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human sexuality exam 1
Terms in this set (42)
THREE DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN SEXUALITY
1)Biological or physiological dimension
The biological dimension of sexuality involves a person's:
-Sexual behavior / action
s-Response to sexual stimulation
-Ability to reproduce/control fertility
-Growth and development in general
•Ideology that almost all important aspects of human sexuality can be reduced to the operation of physiological processes
•Sexuality is "programmed" almost entirely by genes, hormones, and neurological structures
The psychological dimension of sexuality involves a person's:
-Sense of being
-Knowledge of sexuality
-Attitudes and feeling
The sociocultural dimension
How do you have a baby?
"After the man ejaculates, the sperm move through the cervical mucus into the uterus, reaching the fallopian tube within about 5 minutes..."◦In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)◦Intrauterine insemination (IUI)◦The "turkey baster" method◦Surrogacy
◦Obstetrician (OB-GYN)◦Midwife (may be RN or CNM)◦Doula ◦Family and friends
◦Hospital ◦Home ◦Birth Center
◦"Natural childbirth" (drug-free)◦Epidural and/or other drugs◦Cesarean section
Is an infant a sexual being?
Yes! When you consider the holistic definition of human sexuality.
Some aspects of sexual development during infancy include:
-Gender identity and gender expression/socialization-Physical body parts (Babies learning their physical body and their control of them)-Developing a sense of trust and intimacy can lead to better relationships and care later in life
What role does touch play in sexual development?
-Babies learning about love and touch; sense of trust in world-Babies thrive when being stroked, kissed, hugged, cuddled, touched (NICU often encourages physical skin-to-skin touch)
infant Physical development
Bath time and diaper changes are good times to teach about body partsParents should treat all body parts equally, naming them appropriately (we'll talk a bit more about that and what sex-positive parenting is on Friday)"Here's your tummy," "Here are your knees," "Here is your penis."
infant Psychosexual development
Touch (e.g. cuddling and stroking babies)Bonding refers to the process of developing a close physical and psychological relationship with one's caregiverEstablishing trust & intimacy
infant Sociocultural development
Children learn about the rules and norms of the world around themFor example, gender identity and gender expectations
Infant Genital Touching
Often begins about 7 to 10 months of ageSelf-exploration lays the foundation for development of a broad range of sexual feelings and behaviors Babies begin to explore their genitals during diaper changes.Many parents are uncomfortable when they see their babies touch their genitals.
Is the child masturbating? Is this normal? Why is my kid so obsessed with their genitals?
The answer is IT IS NORMAL. Children are learning to explore their bodies; and what different things feel like. And again, we'll talk more about this on Friday in terms of what different parental responses might look like.
SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT OF TODDLERS
Children usually have a deep understanding of gender during the first three years (their gender and society's expectations of gender)Impact of gender roles before birth (expectations for child)Sex assigned at birth; gender often assumed to align with thatGender Identity becomes evident in young childrenAssigned sex and gender identity don't always match!Children are aware of gender stereotypes early on.Children are aware of own gender identity early on!Children can express a mismatch, often before they even have the language to do so.
SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT DURING PRESCHOOL AND EARLY ELEMENTARY YEARS
Preschool genital touching3 & 4-year-olds discover it feels good when they touch their own genitalsPreschool age sex playPlaying "doctor" or "house" with other childrenMost experts believe this sex play is natural.Questions about reproduction often happen between 2.5 and 5 years of ageChildren will ask "Where did I come from?"Where did the baby come from and where was it before it was born?Children can get their information from:media; books; parents; educators; siblings; peers, etc.
Puberty is the stage of maturation when a human being becomes capable of sexual reproduction.
Usually occurs between 8 and 16
Secondary sex characteristics develop
Emotional fluctuation associated with hormonal changes
Move toward independence from parents/family
Many become more self-conscious of bodies
Sense of identity develops
Social comparison to peers
Earl / late developers seen as 'different'
Developmental Tasks of Adolescence
Physical and sexual maturation
Developing autonomy and independence
Conceptual identity: Who am I?
Functional identity: What roles will I play?
An individual's evaluation of his or her sexual feelings and actions
Young people become more aware of sexual attractions and love interests, including erotic feelings.
An increased understanding of gender identity and sexual orientation can occur in this stage
Developing a sexual self-concept
Who am I? What roles do I play in society? What roles do I WANT to play? Who am I attracted to? What does that mean for my sense of self identity?
What messages do we send to young children about sexuality? How do those messages shape the ways in which adolescents answer these questions?
SEXUALITY INFORMATION AND EDUCATION COUNCIL OF THE UNITED STATES (SIECUS)•WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF SCHOOL-BASED SEXUALITY EDUC
COMPREHENSIVE SEXUALITY EDUCATION PROGRAMS HAVE FOUR MAIN GOALS:•TO PROVIDE ACCURATE INFORMATION ABOUT HUMAN SEXUALITY•TO PROVIDE AN OPPORTUNITY FOR YOUNG PEOPLE TO DEVELOP AND UNDERSTAND THEIR VALUES, ATTITUDES, AND INSIGHTS ABOUT SEXUALITY•TO HELP YOUNG PEOPLE DEVELOP RELATIONSHIPS AND INTERPERSONAL SKILLS, AND•TO HELP YOUNG PEOPLE EXERCISE RESPONSIBILITY REGARDING SEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS, WHICH INCLUDES ADDRESSING ABSTINENCE, PRESSURES TO BECOME PREMATURELY INVOLVED IN SEXUAL INTERCOURSE, AND THE USE OF CONTRACEPTION AND OTHER SEXUAL HEALTH MEASURES.
Performative Sexual Behaviors
Engaging in sexual behaviors in front of others while being cognizant of being observed
Often heterosexual women making out with one another for men's attention and men's arousal
More likely to be the audience or ask others to performWhen engaged in behavior, often involves a game, dare, or joke with observers rather than for arousal of audience
349 college students at one universityOnline questionnaireOpen-ended questions about performative making outThematic analysis of narra
1/3 of participants had engaged in behaviorMore than half of the performative making out experiences occurred before collegeMotivations for behaviors included:Enhancing imageCause jealousy or envy of othersDemonstrate relationshipFacilitate relationshipParticipating in fun or games; peer pressureMen reported their reputations were enhanced moreWomen reported their reputations were damaged more than enhanced
Implications of these findings
This pattern of behavior is found to be occurring in middle schools, junior highs, and high schools around Bowling Green, OH. The parents have gone to the school board and asked for the issue to be addressed. The school board has contacted you - a small group of family scholars and practitioners who are experts in human sexuality. They want your advice on how to address this issue.
Social Exchange Theory
•Influential theory in family sciences that posits that individuals make relationship choices that maximize costs•Intimate relationships are maintained as long as rewards outweigh costsInfluential theory in family sciences that posits that individuals make relationship choices that maximize costs•Intimate relationships are maintained as long as rewards outweigh costsInfluential theory in family sciences that posits that individuals make relationship choices that maximize costs•Intimate relationships are maintained as long as rewards outweigh costs
Social Exchange Theory
PROS:•Helps us understand the motivation and intention behind relationship formation•Explanation for the reciprocity and interactive nature of romantic relationships CONS:•Assumes human interactions are always rational decisions•Theory assumes intimacy is always end goal of a relationship•Assumes linear structure of relationship formation towards intimacy; research shows this varies greatly!
[one of] the most important aspects for sexual relationships.
Open, honest communication
•Research has shown that couples who lack communication skills are:
Less satisfied in their relationshipsMore likely to dissolve the relationship
The Four Horseman of the Apocalypse:
Barriers to Effective Communication
Bypassing - not understanding different meanings attached to words
Frame of reference - individual's experiences / sociocultural upbringing differs and influences communication patterns
Lack of language skills - can you communicate well in this situation?
Lack of listening skills - can you pick up on tone of voice and other nonverbal clues to hear the true message partner is sending?
Mind-altering drugs - alcohol and drugs can inhibit clear communication (for both the message sender and receiver!)
Techniques to Improve Communication
Intentionally setting aside time to talk about the topic
Use "I statements" to focus on own feelings and thoughts
Take a risk and be honest with your wants and needs!
Being assertive (not aggressive) with want you want and need
Agree on the goal to improve your relationship together
Be realistic with one another and ability to change
Make sure your verbal and nonverbal messages align
Use active listening skills (i.e., reflect other person's words and feelings to assure you received the message correctly)
Communication Practice Session
Defining the relationship
Moving in together / cohabitation
Frequency of sexual intercourse
Having children or not
Testing for STIs
Distribution of housework
Sexual wants and desires
Care needed by one partner's aging parents
WHY DO PEOPLE GET MARRIED?
CompanionshipEmotional securityImprove your self-esteemFinancial securityLegitimize reproductionSexual outlet
MARRIAGE CAN PROVIDE FINANCIAL SECURITY.
Adds another potential wage earner to the family or takes care of home maintenance and child rearing so you can focus on financial income. Decreased cost of housingEstate tax marriage deductionGift tax marriage deductionSurvivor benefitsSocial security benefitsSave on health insurance
SEX IN MARRIAGE
Research shows that married couples are engaging in:A greater variety of sexual behaviorsMore frequent 'foreplay' behaviorsMore open, honest sexual communication with one anotherMore sexually satisfied relationshipsFrequency of sexual intercourse depends on:Age (younger people have more)Relationship duration (younger relationships have more)Marital status (SINGLE PEOPLE have more)
HOW IMPORTANT IS SEX IN MARRIAGE?
Does sexual satisfaction beget relationship satisfaction? Or vice versa? Yes!Those who are sexually unsatisfied report being less happy in their marriage. Those who are less happy in their marriage report decreased sexual satisfactio
Cohabitation is the situation in which people who live together and share a sexual relationship are not married.Reasons for cohabitationMajor companies have extended benefits to "domestic partners"Increased availability of contraception decreases fear of unwanted pregnanciesGetting to know the person better on a day-to-day basisSaving moneyDisadvantages to cohabitationUnmarried couples may experience discrimination (lack of access to legal entitlements given to married couples)Increased pressure from friends and family to marry
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