for all redox reactions?
they involve the transfer of electrons
What type of reaction breaks the bond that joins the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule?
Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons?
Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other?
anion and cation
Which of the following statements is true of the bonds in water molecules?
oxygen holds electrons more tightly than hydrogen does, and the net charge is zero
Which of the following statements is not true of most cellular redox reactions?
a hydrogen atom is transferred to the atom that loses an electron
What kind of bond is formed when lithium and fluorine combine to form lithium fluoride?
Gaseous hydrogen burns in the presence of oxygen to form water: 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O + energy
What molecule is oxidized and what kind of bond is formed?
The following reaction A-> B + C + heat is a(n) ____ reaction
A(n) ____ reaction occurs spontaneously
Which of these reactions require a net inout of energy from its surroundings?
In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction?
The reaction ADP + P -> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction
The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) ____ reaction
What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP?
it is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction
Select the INCORRECT association
What is energy coupling?
the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
which part of the adenosine triphosphate molecule is released when it is hydrolyzed to provide energy for biological reactions?
v-phosphate (the terminal phosphate)
Can an enzyme make a non spontaneous reaction occur spontaneously? Why or why not?
no, because enzymes do not affect the overall deltaG of a reaction
Complete the following sentences about enzyme function: Enzymes speed reaction rates by ____ and lowering activation energy. Activation energies drop because enzymes stabilize _____. Enzyme specificity is a function of the active site's shape and the chemical properties of _____ at the activation site.
1. orienting substrates; 2. the transition state; 3. R-groups
In general, enzymes are what kinds of molecules?
enzymes work by _____
An enzyme ______
is an organic catalyst
What name is given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction?
As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme ____
Rank these by reaction rate, as measured by the rate of product formation per unit time, from lowest reaction rate to highest reaction rate
uncatalyzed reaction, reaction catalyzed by enzyme A, reaction catalyzed by enzyme B
An enzyme is _____ when it loses its native conformation and its biological activity
An enzyme is considered a _____ because it speeds up chemical reactions without being used up
An enzyme is considered _____ because of its ability to recognize the shape of a particular molecule
A _____ , such as a vitamin, binds to an enzyme and plays a role in catalysis
When properly aligned, the enzyme and substrate form an enzyme-substrate ______
A substrate binds to an enzyme at the ____ , where the reaction occurs
In a catalyzed reaction a reactant is often called a _____
Consider a situation in which the enzyme is operating at optimum temperature and pH, and has been saturated with substrate. What is your best option for increasing the rate of the reaction?
increase the enzyme concentration
Which statement most accurately explains how allosteric regulation can change an enzyme's catalytic activity?
in allosteric activation, a regulatory molecule binds to a location other than the active site, resulting in a change in enzyme shape that allows the active site to bind substrate
A(n) _____ inhibitor has a structure that is so similar to the substrate that it can bond to the enzyme just like the substance
A(n) _______ inhibitor binds to a site on the enzyme that is not the active site
Usually, a(n) _____ inhibitor forms a covalent bond with an amino acid side group within the active site, which prevenyd
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