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____ is the entire range of values that can possibly be used to construct an individual key


____ is the information used in conjunction with an algorithm to create the ciphertext from the plaintext or derive the plaintext from the ciphertext.

Work factor

____ is the amount of effort (usually in hours) required to perform cryptanalysis to decode an encrypted message when the key or algorithm (or both) are unknown.


Bit stream methods commonly use algorithm functions like the exclusive OR operation (____).


More advanced substitution ciphers use two or more alphabets, and are referred to as ____ substitutions.


____ functions are mathematical algorithms that generate a message summary or digest to confirm the identity of a specific message and to confirm that there have not been any changes to the content.


A ____ is a key-dependent, one-way hash function that allows only specific recipients (symmetric key holders) to access the message digest.


SHA-1 produces a(n) ____-bit message digest, which can then be used as an input to a digital signature algorithm


A method of encryption that requires the same secret key to encipher and decipher the message is known as ____ encryption.


____ is a federal information processing standard that specifies a cryptographic algorithm used within the U.S. government to protect information in federal agencies that are not a part of the national defense infrastructure.


The ____ algorithm was the first public key encryption algorithm developed (in 1977) and published for commercial use


____ is an integrated system of software, encryption methodologies, protocols, legal agreements, and third-party services that enables users to communicate securely.


The CA periodically distributes a(n) ____ to all users that identifies all revoked certificates.

Digital signatures

____ are encrypted messages that can be mathematically proven to be authentic.

distinguished name

An X.509 v3 certificate binds a ____, which uniquely identifies a certificate entity, to a user's public key.


____ was developed by Phil Zimmermann and uses the IDEA Cipher for message encoding


The ____ protocol provides system-to-system authentication and data integrity verification, but does not provide secrecy for the content of a network communication.


____ attacks are a collection of brute-force methods that attempt to deduce statistical relationships between the structure of the unknown key and the ciphertext that is the output of the cryptosystem.


In a ____ attack, the attacker eavesdrops during the victim's session and uses statistical analysis of patterns and inter-keystroke timings to discern sensitive session information


____ is the protocol used to secure communications across any IP-based network such as LANs, WANs, and the Internet.

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