58 terms

Christianity, Judaism, and Islam

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polytheism
believing in and worshiping more than one God
monotheism
believing in and worshiping only one God
Adam & Eve
After God created the world in 6 days and rested for 1, he created ____ out of clay and Earth in his image. When he got lonely, God removed a rib from him and created ___. They were the first man and women. They lived in the Garden of Eden. God told them never to eat from the tree of knowledge, but a snake told the women if she ate from the tree, she would be as wise as God. She then ate from the tree and shared some with the man. God banned them from the Garden of Eden. The man died at 930, but he had many descendants. One of his descendants was Noah.
The Flood
Because of what Adam & Eve had done, God was disappointed with man. He told Noah to build an ark for he was going to destroy life on Earth. When Noah was 600 years old, rain began to fall. It lasted 40 days and 40 nights. It drowned the Earth.
Noah
He was one of the descendants of Adam. God told him to build an ark as he destroyed all life of Earth. After 40 days and 40 nights of rain, life on Earth was destroyed. He and his descendants repopulated the Earth. One of his descendants was Jacob.
Jacob
He wrestled an angel and was given his name, also meaning "Israel." He had 12 sons, and favored Joseph.
Joseph
One of the sons of Jacob, and he was the favorite. His brothers were jealous so they sold him into slavery in Egypt and spilled animal blood on the beautiful coat Jacob had given him to make it seem like an animal killed him. He ended up in prison in Egypt. There, he interpreted dreams. He interpreted the Pharaoh's dream, saying there would be 7 years of prosperity and 7 years of famine. He was upgraded to 2nd in command of Egypt. They stockpiled food for 7 years. When famine came, his family came to get food. When the brothers saw him they were ashamed, but he forgave them saying that God makes everything happen for a reason. He then invited the Israelites to come to Egypt.
Hebrews
The name was derived from the word "habiru" which meant wanderer or nomad. These people were a Semitic people who came from somewhere on the Arabian Peninsula. They were the "chosen people" of God.
Exodus & Passover
Moses called the 9 plagues on Egypt when the Pharaoh wouldn't let his people go. The worst of the plagues was the last one. "The Angel of Death flew through Egypt killing all the first born children but spared the homes of the Jews who had marked their homes with lamb's blood. This is marked each year on the Jewish calendar as the Passover holiday." After this, the Pharaoh decided to let the Israelites go. They ran. Moses took them to the red sea. He then parted the sea and they ran through. After they got through the sea filled and drowned the Egyptians who were following them.
Abraham & Sarah
He was the original prophet. He spoke to Yahweh (God) who told him to tell the Hebrews to be monotheistic and he led the Hebrews out of Babylonia in 2000 B.C. God said that if he followed the 10 commandments, his people would be the chosen people and God would take care of them. He had a wife.
Moses
When the Jewish people were enslaved in Egypt, they had to have their sons killed. When he was born, his mother put him in a woven basked and hid him in the reeds of the Nile river. He was found by an Egyptian princess and was raised as an Egyptian prince. He encountered a burning bush that was not actually burning down and then God spoke to him and told him to go save the Jewish people. He was able to do it and lead his people across the desert with the help of God. Then received the 10 commandments on Mount Sinai. He lead his people to the promise land but did not enter. He died atop Mount Nebo. The Jewish people lived in Canaan for over 1,000 years before the Romans took control.
10 commandments
Moses received this atop Mount Sinai. They are important rules that God says all Jewish people must follow. Other religions follow these rules too.
King David
King Saul was the first leader of the Israelites. Before they were lead by kings, they were lead by judges for each tribe. King Saul was in a dispute with the last judge Samuel. Saul was not as liked as Samuel and did not win many battles. a shepherd, however, was winning battles. When Saul was wounded in a battle, he took his own life and the shepherd became king. He much much more liked that Saul ever could be. This king united the 12 Jewish Tribes and began building Jerusalem.
King Solomon & his temple
This king came after King David. He made Palestine a world power and began the construction of the First Temple. However, he had many problems which made the people dislike him. The people were following the laws of God, but their king wasn't. He broke the 10 commandments. He had 700 wives and 300 concubines. He lived in luxury so the common people couldn't relate. Lastly, he permitted the worship of many deities. The people objected the building of this temple to house the 10 commandments because it used forced labor and it was very expensive to make. When he died, Palestine divided into 2 kingdoms. The Northern Kingdom of Israel (10 tribes) and the Southern Kingdom of Judah (2 tribes). Israel was urban and Judah was rural and more conservative. Because they were divided, the Jewish people were more vulnerable.
Torah
record of key events and laws; ten commandments, religious duties towards God, rules of moral conduct: the Old Testimate
Kingdom of Israel
When Palestine split, the northern kingdom was called the _______ __ ______. In 722 B.C, this kingdom was conquered by the Assyrian Empire.
Babylon & Assyria
In 722 B.C, the Northern Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrian Empire. In 586 B.C, the Southern Kingdom of Judah was conquered by the Chaldeans and taken to Babylon in captivity. The Jews of the Northern Kingdom gave up their religion and scattered. However, the Jews of the Southern Kingdom wrote the Talmud (commentary on the Torah). They made rules that made a big distinction between Jews and non-Jews. They hoped that by making the rules more specific, they could keep the religion alive. In 539 B.C, they Persians conquered the Chaldeans, and King Cyrus let the Jews go and freely practice their religion.
Jesus's birth
Mary was told by the Angel Gabriel that she would conceive the son of God. According to the bible, Jesus was born in Bethlehem in a stable. He was raised in Nazareth.
Jesus's life
He grew up in Nazareth. At the age of 30 he began preaching. He preaches monotheism and other Jewish values through parables. His 12 disciples/ apostles help spread messages throughout the Roman Empire He appealed to the common people because he talked simply and in his parables, often times the common people were the heroes. The Roman Government thought of Jesus as a threat. He preached the opposite of what they believed.
Jesus's death
During Jesus's last Passover, he came into the temple and expelled all the merchants and money changers from the temple. He said that they were immoral and he did not want them in "his father's house" which is him claiming to be the Son of God. Jesus had been watched by the authorities for a while but was supposedly the cause for the actual arrest. It is said that Judas, one of the apostles, had betrayed Jesus and helped the authorities find him for money. Pontius Pilate was king when Jesus was crucified. His last words were, "It is finished" before he fell unconscious. He was considered a martyr by his followers. After her was dead for three days and nights, he was resurrected and came to Mary Magdalene. When his disciples and followers saw him, they finally knew that he was the Messiah.
Apostles/Disciples
Jesus's close friends and followers who delivered messages about his teachings during his life and after he died. After Jesus died, Paul lead the campaign.
Parables
a simple story with an important message; Jesus told these to the people to preach his messages
Diaspora
Jesus Christ predicted that the temple, Masada, would be destroyed and the Romans fulfilled the prophecy. After this, they forced all Jews to disperse and if they were to practice their religion, it would be in solitary and in secret. This happened in 73 AD.
Edict of Milan
Signed in 313 A.D by Constantine, this allowed Christianity in the empire.
Constantine
The emperor who stopped the Persecution of Christians. He signed the Edict Of Milan. He had a vision of a cross in battle and said if they won, he would allow Christianity in the state. They won the battle.
Theodosius
He made Christianity a state religion. He took orders from the church and believed so should everyone else. Anyone who didn't practice Christianity was killed or exiled.
Roman Catholic Heirarchy
Pope (leader of the Church: first pope - Peter "thou art my rock) ----> Bishops (also archbishops and cardinals) (Church officials, responsible for district (diocese) ----> Priests (work in local parishes)
Holy Trinity
In the Christian faith, God has three persons. The father (God), the son (the word of God as a human being/ Jesus), the Holy Ghost, Holy Spirit (God's presence in the Earthly world)
St. Peter
On of the apostles. He became the first Pope. "You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it" was about him. He was a very faithful and loyal apostle and he died by crucifixion. People consider him the gatekeeper of heaven.
Vatican City
Before Christianity, this land was not being used much. When Christianity was born, the Pope and the head of the Roman Catholic Church was set up there. It was the capital of Christianity. There are luxurious churches there. The Church had control over a lot of land.
The Great Schism
In 1054, the first permanent split in the Christian Community occurred. In the west, the Holy Roman Empire was Roman Catholic, and in the east, the Byzantine Empire was Eastern Orthodox. This happened for many reasons, one of which being that the people in the East thought that the Roman Catholic Church was hoarding money in the Vatican. This weakened the power of the church.
Roman Catholic
The first sect of Christianity. At first Christianity was banned in Rome but then it became the state religion and It was set in the Vatican. They have 7 sacraments and the hierarchy goes Pope, Bishops, Priests. It was considered corrupt because they gave out indulgences and this was the reason for the Protestant Religion to be formed.
Sacraments
There are 7 of them: The first is Baptism: God enters into the soul - usually done on a baby, the priest announces that he/she is baptised while he pours water or dunks him/her in water. It is the gateway for the other sacraments. The second is Eucharist: Eating the "body and blood" of Christ. Special crackers and wine are eaten. The third is Confirmation: the Catholic child is confirming that they want to be a part of the Catholic Community and become a true adult in the community. Anointing with chrism: holy oil on the hands by bishop. The fourth is Reconciliation: also called penance, or confession - the person confesses their sins to a priest to recieve forgiveness from God and Christ. The fifth is Anointing of the sick: brings spiritual or sometimes physical healing to the sick. Anointing the forehands of the sick with special oil. The sixth is Holy Orders: It is becoming a priest. Only some men get this honor and they are chosen. The seventh is matrimony: A man and a woman who have both been baptized will have a wedding ceremony and stay married for the rest of their lives.
Eastern Orthodox
This religion was created in the Great Schism of 1054. The pope is not the head of the entire religion because there are separate leaders. The religion is very similar to Roman Catholic but the two split because two religious leaders disagreed.
Protestantism
This religion was created when Martin Luther began protesting the Roman Catholic Church. He gained followers and the Protestant Reformation happened. The religion was born then out of Roman Catholicism.
Sects
a group of people with somewhat different religious beliefs from those of a larger group to which they belong.
Martin Luther
(1483-1546) originally a professor, becomes unhappy with the Catholic Church because of indulgences. He wrote the 95 Theses and nailed it to the church door. People agreed with him that something had to change. He taught that faith and good work saves you, laws come from the bible, and all people in faith are equal. He gained a following and created the Protestant Religion.
95 Theses
The document that Martin Luther nailed to the door of the Church criticizing the Church and its use of indulgences. This was the beginning of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
It began when Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses to the door of the Church. People agreed with what he had to say so this began. Because of this, a new religion, born off of Roman Catholicism, was created. It was called Protestantism.
Indulgence
When Christians disobeyed the 10 commandments or other teachings, they could pay a sum of money to the church so that they would be free of sin.
Religious nature & Importance of Jerusalem
Jerusalem is important for the Jews, Christians, and Muslims. It is significant for the Jews because to them the city is holy. It is the land God chose for them. When King David united the Jewish tribes and established Jerusalem they transitioned from a people to a state. King Solomon built his temple there. When Jerusalem was taken by the Assyrians and many got taken to Babylon, all the Jews were exiled but they still kept Jerusalem in their hearts and prayed for a day when someone would come and restore Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the center of Jewish life. It significant to the Christians because it houses the holy places associated with the life and teachings of Christ — with His crucifixion, burial and ascension — and the community of Christians living in the city. Jesus was the messiah coming to save the ancient kingdom of Jerusalem. Many Christians connect to the spirit of the land of Jerusalem rather than the specific land. Lastly, it is important to Muslims. Muslims respect all other prophets and their religions have a lot of importance in Jerusalem. Also, The second most important Mosque is located there, the first being located in Mecca. Lastly, Jerusalem was a Muslim state for the first half of the 7th century.
Muhammad
According to Muslim belief, he is the final Prophet. Mecca was a corrupt land. People would go to pray to their idols and get robbed and scammed. He would mediate a lot and one day while he was meditating in a cave on a mountain, he was visited by the Angel Gabriel who told him to tell the people to be monotheistic and follow a certain faith. He preached to Mecca but only got a small following. He journeyed to Medina with his followers and built up an army to take over Mecca. When they captured Mecca people began to accept their religion. He died in 632.
5 Pillars of Islam
|| 1 || Allah is the only God and Muhammad is his Prophet (monotheism) -- || 2 || Muslims must fast from sunrise until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. There are exceptions for the aged, the sick, pregnant women, children, and warriors at war. Fasting is supposed to remind people of the fragility of life, and it teaches compassion for the less fortunate and developes self-discipline -- || 3 || Muslims must be charitable -- || 4 || Muslims must pray 5 times a day (when you wake up, at noon, at mid afternoon, when the sun sets, before you go to bed) to remind the person that religion is the critical feature of human life -- || 5 || At one point in every Muslim's life, they must take a pilgrimage to Mecca called a Hajj.
Hijrah
When Muhammad and his followers from Mecca journey to Medina in 622. When this happens, the Islamic calendar begins. Within 10 years, they create an army and come back to Mecca where they take over by force.
Sunna
the practical example of the Prophet Muhammad. It is a verbally transmitted record of Muhammad's words. It is one of two primary sources for the Qur'an.
Shar'ia
Islamic Law - primary sources are the Qur'an and the Sunna
Qur'an
The Angel Gabriel came to Muhammad while he was meditating and told him many things, these words and others that Muhammad received during many revelations are put together into a written record. Muslims treat this like the Jews would treat the Torah or Christians would treat the bible.
Sunni
There is a disagreement about who should lead the Islamic religion after Muhammad died. This group (the majority of Muslims) chose Abu Bakr as the leader. He was a close companion to Muhammad. They say that Abu Bakr was the rightful leader because when Muhammad was on his deathbed, he chose Abu Bakr to lead the congregational prayers as a hint to who should be the next leader.
Shia
There is a disagreement about who should lead the Islamic religion after Muhammad died. This group (the minority of Muslims) chose Ali as the leader, although he was not chosen. Their evidence is that Muhammad stood up in front of many many people and said that his family should never be lead astray. Also it is said that he took Ali's hand and said that anyone who follows Muhammad should also follow Ali.
Sufi
A person who follows the practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God. They chose to live in poverty.
Abu Bakr
He was the chosen leader after Muhammad. He was Muhammad's close friend. He is supported by Sunni.
Spread of Islam
The first 4 Muslim caliphs expanded the religion 6,000 miles from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River. These are the wars of expansion.
Battle of Tours
The Islamic Army was stopped by Charles Martell in France and this stopped the spread of Islam into Europe.
Polytheism vs. Monotheism
_________ vs. _________ : one of them is the belief in many Gods and one of them is the belief in only one God. Before the Jewish religion was created, everyone worshiped many Gods. When Abraham came to the Jews, he told them that they should only worship one God. Other religions followed. It is now a part of the 10 commandments.
Similarities and differences between Judaism & Christianity
Jewish people and Christian people believe in the same story at the beginning. Both religions believe in the creation story and the creation of Judaism. Christianity came out of Judaism. The major difference between the beliefs of Jews and Christians is that Christians believe that Jesus is the messiah and Jews do not. From that, Christians follow the new testament with other beliefs and rules. After Jesus, the religions become different, but both religions follow the old testament.
The origins of Judaism & Christianity
They begin with the story of God and the Hebrews in the Old Testament. One religion begins with the birth of Christ, said to be the son of God. This story is told in the New Testament.
The importance of the 10 commandments
The rules given to Moses on Mount Sinai hold a lot of significance in many religions. These rules are very basic. They teach that people of that religion should be monotheistic and to treat others well.
The differences between the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, & Protestant faiths
All three of these religions are very similar, for they are all sects of Christianity and are born from each other, but here are some differences. || In Roman Catholic, the clergy all have to be male and unmarried. In Eastern Orthodox, the priests still have to be male but can marry before they become priests. Bishops still cannot marry. In Protestantism, the priests and bishops can marry and women are allowed to be priests. || Another difference is the position of power. In Roman Catholic, the priest is the leader of everyone. He is the one person who has the most power. In Eastern Orthodox, there is a group of people who have the highest position. Protestantism has no hierarchy. The people of the religion have the power to pick their leader like a democracy. || One more difference is how the religions treat the sacraments. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox faiths, they conduct all the sacraments (with some distinctions) and believe it will bring them salvation. In Protestantism, they believe that the sacraments are merely for God's grace, so they are not performed with the same kind of attitude. Protestants believe that it is all symbolic, while the other religions believe in the sacrifice and truth of the sacraments.
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