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1,295 terms

APUSH 2013: The Uber List

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Columbus, reasons
Italian seafarer that persuaded Spanish monarchs to fund exploration for alternate route to India=landed on the Bahamas October 12, 1492
Spanish Armada, 1588
Created by King Phillip II of Spain-self proclaimed foe of Protestant Reformation=> "Invincible Armada" that tried to invade England=>Protestant Wind crippled his fleet, defeated armada marked beginning of the end of the Spanish empire
Anne Hutchinson, antinomianism
Preached idea that God communicated directly to individuals vs. through elders; 1637 forced to leave Mass.
Cambridge Agreement
1629-Puritan stockholders of Massachusetts Bay Colony agreed to move to New England in return for control of the colonies government
Church of England
The national church of England founded by Henry VII incorporating protestant and catholic ideals.
Congregational church, Cambridge Platform
The church was founded by separatists who thought the Church of England was too catholic.
Their platform stressed morality over church dogma.
Contrast Pilgrims and Puritans
Pilgrims were separatists with the Church of England who fled England and settled at Plymouth;
Puritans were non-separatists who wanted to purify the Church of England-got right to settle in Massachusetts Bay colony from King
Contrast Puritan colonies and others
Puritan colonies were self-governed; each town led people in Puritan beliefs; only those who were full members of the church/received grace could vote/hold office;
Other colonies had varying governments/more open to other beliefs
Covenant Theology
Puritan teachings emphasized biblical covenants-God's covenants with Adam, Noah; covenant of grace through Christ with man
Dominion of New England
1686-British combined Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut into a single province-ended 1692 when colonists revolted
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
First constitution written in America that set up a government in the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, Wethersfield)
Harvard founded
1636-college following puritan beliefs founded by a grant from the Massachusetts general court
John Winthrop, his beliefs
1629-governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony=zealous Puritan; opposed democracy believing in rule by the elite few;
1643-helped organize New England Confederation and served as its first president
King Philip's war
Battles in New Hampshire (New England) between colonists and Wompanowogs led by chief "King Philip"=Metacom-war started when Massachusetts government tried to assert jurisdiction over Indians
Colonists won with help of Mohawks=more land for expansion
Massachusetts Bay colony
1629-King Charles gave Puritans the right to settle a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area=political freedom/representative government
Mayflower Compact
1620-the first agreement of self-government in America-signed by 41 men on the Mayflower and set up the Plymouth colony
New England Confederation, 1643
1643-formed to defend the New England colonies and for a court to settle intercolonial disputes
Puritan migration
Many puritans migrated to the colonies in 1630s/1640s=Massachusetts Bay colony grew 10X
Roger Williams, Rhode Island
1635-left Massachusetts Bay colony, buying land from local Indians, and found Rhode Island=only colony to offer complete religious freedom
Separatists, Non-separatists
Non-separatists (Puritans included) wanted to reform the church; Separatists (Pilgrims included) didn't think the Anglican church could be reformed so they started a new one
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of England from 1686 to 1692 until he was forced to leave
Thomas Hooker
Clergyman/a founder of Hartford; called the "father of American democracy" because promoted that people should choose magistrates
William Bradford
Pilgrim-second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657; developed private landownership and helped colonists out of debt; helped colony survive droughts, crop failures, Indians
Bacon's Rebellion
1676-Nathanael Bacon and other west Virginians were angry at Virginia Governor Berkeley for trying to appease Doeg Indians after Doeg attacks on western settlements;-formed army under Bacon, defeating Indians, burning Jamestown; rebellion ended when Bacon died of disease
Carolinas
1665-Charles II granted the land to pay off debt to some supporters=>headrights/representative government to attract colonists----south got rich off ties with sugar islands by supplying rice----poorer north composed of farmers=>split into North/South
Culpeper's Rebellion
The Alpemark colony led a rebellion against its English Governor Thomas Miller led by Culpeper-crushed but Culpeper was acquitted
Georgia: reasons, successes
1733-Formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish Florida—military style colony that was a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted protestants
Headright system
Headrights were parcels of land of about 50 acres given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. Used by Virginia Company to attract colonists.
House of Burgesses
1619-Virginia House of Burgesses formed,
-first legislative colonial body in America that would later by adopted by other colonies
James Oglethorpe
Founder/governor of the Georgia colony=>tightly disciplined/military style colony that forbade alcohol/Catholicism/slaves
Colonists thought he was like a dictator/disliked not having slaves=colony break down and the loss of his power
John Locke, Fundamental Constitutions
British political theorists who wrote the Fundamental Constitution for the Carolinas colony that was never put into effect; would have set up a feudalistic government with an aristocracy that owned most of the land
John Rolfe, Tobacco
One of the first settlers of Jamestown who discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export=>Virginia economically successful colony
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown-leadership/discipline helped Jamestown get through first winter
Joint stock company
Company made up of a group of shareholders; Shareholders contribute money to the company and receive some of the profits/debts
Slavery begins
1619-First African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony
Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina
Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia
Indigo was grown in South Carolina
Virginia: purpose, problems, failures, successes
Virginia was formed by the Virginia Company for profit;
Starvation was a major problem-90% of colonists died the first year; many survivors left; company had trouble attracting more colonists
Offered private land ownership to the colonists but the company went bankrupt=>colony to the crown
Only successful after colonists started a tobacco economy
1701 Frame of Government
The Charter of Liberties set up the government of the Pennsylvania colony=representative government/ allowed countries to form their own colonies
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, and Founding Father-one of the few Americans highly respected in Europe primarily for his discoveries in electricity
Crops in the middle colonies
Produced staple crops=esp. corn/grain
Five Nations
Federation of tribes of northern New York=the Mohawk, Oneida, Senecca, Onondaga, Cayuga
Also known as the Iroquois/League of Five Nations-Tuscarora added as 6th nation in 1720
Most powerful/efficient Indian organization in the 1700s
Ideas from its constitution used in US constitution
Holy Experiment
William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania which was to serve/provide freedom for all
John Bartram
America's first botanist; traveled through the frontier collecting specimens
Liberal land laws in Pa
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania to provide a haven for persecuted religions
New York and Philadelphia as urban centers
New York became an urban center due to its harbor/rivers=center for trade
Philadelphia was a center for trade and crafts, attracted large # of immigrants, by 1720 it had a population of 10,000
-capital of Pennsylvania from 1683-1799
As urban centers both cities were pivotal in the revolution
New York: Dutch, 1664 English
New York belonged to the Dutch but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the English came to take the land, the Dutch who hated governor Stuyvesant quickly surrendered.
Patron system
Patronships were offered to individuals who managed to build a settlement of at least 50 people within 4 years. Few were able to accomplish this
Pennsylvania, William Penn
1681-William Penn got a land grant from King Charles II and used it to form a colony to provide a Quaker haven. His colony would allow religious freedom.
Peter Stuyvesant
Governor of Dutch New Amsterdam and hated by colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on 9/8/1664
Deism
Religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Believed that God created the world but then left it to run according to its laws. Denied that God communicated to man/influenced his life
George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening and also the leader of the "New Lights."
Great Awakening
Puritanism was declining in the 1730s upsetting people with the decline of religious piety.
Awakening was an outbreak of sudden religious fervor.
One of the first events to unify the colonies.
Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France but it was revoked in the late 1700s=hundreds of thousands of them fled to other countries including America
Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, A Careful and Strict Enquiry into That Freedom of Will
Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of hell
Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew members of his own religion-Catholicism would be a minority in the new country
Maryland Act of Toleration
Act of Religious Toleration-1649-Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a protestant was made governor at the demand of population=guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians
Old Lights, New Lights
"New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening and broke away from congregational church in New England
"Old Lights" were the established congregational church
PA, MD, RI, founders
Founders established churches
Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn., a Quaker, to provide protection for Quakers.Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free form persecution
Rhode Island: formed to be a haven for all persecuted religions
SPG, Society of the Propagation of the Gospel
Group that worked to spread Christianity to other parts of the world through missionaries in the late 1800s
William Tennent
Strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
Admiralty courts
British courts established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British sometimes tried criminals in the colonies with. Just a judge, no jury
Consignment system
One company sells another company's products and gives them most of the profits but keeps a percentage (commission) for itself
Currency Act, 1751 (In MA)
Act that applied only to Massachusetts, attempt to ban the production of paper money in Massachusetts, but defeated in Parliament
Currency Act, 1764 (All the colonies)
Act that applied to all colonies that banned the paper money to combat the inflation caused by Virginia's decision to pull itself out of debt by issuing more paper money
Mercantilism
Economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than what is imported. Colonies provided for raw materials and markets. Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
Merchants/markets
A market is the area or group of people that need a product. Merchants took goods from the colonies to other areas of the world and the colonies also served as a market for other goods.
Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation that taxed all molasses, rum and sugar that the colonists imported from non-British sources.
Angered New England which imported a lot of its molasses form the Caribbean as part of Triangular Trade.
Hard to enforce and largely ignored.
Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660, 1663, 1696
British regulations that taxed goods imported from non British sources/ sought to control colonial trade
Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues
Reinstated after the French and Indian war to pay off debts and cost of maintaining a standing army in the colonies
North and South economic differences
The north had ports to trade with Britain and it also had small farms worked by the family.
The South was mostly agricultural and with a slave aristocracy
Triangular trade
The backbone of the New England economy during the colonial period.
Ships sailed to Africa trading rum for slaves, then sailed to the Caribbean (middle passage) where the slaves were traded for molasses and sugar which was returned to New England to produce more rum.
Poor Richard's Almanac
First published in 1732, written by Ben Franklin and filled with witty observations/common sense advice-most popular almanac in the colonies
Ann Bradstreet
A puritan/first colonial poet to be published. Poetry about family, home, religion.
Indentured servants
Those who could not afford passage to the colonies traded their servitude for a period of time (usually 7 years) for passage to the colonies
Phillis Wheatley
An African domestic and colonial poet. Known for ornate and elaborate poetry.
Primogeniture, entail
First two British legal doctrines governing the inheritance of property. Primogeniture required a mans property pass to his eldest son. Entail required property to be left to his direct descendents (usually sons), not to persons outside of the family
Salem witch trials
Trials dealing with witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presides as judge. 18 people were
"Salutary neglect"
Prime Minister Robert Wapole's policy in dealing with the American colonies=concerned with mainly British affairs and thought that unrestricted trade with the colonies would be more profitable
Board of Trade (Privy Council)
Advisers to the king who regulated trade during the 1600s and 1700s
Colonial agents
Representatives sent to England during the 1600s and 1700s linking the colonies to England
Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
Based on the British Writ of Habeas that allowed for a person to contest the legality of his arrest/confinement=>imposed strict penalties on judges that refused to issue a write of habeas corpus when there was good cause, and officers that failed to comply with the writ
John Locke, his theories
English political theorist who's ideas inspired the American Revolution=all human beings have the right to life, liberty, and property, and that government existed to protect those rights. Believed in an unwritten "social contract" that gave the right for citizens to rebel if the government failed to uphold its end of the deal.
John Peter Zenger trial
Published articles critical of British governor William Cosby, was taken to trial=>found not guilty=>precedent for the freedom of the press in the colonies
Magna Carta, 1215
Document drawn up by nobles under King John that limited the power of the king=>influenced American Constitution
Petition of Rights, 1628
A document drawn up by Parliament's House of Commons listing grievances against King Charles I and extending Parliament's powers while limiting the king's. It gave Parliament authority over taxation, declared that free citizens could not be arrested without cause, declared that soldiers could not be quartered in private homes without compensation, and said that martial law cannot be declared during peacetime.
Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies
Proprietary colonies founded by individual proprietary company or an individual and controlled by proprietors. Charter companies were founded by a government charter and granted to a company or group of people. British government had some control of these colonies. Royal (crown) colonies were under the complete control of the British government.
The Enlightenment
Philosophical movement of 1700s that stressed reason and the scientific method=>focus on government, science, ethics over imagination, emotion, religion=>many were deists
Town meetings
Purely democratic form of government of the colonies-most prevalent in New England local government=towns voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, pass laws
Albany Plan of Union, Ben Franklin
Written by Ben Franklin during the French and Indian war-proposed for a unified colonial government that would operate under the British government
Changes in land claims of 1689, 1713, 1763
The British controlled the colonies on the east coast, the French held the land around the Mississippi/west of it, and both claimed Canada and the Ohio Valley region
-King William's War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) resulted in the British capturing Port Royal in Acadia after much guerilla warfare
-Peace of Utrecht in 1713 rewarded British with Acadia, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay
-Peace of Paris (1763) resulted British control of Canada
Differences between French and British colonization
British settled on the East Coast where they started farms, towns, and governments; whole families usually emigrated; little interaction with Indians except to fight
French colonized the interior and controlled the fur trade; mostly single men; few towns with loose government; lived closely with Indians trading with them and sometimes taking Indian wives
Fort Pitt, Fort Duquesne
Fort Duquesne was a principal French outpost in the Ohio Valley=>1754 troops there destroyed British Fort Necessity after Washington/colonial army surrendered there=>1758 Fort Necessity rebuilt as Fort Pitt by the British
French and Indian War, Seven years War, Great War for Empire
Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley in Canada. Algonquins fearing British expansion allied with the French along with the Mohawks. The rest of the Iroquois allied with the British. Colonies fought under British commanders. The British one gaining French possessions in Canada/India. Spain, ally of France, ceded Florida to Britain but received Louisiana in return.
General Braddock
Commander in the French and Indian war for the British. Killed/army defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Second in command George Washington temporarily led British troops after he was killed.
Pontiac's Rebellion
1763-Indian rebellion after 7 years war led by Ottawa chief Pontiac=>opposed British expansion into the Ohio Valley, destroying forts=ended with death of Pontiac
Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of the British government that forbade settlement beyond Appalachian Mountains requiring settlers already living in the West to move back East.
Queens Anne's War (Spanish Succession)
Second of 4 wars known generally as the French and Indian wars, arose after unresolved issues from King William's War and part of larger European conflict=War of Spanish Succession. The British allied with the Netherlands to defeat the Spanish/French gaining territory in Canada despite defeats in most of military operations in North America.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Treaty that ended the 7 years war. The French lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi and some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. French also gave Louisiana and the land East of the Mississippi to Spain in compensation for Florida.
War of Jenkins's Ear
Land Squabble between Spain/Britain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles in the Caribbean and the Florida/Georgia border.
William Pitt
British secretary of state during the French and Indian war. Brought British colonial army under tight British control/drafted colonists=riots
Battle of Bunker Hill
Continental army fortifications at Breed's Hill north of Boston were taken by General Gage after in three attempts=ended any hope of a quick victory with the colonists/heavy losses
Boston Massacre, 1770
British troops hated for working for low wages/taking jobs. March 4, 1770 British soldiers fired into a crowd after having rocks/snowballs thrown at them=anti British sentiment
Boston Port Act
One of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until it repaid the East India Company for lost tea.
Boston Tea Party, 1773
Boston, boycotting British tea in protest of the Tea Act=>colonists disguised as Indians on December 16, 1773 snuck on board ships and dumped the tea fearing unloading
Carolina Regulators
Western frontiersmen who rebelled in 1768 against high taxes imposed by the Eastern Colonial government of North Carolina
Coercive Acts
Intolerable Acts, Repressive Acts: Acts in response to the Boston Tea part: Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government act-disbanded Boston Assembly; Quartering Act, Administration of Justice Act-removed power of courts to arrest royal officers
Committee on Independence: Jefferson, Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Bob Livingston
Committee formed to draft statement of reasons for independence=>led to declaration of independence
Committees of correspondence
Began as groups of private citizens in Rhode Island, New York, Massachusetts who in 1763 began circulating info about opposition to British trade restrictions. First government organized committee in 1764 in Massachusetts. Other colonies followed suit to exchange info/organize protest
Continental Association
Created by the First Continental Congress=>enforced non-importation of British goods by empowering Committees of Vigilance to fine/arrest violators=pressure for Coercive Acts
Crispus Attucks
First to die in the Boston Massacre: martyrdom
Declaration of Independence
Signed by the Second Continental congress on July 4, dissolved all ties with England, declared colonists to be an independent nation, listed grievances against the king
Declaratory Act, 1766
After the repeal of the Stamp Act; this act declared that Parliament had the authority to externally/internally tax the colonies and had absolute power over legislatures
External taxes
Taxes on activities originating from outside of the colonies-Sugar Act-many who objected to internal taxes were ok with it
First Continental Congress, 1774
Met to discuss Parliament's policies with New York for refusing to quarter troops, Boston for its tea party, and Virginia Assemblies=>rejected unified colonial government; called for Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, Continental Association to enforce new non importation agreement via Committees of Vigilance=>Colonies declared in rebellion
Galloway Plan
First Continental Congress scheme to create an American parliament appointed by Colonial legislatures=defeated
Gaspee incident
June 1772-British customs ship Gaspée ran ashore=>burned by colonists=>colonists tried in Britain=>colonial outrage/spread of committees of correspondence
George III
1760-King of England-reigned during Revolution
George Washington
Led troops in French/Indian War-not very successful; Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army
Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Mass.
Royal Governor of Massachusetts from 1771-1774
1773-refused to comply with demands to prohibit East India Company ship from unloading cargo=>Tea party=>fled to England
Grenville's program
Prime Minister=>1764 Sugar Act/1765 Stamp Act to reduce cost of maintaining troops in America
Internal taxes
Tax on internal colony activities-stamp act-many felt that Parliament had no authority for it
James Otis
Colonial lawyer that defended colonial merchants accused of smuggling=argued against writs of assistance/stamp act
John Adams
Massachusetts lawyer/politician who believed in colonial independence=>argued against the stamp act and was involved in patriot groups, urged second continental congress to declare independence, helped draft/pass Declaration of Independence, later served as president
John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
Humans have the right to life, liberty and property and government was to protect those rights. Rejected "Divine Right" and believed in a social contract
Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775
Gage ordered to arrest Adams/Hancock=>march on Lexington where there was believed to be a colonial weapons cache; Colonial militia fired on at Lexington; Colonial militia encounter at Concord drove British into retreat to Boston=beginning of war
Lord North
Prime minister from 1770 to 1782-repealed Townshend acts but went along with George III's repressive policies despite personal objections; wanted an early peace and resigned after defeat
Massachusetts Circular Letter
Letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768=>urged colonies not to import goods taxed by Townshend Acts=>followed by Virginia Circular Letter in May=>all colonial legislatures that didn't rescind it were ordered dissolved
Massachusetts Government Act
Coercive act-members of the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected and instead by appointed by the king=>colonists elected own legislature which met in interior of the colony
Natural rights philosophy
Proposed by John Locke=humans had the right to life, liberty, property
Non-importation
Colonial movement to protest Stamp Act by not importing British goods
Olive Branch Petition
July 8, 1775-final colonial offer for peace proposing loyalty in return for address of grievances; rejected by Parliament
Patrick Henry
Orator who gave speeches against Britain/urging independence; proposed "state of defense" in Virginia in 1775, instrumental in causing bill of rights to be adopted in the constitution
Paul Revere, William Daws
Rode through countryside warning militia of approaching British prior to Lexington and Concord
Paxton Boys
Mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons=massacred non hostile Indians
Quartering Act
March 24, 1765-Required colonials to provide food, lodging and supplies for British troops in the colonies
Quebec Act
Recognized Catholic church in Quebec-some colonists took it as a sign of British enforced Catholicism in the colonies
Repeal of the Townshend Acts, except tea tax
1770-Lord North repealed Townshend Acts except tax on tea
Sam Adams
Massachusetts politician=helped organize Sons of Liberty and Non-Importation Commission that protested Townshend Acts, believed to have led the Boston Tea Party, served in Continental Congress during the revolution
Second Continental Congress
Met in 1776-drafted/signed Declaration of independence
Sons of Liberty
Radical political organization formed after the stamp act in 1765, incited riots, burned customs houses where British paper was kept, after the repeal of the Stamp Act=>local chapters=>Committees of Correspondence
Stamp Act
March 22, 1765-part of Grenville's measures that required all legal/official documents to be written on special/stamped British paper=>riots/non-importation agreements=>repeal
Stamp Act Congress, 1765
October 7-24, 1765-27 delegates from 9 colonies met and drew up a list of declaration/petitions against new taxes
Suffolk Resolves
Agreed to by delegates form Suffolk colony, Massachusetts, approved by First Continental Congress on October 8, 1774
-Nullified the Coercive Acts, closed royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial not royal governments; prepped local militias
Sugar Act, 1764
Part of Grenville's revenue program=>replaced Molasses act of 1733=lowered taxes but adopted provisions for strict enforcement; created vice-admiralty courts; made it illegal to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies
Tea Act; East India Company
Gave East India Company a monopoly on tea trade, made it illegal for colonists to buy non British tea, tea tax of 3 cents/pound
The Association
Military organization formed by Benjamin Franklin=formed fighting units in Pennsylvania and erected 2 batteries on the Delaware River
Thomas Paine, Common Sense
British citizen who wrote Common Sense-1/1/1776-encouraged colonies to seek independence, spoke out against British/instrumental in turning the tide of opinion
Townshend Acts, reaction
Revenue measures passed by Townshend in 1767-taxed quasi-luxury items imported into colonies-paper, lead, paint, tea=outrage/movement to stop importing British goods
Vice-admiralty courts
British tried colonists with judge but no jury
Virginia Resolves
May 30, 1765-Patrick Henry speech that condemned the British for taxes/policies=proposed 7 resolves to show Virginia's resistance=5 adopted=8 colonies adopted similar resolves
Writs of assistance
Search warrants issued by the British government=allowed officials to enter homes to search for smuggled goods/enlist colonials for help=could be used anywhere at any time with no proof
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams=wrote letters to husband describing life on the home front and urged John to remember women in the creation of the government
Articles of Confederation; powers, weaknesses successes
Most of powers to individual states-federal government power over war, foreign policy, issuing money
Weaknesses=little unity
Success-settlement of western land claims with Northwest Ordinance
Benedict Arnold
Key victories for colonies in upstate New York 1777, instrumental in victory at Saratoga, 1780 caught plotting to surrender West Point to British for commission in Royal Army
Disestablishment, VA Statute of Religious freedom
1779-Written by Thomas Jefferson=outlawed established church and called for a separation of Church and State
Edmund Burke
Conservative British politician who sympathized with colonists, opposed early feminist movements
French Alliance of 1778, reasons for it
French wanted to weaken Britain by causing a loss of colonies; persuaded by victory at Saratoga
George Rogers Clark
May, 1798-frontiersmen who helped remove Indians from Illinois territory
John Paul Jones
Naval officer who managed to board/control the British Serapis after his own ship, the Bonhomme Richard, was sunk
Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette was a French Major general who aided the colonies
Major battles: Saratoga, Valley Forge
-1777-British general John Burgoyne attacked south from Canada along Hudson Valley in hopes of linking with General Howe=cutting colonies in half=>defeated by General Horatio Gates on 10/17/1777=surrendered entire British army of the north
-Valley forge was not a battle but the site where the Continental Army camped form 1777-1778=many deaths but allowed for defense of Continental congress if necessary
New State constitutions
Constitutions adopted by states that gave most of the power to legislatures/almost none to the executive=mostly ineffective with squabbling
Social impact of the war
First antislavery groups, abolishment of slavery in much of the north, Women gained status=valued as mothers of future patriots
Treaty of Paris, 1783; Negotiators
Recognized independence of Colonies=granted land from south of Canada to north of Florida/Atlantic coast to Mississippi
Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis
Cornwallis trapped at Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay-no reinforcements due to DeGrasse=>surrender and end to major fighting on October 19, 1781
1780's depression
Caused by post-war decrease in production/increase in unemployment+ tough interstate trade rules that decreased trade
Annapolis Convention
Precursor to the constitutional convention of 1787. A dozen commissioners of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia met to discuss reform in interstate commerce regulations, to design a US currency standard, and find a way to repay government's debts to war veterans. Little accomplished except suggestion that they hold another convention to discuss changes to the federal government; idea endorsed by Confederation Congress in February, 1778=>called for another convention to be held in May in Philadelphia
Land Ordinance of 1785
Major success of the Articles of Confederation. Allowed orderly surveying and distribution of US land.
Noah Webster
Wrote some of first dictionaries/spellers in the US. Books became standard for US promoted spellings/punctuations over British.
Northwest Ordinance
Major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up framework of government for Northwest territory. Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the territory, and set 60,000 as minimum statehood pop.
Northwest posts
British fur trading posts in the Northwest Territory=>antagonism of US/conflicts
Shay's rebellion
Winter of 1786-1787 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented government from arresting or repossessing property of those in debt. Federal government too weak to help Boston remove rebels=sign of failure for Articles
Antifederalists
Opposed the ratification of the constitution because it gave more power to the federal government than to the state/did not ensure individual rights. Instrumental in having the Bill of Rights passed as a prerequisite of passage of the constitution in many states. After ratification=>regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (Republican) party.
Checks and balances-examples
Each branch of government checks the other.
President (executive) can veto laws passed by Congress (legislative), and chooses judges in the Supreme Court (judiciary), Congress can overturn a veto if 2/3 of members vote to do so, Supreme Court can declare laws passed by President/Congress unconstitutional
Fiske, The Critical Period of American History
Called the introduction of the constitution the "Critical period" because it saved the US from doom under the Articles
George Mason, Bill of rights
Opposed the constitution because it didn't protect individual rights=>opposition led to Bill of rights
Great Compromise
At Constitutional Convention: larger states wanted to follow the Virginia plan which based state representation in Congress by population. Smaller states wanted the New Jersey plan which gave every state equal representation. Compromise with the creation of the House and the Senate, and using both separate plans as methods of electing members in each.
Hobbes
English philosopher that believed that people are motivated mainly by greed and fear and that a strong government needs to keep them under control. Did NOT believe in divine right.
James Madison, "Father of the Constitution"
Proposals for an effective government=>Virginia Plan=basis of the Constitution. Responsible for drafting much of the language of the Constitution.
John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
Humans have the right to life, liberty and property and government was to protect those rights. Rejected "Divine Right" and believed in a social contract
Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws
Believed that government should be separated into 3 equal branches, that government should be close to the people, and that government was based on the will of the people
North-South compromises
North was given full protection of trade and commerce.
South was given permanent relief from export taxes and a guarantee that slaves would not be halted for at least 20 years, and the national capitol was to be in the South.
Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person when determining population=south got more representatives in the House.
Opponents of the Constitution
Known Antifederalists; mostly commoners opposed to the constitution afraid of strong central governments/rights violations.
Patrick Henry
One of the main opponents to the constitution, worked against ratification in Virginia.
Philadelphia Convention
Constitutional Convention May 25, 1787-the constitutional convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention held in Philadelphia. Every state but Rhode Island sent delegates, George Washington was president of the convention. Lasted 16 weeks and produced the Constitution of the US on September 17, 1787, largely drafted by James Madison.
Sam Adams
Opposed to the constitution until the Bill of Rights was added.
Slavery and the Constitution; trade and compromises
Southern slave trade guaranteed for at least 20 years after the ratification of the Constitution. Slaves were still 3/5 of a person when determining state population.
Supporters of the Constitution
Known federalists, mostly wealthy and opposed to anarchy. Leaders included Madison, Hamilton, Jay who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the constitution.
The Federalist Papers, Jay, Hamilton, Madison
Collection of Essays from John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison explaining the importance of a strong central government. Published to convince New York to ratify the constitution.
"The Federalist, #10"
Essay of the Federalist Papers that proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy. (anarchy, rise of factions that disregard public good)
The ratification fights
Massachusetts farmers opposed the constitution because they felt it supported trade more than agriculture-Massachusetts became 6th state to ratify.
New York was opposed to the constitution; Federalist Papers published there for support
Virginia/New York would not ratify until Bill of Rights added
VA Plan, NJ Plan, Connecticut Compromise
Virginia plan called for a two house Congress with each state's representation based on population
New Jersey plan wanted a one house Congress in which each state had equal representation.
Connecticut Plan called for a 2 house Congress in which representation of both kinds would be applied=Compromise Plan
Alien and Sedition Acts
Four laws passed by President Adams and Congress in 1798:
Naturalization Act increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5-14 years;
Alien Act empowered president to arrest/deport dangerous aliens
Alien Enemy Act allowed for arrest/deportation of citizens of nations at war with the US
Sedition Act made it illegal to publish defamatory officials about the government/officials
First three passed after XYZ affair and aimed at French/Irish immigrants
Sedition Act aimed at Democratic-Republican opposition even though25 people arrested; 10 convicted
Kentucky/Virginia Resolutions=concept of nullification=in response to the Acts
Attorney General Randolph
Edmund Randolph was General Washington's aid-de-camp at outbreak of Revolution; Virginian delegate to Continental Congress and Governor of Virginia 1786-1788. Submitted Virginia plan at Constitutional Convention. 1789-1794 served as US Attorney General and then succeeded Jefferson as Secretary of State. 1795 resigned office after being falsely accused of accepting money from France to influence Washington's administration against Britain, name eventually cleared by French government.
Bank of the US
Part of Hamilton's plan, it would save the government's surplus if needed.
Bill of Rights adopted, 1791
First ten amendments to the constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
Doctrine of nullification
Expressed in Virginia and Kentucky resolutions expressing states right to nullify federal law.
Election of 1800, Jefferson and Burr Tie
2 democratic republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr defeated Federalist John Adams for the presidency but had a tie between themselves. Decision to the House of Representatives=>another tie. After a series of long ties in the House-Jefferson elected president. Bur became the vice-president. 12th amendment requiring that the president and the vice-president of the same party to run on the same ticket.
Excise taxes
Taxes placed on manufactured goods. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise funds for Hamilton's program.
Federalist and Democratic-Republicans
Foreign proclivities
Party leaders and supporters
Philosophies
Programs
The first two political parties. Many Democratic-Republicans were former Antifederalists, which had never organized into a formal political party.
Federalists supported Britain; Antifederalists-France
Federalists: John Adams, Alexander Hamilton
Antifederalists: Thomas Jefferson, James Madison
Federalists believed in a strong central government, strong army, industry, loose interpretation of the Constitution. Democratic-Republicans believed in a weak central government, state and individual rights, and a strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Federalists supported the Federal Bank and taxes to support industrial growth. Democratic-Republicans opposed these measures opting for state banks and little industry.
Hamilton's program: ideas proposals, reasons
Designed to pay off the U.S. war debts and stabilize the economy, believed that the US should become a leading commercial power. Programs included the National Bank, establishment of the US credit rate, increased tariffs, excise tax on whiskey. Insisted that federal government assume debts of states incurred during the Revolution.
Implied powers, elastic, necessary, and proper clause
Section 8 Article I of the constitution contains a long list of powers specifically granted to Congress, and ends that Congress shall also have the power to ""to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers." Unspecified powers are known as "implied" powers. Debate over how much this "elastic" clause can "stretched" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert.
Judiciary Act, 1789
Created the federal court system allowing the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Location of the capitol: logrolling DC
South was angry that the entire country was assuming state's debts incurred mainly in the North, and that slaves were and that slaves weren't being counted as full persons when assigning # representatives to the House. As part of the compromise plan adopted at the Constitution Convention, agreed that nation's capitol would be in the South.
Loose, strict interpretation of the constitution
Loose interpretation allows the government to do anything that the constitution doesn't explicitly forbid it from doing.
Strict interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the constitution explicitly empowers it to do.
National debt, state debt, foreign debt
US national debt included state debts owed to soldiers and others who had not been paid for Revolutionary War services, plus foreign debts to countries that had helped the US. Government also assumed state's debts from the war. Debts paid off by Hamilton's program
President George Washington
Established many presidential traditions including limiting a president's tenure to 2 terms. Against political parties and strove for political balance in the government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.
Residence Act
Set the length of time immigrants had to stay in the U.S. to become legal citizens.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government form Federalist to Democratic-Republican so it was deemed a revolution.
Second Great Awakening
Series of religious revivals starting in 1801 based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Secretary of State Jefferson
A leading Democratic-Republican; he opposed Hamilton's ideas. Washington tended to side with Hamilton, so Jefferson resigned.
Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton
A leading Federalist who supported a strong central government and industry. Created the National Bank and paid off the US's early debts through tariffs and an excise tax on whiskey.
Secretary of War Knox
A revolutionary war hero, Henry Knox served as Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation, and stayed in that capacity under Washington's administration.
Tariff of 1789
Designed to raise funds for the federal government and resulted in a federal surplus.
Twelfth Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie and stated that the presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before then all candidates ran against each other with the winner becoming president and the runner up, the vice president.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, declaring that a state could nullify federal laws that states considered unconstitutional.
Washington's Farewell Address
In this address, he warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
Whiskey Rebellion
1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in riots caused by attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. October, 1794-Washignton led an army to put down the insurrection. Incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could act swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the impotent Articles of Confederation government during Shay's rebellion.
Barbary pirates
Name given to renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. 1795-1801 the US paid the Barbary states for protection against pirates. Jefferson stopped paying tribute and the US fought the Barbary Wars (1801-1805) against Tripoli and Algeria. Inconclusive results=back to tribute system.
British seizure of American ships
France blockaded English ports in the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s; England blocked French ports. British seized neutral American ships that tried to trade at French ports.
Convention of 1800
A conference between the US and France which ended naval hostilities.
French Alliance of 1778
Colonies needed help in their war against Britain. France was Britain's rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose colonies. French convinced to ally with colonists after victory at Battle of Saratoga.
French Revolution
Second great democratic revolution. Took place in 1790s after success of the American revolution. US did nothing to aid either side. The French overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
James Wilkinson
Officer of the Continental army who would later serve as a member of the board of war and clothier general for the army. One of the commissioners appointed to receive the Louisiana Purchase from France. Governor of Louisiana from 1805-1806. Informed Jefferson of Burr's conspiracy to take over Louisiana, primary of witness against Burr at his trial for treason even though he was implicated in the plot.
Jay's Treaty
1794-signed in settling growing conflicts between the US and Britain. Dealt with Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi river. Unpopular for failing to punish Britain for attacks on neutral American ships. Especially unpopular against France, because US also accepted British restriction on trade.
"Mad" Anthony Wayne, Fallen Timbers
Wayne was one of the leading generals of the Continental Army and played a crucial role in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Early 1790's, British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged local Indians to attack Americans. Wayne led Americans to defeat Miami Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794=paved way for American settlement of the Ohio Valley.
Neutrality Proclamation
Washington's proclamation that the US would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off war between France and coalition of England, Austria, Prussia. Proclamation technically in violation of the Franco-American treaty of 1778.
Northwest posts
British fur-trading posts in the Northwest territory. Presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
Pickney's Treaty
1795-Treaty between US and Spain that gave the US rights to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods at Spanish owned port of New Orleans.
"Rule of 1756"
British proclamation that neutral countries could not trade with both of 2 warring nations; they had to choose sides and trade with only 1 nation. Justified Britain's seizure of neutral American ships during the war between Britain/France in early 1800s
Treaty of Greenville, 1795
After the Battle of Fallen Timbers, The 12 local Indian tribes gave Americans the Ohio Valley territory in exchange for a reservation/$10,000
Undeclared naval war with France
Late 1790s-beginning in 1794 the French began to seize US vessels in response to Jay's Treaty, Congress responded by ordering navy to attack any French ships along the coast=XYZ affair=more violent=>1800 peace convention with Napoleon ended conflict
XYZ affair, Talleyrand
1798 commission sent to France in 1797 to discuss disputes that had arisen out of US refusal to honor Franco-American treaty of 1778. President Adams had criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the US. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand to work things out. Talleyrand's three agents told Americans that they could only meet with him with a hefty bribe. Americans didn't pay the bribe and 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting X, Y, and Z for names of 3 agents in report to Congress.
Bayard vs. Singleston
1787-first court decision in which a law was deemed unconstitutional based on a written constitution.
Chisholm v. Georgia
The heirs of Alexander Chisholm (citizen of South Carolina) sued the State of Georgia. Supreme court upheld the right citizens of one state to sue another state and decided against Georgia.
Rutgers vs. Waddington
1784, in 1783 the New York Legislature passed the Trespass Act, that allowed landowners who's property had been occupied by the British to sue for damage. Rutgers sued in the Mayor's Court over seizure of her brewery, and the Mayor, James Duane declared the Act void because it conflicted with a provision of the Treaty of Paris. First time US court had declared law unconstitutional and set a precedent for the Supreme Court in Marbury vs. Madison.
Ware v. Hylton
Treaty between Britain/US required all debts to Britain to be paid in full. Virginia statute said that American debts to Britain could be paid in depreciated currency. Supreme Court upheld the treaty proving that federal laws>state laws.
Causes of War of 1812
Causes for the war included British Impressment of sailors, seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons of the War Hawks (British were inciting the Indians on the frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the Americans to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
1807 The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. The Leopard then fired on the Chesapeake=>US expelled all British ships form US waters until British issued an apology.
Embargo of 1807, opposition
This act issued by Jefferson forbade trading ships from leaving the U.S. Meant to force Britain and France to change policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. Difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else who's livelihood depended upon international trade. It hurt the national economy=>replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
Federalist control of courts with midnight judges
On the last day of his office, Adams appointed a large number of Federalist judges in the federal courts to maintain Federalist control of the government. (Federalists lost presidency/much of Congress to Republicans). Called midnight judges.
Federalist opposition to Louisiana Purchase
Federalists opposed it because they thought that Jefferson overstepped constitutional powers by making the purchase.
Federalist opposition to War of 1812
The Federalist party was mainly composed of New England merchants, who wanted good relations with Britain/free trade. New England merchants met at the Hartford Convention in protest of the war and the US government's trade restrictions.
Fort McHenry, Francis S. Key
Francis Scott Key saw Fort McHenry hold out against a British attack. Wrote the poem "Star Spangled Banner" about the experience seeing the US flag fly above the fort in the morning=>poem set to tune of old English bar song.
Hamilton-Burr duel
After his presidential defeat, Burr switched to the federalist party and tried to run for governor of New York. He lost, and blamed Hamilton for making defamatory remarks that cost him the election. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and killed him on July 11, 1804.
Hartford Convention, resolutions
December 1814-convention of New England merchants who opposed the embargo and other trade restrictions, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to fully nullify federal laws. Also discussed the idea of ceding from the US if desires were ignored. Turned public sentiment against federalists=>demise of the party
Impressments
British seamen often deserted to join American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve deserters and often seized any sailor that couldn't prove that he was an American and not a British citizen.
Jackson's victory at New Orleans
January 1815-A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson's troops at New Orleans. Jackson was given detailed plans of the invasion by French Pirate Jean Lafitte. 2500 British killed/captured and only 8 men on the American side were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the war 2 weeks ago. Inspired nationalism.
Justice Samuel Chase
A federalist judge appointed by Washington to the Supreme Court. Chase had been a Revolutionary war hero and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson disagreed with his views and had him impeached for publicly criticizing the Jefferson administration to the Maryland grand jury. Chase was acquitted by the Senate and the impeachment failed. (only attempt to impeach a supreme court justice in US history)
Lewis and Clark, Zebulon Pike, Major Long, observations
1804-1806 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition traveled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. Produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific.

Zebulon Pike explored (1805-1807) Minnesota and the Southwest, mapped the region, and spied on the Spanish whenever his exploration took him into their territory. (He was eventually captured by the Spanish, but the U.S. arranged for his release.) Major Long explored the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region (Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado) and concluded that it was a worthless "Great American Desert."
Louisiana Purchase: reason, loose construction, Jefferson
Jefferson loose construction of 1803-the US purchased form Napoleon land from Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi River for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it gave the US the Mississippi river and New Orleans (valuable for trade/shipping) and room to expand. Napoleon needed money and was soured to expansion to the New World with a rebellion in Haiti. Constitution did not give federal government power to purchase land=Jefferson used loose construction to justify purchase.
Naval engagements in the War of 1812
US navy won some important victories but failed to break British blockade.
Neutral rights issues end with the defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon's defeat ended the Brit/French war=end to trade restrictions
New England's merchants, critics of the war
New England merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Britain. Critics of the war were mainly federalists who represented New England.
Essex Junto
Group of extreme federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated the secession of New England.
Non-intercourse Act
1809-Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo which forbade American trade with other nations, only forbade trade with Britain and France. Did not succeed in changing British/French policy towards neutral ships so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2
Orders-in-council
British laws that led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
Tecumseh (1763-1813)
Shawnee chief who with brother Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as the Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. League of tribes defeated by American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh killed fighting for the British in the War of 1812 at the Battle of Thames in 1813.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
1803-led a slave rebellion that took control of Haiti, most important of French colonial possessions. Soured Napoleon to new world=encouraged Louisiana Purchase.
Treaty of Ghent, provisions
December 24, 1812, Ended the War of 1812 and restored status quo. Most of territory returned to original owner. Special commission appointed to determine Canada/US border.
Treaty of San Ildefonso
1800-Spain gave Louisiana back to France who had lost it during the 7 years war
Tripolitan War (1801-1805)
Also called the Barbary Wars=series of naval engagements launched by Jefferson to stop attacks on American merchant ships by the Barbary pirates. War was inconclusive=>US paid tribute to Barbary States for protection.
War Hawks
Westerners who wanted war with Britain because they wanted northwest posts of Britain, Florida, Canada=>felt British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack US on the frontier. Congress=Henry Clay/John C. Calhoun
Why we fought England instead of France
Britain practiced impressment and was believed to be supplying weapons to Indians on the frontier and encouraging them to attack. Also the US wanted to acquire land held by the British; war with Britain would allow seizure of Florida form Britain's ally, Spain. Although France had seized American ships, it had lifted trade restrictions and the US resumed trade with France.
Robert Fulton, Clermont
Robert Fulton built and designed America's first steamer, the Clermont in 1807. Also built the Nautilus the first practical submarine.
Bonus Bill Veto
March 1817-Madison vetoed John C. Calhoun's Bonus Bill which would have used bonus money paid to the government by the Second National Bank to build roads and canals. Madison believed in strict interpretation, and using federal money for internal improvements is not a power granted to the government in the Constitution.
Rush-Bagot Treaty, Great Lakes
1817-this treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain (which controlled Canada) provided for the mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes. Later expanded into an unarmed Canada/US border.
No 253: Clay's American System, ideas
Proposed after the War of 1812, included using federal money for internal improvements, protective tariff for infant industries, and strengthening the national bank.
Convention of 1818
Set the border between the US and Canada at the 49th parallel (or latitude). Also affirmed U.S. rights to fisheries along Newfoundland and Labrador.
"Corrupt bargain"
Charge made by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for office as secretary of state. Clay traded votes for office.
Daniel Webster
Great American orator who gave speeches as a lawyer then as a congressman. Major representative of the North in the pre-Civil War Senate debates, just as John C. Calhoun was the South's representative at the time.
Eli Whitney; gin and interchangeable parts
1798-developed the cotton gin, a machine that could separate cotton from its seeds. Made cotton very profitable for the South=slavery.
Era of good feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was no political party/partisan conflicts.
Erie Canal
1825, The Erie Canal was opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. The Canal was approved in 1817 with the support of New York Governor Dewitt Clinton. Along with Cumberland Road it helped connect the West and the North.
Federal government's land policy; 1796, 1800, 1804, 1820
In 1796, land was sold in 640-acre tracts or more for no less than $2 per acre. In 1800, the minimum lot size was reduced to 320 acres. In 1804, the minimum lot size was 160 acres, and the minimum price $1.64 per acre. In 1820, the minimum lot size was 80 acres, and the minimum price $1.25 per acre.
Growth of industry in New England
New England emerged as manufacturing center with many rivers to supply water power, butter system of roads and canals. First major industry was textiles.
Internal improvements
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
John Marshall: decisions
John Marshall was the first chief justice of the Supreme Court who's policies promoted federal power over state power and established Judiciary as a branch equal to the legislative and the executive. In Marbury v. Madison he established the Supreme Court's power of judicial review. Which allows the Supreme court to declare laws unconstitutional.
John Quincy Adams as Secretary of State
He served under President Monroe. In 1819 he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the US Florida in exchange for the US dropping its claims in Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Missouri: Tallmadge Amendment, Thomas Amendment, Missouri Compromise
When Missouri applied for statehood, dispute over whether it should be a slave or a free state. Tallmadge Amendment would admit Missouri as a slave state but forbid the introduction of additional slaves and free all slave children at 25.
The Thomas Amendment was a bill which would have admitted as a slave state but forbid slavery north of the 36°30" latitude in the Louisiana purchase region. Nether bill put into effect.
Monroe Doctrine; origins, provisions, impact
1823-declared that Europe shouldn't interfere in affairs of Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the US. Declared that a New World colony which had gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. Only in England, particularly by George Canning, was there support for the doctrine. Mostly a display of nationalism until late 1800s.
National Road
First federally constructed highway from 1825-1850 from Pennsylvania to Illinois. Major overland shipping route and important connection between North and West.
New states
The government tried to maintain a balance between slave states and free states. The new states admitted were: Indiana (1816, free), Mississippi (1817, slave), Illinois (1818, free), Alabama (1819, slave), Maine (1820, free), Missouri (1821, slave), Arkansas (1836, slave), and Michigan (1837, free).
Panama conference
Summoned by Venezuelan revolutionary leader Simon Bolivar to discuss in 1826 commercial treaties, adopt a code of international law, and arrive at a common Latin American policy towards Spain. 2 delegates sent by the US but they were delayed so long that they missed the meeting. Uncomfortable about blacks and whites mixing at the meeting. Showed the good relations between US and South America.
Purchase of Florida
1819-Adams-Onis Treaty. Spain sold Florida to the US and the US gave up claims to Texas.
Samuel Slater
When he emigrated to the US from England in 1790s=>brought with him plans to an English factory=>first factory in America.
Second bank of US, a reversal of Jefferson's ideas
As a Republican, Jefferson opposed the bank. The Second Bank of the US was established in 1816 was given more authority than the first bank. Loans were used to finance American Industrial Revolution in the period after the war of 1812.
Tariff of 1816 protective
Tariff helped to protect American Industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and higher quality than those produced in the US.
Tariff of Abominations
1828-Also called the Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. Protected North but harmed the South; South said it was economically discriminatory and a violation of state's rights. It passed because New England wanted high tariffs.
Transcontinental Treaty
Adams-Onis Treaty=Spain gave up Florida to the US and the US/Mexican border was set so that Texas and the American southwest would part with Mexico.
Vice-president Calhoun; SC Exposition and protest, nullification
Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay, South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. Written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828. South had threatened to secede if the tariff were not revoked=>more peaceful solution
War increased nationalism, economic independence
The U.S.'s success in the War of 1812 gave Americans a feeling of national pride. The War of 1812 had cut off America's access to British manufactured goods and forced the U.S. to develop the means to produce those goods on its own.
West Florida, 1810
The US wanted this region because its southern bordered the Mississippi. US seized West Florida after uprising by US settlers in region.
Age of the common man
Jackson's presidency was called the age of the common man-felt that democracy should be run by the common people. Democracy based on self-sufficient middle class with ideas from a liberal education/free press=>all white men could vote=Jackson elected
Calhoun resigns as vice-president
1832-Calhoun, from South Carolina wrote the doctrine of nullification, expressing his views in support of state's rights. His views were so different than that of Jackson's that he resigned as VP and appointed senator of South Carolina to present their case to Congress.
Calhoun splits with Jackson
1832-Calhoun resigned as vice president when his views on states' rights were disputed by Jackson. Calhoun wanted each section of the country to share federal power equally and wanted independence of the south if they were to be controlled by the majority.
Caucus system, national nominating conventions
In the National Nominating Convention, delegates voted on results of the primary. In the Caucus System, delegates were elected by small secretive party groups and the public had little to say in the process.
Charles River Bridge decision
Decision delivered by Roger B. Taney that modified C.J. Marshall's ruling in the Dartmouth College Case of 1819, which said that a state could not make laws infringing on the charters of private organizations. Taney ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company could not work to disadvantage of the public. Charles River Bridge Company had protested when Warren Bridge Company was authorizing in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. Ruled that Charles company was not granted a monopoly. Began concept that private company's cannot injure the public welfare
Cherokee Indian removal
Minority of the Cherokee, despite protest of the majority, surrendered Georgia land in 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838-1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to the Oklahoma Indian Country. Many died on the trail="Trail of Tears"
Clay, Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas Biddle
Bank of the US chartered by Congress in 1791: helped government funds and also commercial. Wasn't re-chartered in 1811 but a second bank was chartered in 1816 (1/5 government owned) Jackson opposed it saying that it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became president, making the loan policy stricter, and testified that despite the bank's enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. Bank went out of business in 1836 over controversy about whether the bank was constitutional and should be re-chartered.
Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833, Force Bill
Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced the rates levied by the Tariff of 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance of nullifying the tariffs of 1828, 1832. Protectionists/anti-protectionists accepted the bill.
Election of 1840
William H. Harrison (Whig) vs. Martin Van Buren (Democrats).
Foote Resolution, Webster-Hayne Debate
Webster Hayne debate of 1830 was over a bill by Samuel A. Foote (1830) to limit the sale of public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster spoke of the dangers of state's rights, claimed it would lead to civil war. State's rights (south) vs. nationalism (North)
Franchise extended, spoils system
Franchise extended-more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned land.
Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics
Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories, rise of the Abolition movement. Jackson was portrayed as a common man in his election and his opponent JQ Adams was attacked for aristocratic principles. Electors in the electoral college were chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism. National Nominating Conventions.
Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
When Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people thought he could make the American dream come true. Jackson appointed common people to government positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmer welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and farmers. Jackson was the first non-aristocrat to be elected president. Jackson's election was the revolution of the common man.
Kitchen cabinet
Small group of Jackson's friends who were especially influential in presidential policy in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like it. Also called the "Lower Cabinet"
Martin Van Buren, Albany Regency
Albany Regency was one of the first political machines, set in NY.
Martin Van Buren was the leading figure.
National Republicans
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radical policies; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Pre-emption act, 1841
This was to help settlers who occupied land and improved it before surveys were done. Without it, settlers could be outbid for the land. Some speculators used "floaters" to pre-empt land for them.
Rise of the second party system
Since the 1840's, two major political parties have managed to eliminate all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all government systems since the 1840's.
South opposes protective tariffs
The North wanted tariffs that protected new industries, but the agricultural Southern states depended on cheap imports of manufactured goods and only wanted tariffs for revenue. The South strongly opposed protective tariffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, and protested by asserting that enforcement of the tariffs could be prohibited by individual states, and by refusing to collect tariff duties.
Specie Circular, 1836
1836 - The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Spoils system
The victor of an election may do whatever he wants with the staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any other president.
Tariff of 1842
A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level of duties to about where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its cost.
Veto message
1832 - Jackson, in his veto message of the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners.
Whigs: origins, policies
Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin.
Worcester v. Georgia
1832 - Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
"The burned-over district"
Term applied to western region of New York along the Erie Canal, referring to the religious fervor of its inhabitants. 1800s=farmers susceptible to tent revivals of Pentecostals=religious groups
American Temperance Union
The flagship of the temperance movement of the 1800s. Opposed to alcohol.
Brook Farm
Utopian experiment in New Roxbury, Massachusetts that lasted 6 years from (1841-1847)
New Harmony
Utopian settlement in Indiana form 1825-1827. 1000 settlers but a lack of authority broke it up.
Oneida Community
Socio-religious perfectionist group in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal rising of children, and communal property.
Shakers
Millennial group that believed in Jesus Christ and a mystic named Ann Lee. Celibate=could only increase numbers via conversion=ceased to exist
Amana Community
German religious sect set up this community with communist leanings.
Catherine Beecher
(1800-1878)-Writer and lecturer, worked on behalf of household arts and the education of the young. Established 2 schools for women emphasizing better teacher training and opposed women's suffrage.
Charles G. Finney (1792-1875)
Immensely successful revivalist of the 1800s. Helped establish "Oberlin Theology." Had an interest in "disinterested benevolence" and helped shape character of charitable organizations of the time.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842-Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. First case to recognize that the conspiracy law didn't apply to unions and that strikes for a closed shop were legal. Also decided that unions weren't responsible for illegal acts of members.
Dorothea Dix
Reformer and pioneer in movement to treat the insane as mentally ill. Beginning in the 1820s responsible for improving conditions in prisons, poor houses, insane asylums in US and Canada. Persuaded many states to take more responsibility in taking care of mentally ill. Superintendent of Nurses in the US army during the war.
Edgar Allan Poe
Author who wrote many poems and short stories including "The Raven," "The Bells," "The Tell-Tale Heart," and "The Gold Bug." He was the originator of the detective story and had a major influence on symbolism and surrealism. Best known for macabre stories.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Pioneer in the women's suffrage movement. Helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Later helped edit militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868-1870.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
(1807-1882) Internationally recognized poet. Emphasized the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present.
James Fenimore Cooper, The Last of the Mohicans, The Spy, The Pioneers
The Last of the Mohicans-1826-A book about a scout named Hawkeye during the French and Indian War, while he was in his prime. One of the Leatherstocking Tales, about a frontiersman and a noble Indian, and the clash between growing civilization and untamed wilderness.
The Spy-1821-was about the American Revolution
The Pioneers-1823-tells of an old scout returning to his boyhood home and is one of the Leatherstocking Tales, a series of novels about the American frontier, for which Cooper was famous (Leatherstocking is the scout. Cooper later stayed in Europe for seven years, and when he returned he was disgusted by American society because it didn't live up to his books. Cooper emphasized the independence of individuals and importance of a stable social order.
Lucretia Mott
(1803-1880) Early feminist, who worked constantly with her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women's suffrage. Her home was a station on the underground railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the first women's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
Lyceum movement
Developed in the 1800's in response to growing interest in higher education. Associations were formed in nearly every state to give lectures, concerts, debates, scientific demonstrations, and entertainment. Directly responsible for the increase in the number of institutions of higher learning.
Margaret Fuller, The Dial
Social reformer, leader in the women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited The Dial (1840-1842), which was the publication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom," "progress in philosophy and theology...and hope that the future will not always be as the past."
Mormons, Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, Utah
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and led to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
1847-Brigham Young led the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they founded the Mormon republic of Deseret. Believed in polygamy and strong social order. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.
Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter
Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A."
Nativism; Samuel Morse, Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the US through Foreign Immigration, and the Present State of the Naturalization Laws
-An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
-He was briefly involved in Nativism and anti-Catholic movements, asserting that foreign immigration posed a threat to the free institutions of the U.S., as immigrants took jobs from Americans and brought dangerous new ideas.
Oberlin, Mt. Holyoke
-Founded by a New England Congregationalist at Oberlin, Ohio. First coed facility at the college level. The first to enroll Blacks in 1835.
-founded in 1837 in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Became the model of later liberal arts institutions of higher education for women. Liberal colleges.
Orestes Brownson
Presbyterian layman, Universalist minister, Unitarian preacher and founder of his own church in Boston. Spent his life searching for his place and supporting various causes. As an editor, he attacked organized Christianity and own a large intellectual New England following. Then turned Roman Catholic and became a strong defender of Catholicisim in Brownson's Quarterly Review, from 1844 until his death.
Public education, Horace Mann
Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first rate poet. Spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of Abolitionists.
Rise of labor leaders
During the 1800s, labor unions became more and more common. Their leaders sought to achieve the unions' goals through political actions. Their goals included reduction in the length of the workday, universal education, free land for settlers. And abolition of monopolies. Labor unions were the result of the growth of factories.
Seneca Falls, 1848
July, 1848-Site of the first modern women's rights convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Stanton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the many discriminations against women, and adopting 11 resolutions, one of which for suffrage.
Ten Nights in a Bar-Room, Timothy Arthur
A melodramatic story, published in 1856, which became a favorite text for temperance lecturers. In it, a traveler visits the town of Cedarville occasional for ten years, notes the changing fortunes of the citizens and blames the saloon.
(Henry David) Thoreau, Walden, On Civil Disobedience
A transcendentalist and a friend of Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond for only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. In his essay, "On Civil Disobedience," he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and he had spent a night in jail. He was an extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
Transcendentalism
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830s and 1840s, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need of organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that the mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Transcendentalists
Believed in Transcendentalism, they included Emerson (who pioneered the movement) and Thoreau. Many of them formed cooperative communities such as Brook Farm and Fruitlands, in which they lived and farmed together with the philosophy as their guide. "They sympathize with each other in the hope that the future will not always be as the past." It was more literary than practical- Brook farm lasted only from 1841-1847
Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass
Leaves of Grass (185) was his first volume of poetry. He broke away from the traditional forms and content of New England poetry by describing the life of working Americans and using words like "I reckon," "duds," and "folks." He loved people and expressed the new democracy of a nation finding itself. He had radical ideas and abolitionist vies - Leaves of Grass was considered immoral. Patriotic.
Washington Irving
Author, diplomat. Wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "the Legend of Sleepy Hollow." He was the first American to be recognized England (and elsewhere) as a writer.
Women, their rights, areas of discrimination
In the 1800s women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837-Supreme Court ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorize din 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831-The Supreme Court ruled that Indians weren't independent nations but dependent domestic nations, which could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871, treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal government.
Cohens. v. Virginia
1821-This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review a state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
1842-Case heard by the Massachusetts Supreme Court. The case was the first judgment in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for illegal acts of their members.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
1819-This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune from impairment by states' legislative action. It freed corporations from the states which created them.
Fletcher v. Peck
1810-A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it had been obtained by corruption. The court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interfere with a person's property rights. Since the land grant was a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if corruption was involved.
Gibbons v. Ogden
1824-This case ruled that only the federal government has authority over interstate commerce.
Marbury v. Madison
1803-The case arose out of Jefferson's refusal to deliver the commissions to the judges appointed by Adams' Midnight Appointments. One of the appointees, Marbury, sued the Sect. of State, Madison, to obtain his commission. The Supreme court held that Madison need not deliver the commissions because the Congressional act that created the new judgeships violated the judiciary provisions of the Constitution, and was therefore unconstitutional and void. The case established the Supreme Court's right to judicial review. Chief Justice John Marshall presided.
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819-the decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
Worcester v. Georgia
1832-Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.
49th parallel
The Oregon Treaty of 1846 established a U.S./Canadian (British) border along this parallel. The boundary along the 49th parallel extended from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
54°40' or Fight!
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon would be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54°40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49° latitude in 1846.
Alamo
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for 13 days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
Annexation of Texas, Joint Resolution under Tayler
U.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution- both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tayler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
Aroostook War
Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook River in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia was called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburton - Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
Brigham Young, Mormons, Great Salt Lake
1847-Brigham Young led the Mormons of the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah where they founded the Mormon republic of Deseret. Believed in polygamy and strong social order. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.
Election of 1848: Cass, Taylor
Zachary Taylor- Whig. Lewis Cass- Democrat. Martin Van Buren- Free Soil Party (Oregon issues). Taylor side-stepped the issue of slavery and allowed his military reputation to gain him victory. Cass advocated states' rights in the slavery issue. Free Soil Party wanted no slavery in Oregon.
Election of 1844
James K. Polk -Democrat vs. Henry Clay- Whig vs. James G. Birney -Liberty Party.
Manifest Destiny issues: The annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of Oregon. Tariff reform.
The Liberty Party was the first abolitionist party
Gadsden Purchase
1853- After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stage coach routes to California as part of Mexico. James Gadsden, the U.S. Minister would provide for the purchase of the territory through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and new Mexico.
General Zachary Taylor
Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk's orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, a series of engagements was prompted that led to the Mexican War. His first victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.
Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. Major Long had coined the phrase during his exploration of the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region.
Hegemony
Domination or leadership - especially the predominant influence of one state over others. Northern states seemed to be dominating Southern states.
Horace Greeley
Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying "Go west, young man." He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.
James K. Polk
President known for promoting Manifest Destiny.
John Jacob Astor
His American fur company (est. 1808) rapidly became the dominant fur trading company in America. Helped finance the War of 1812. First millionaire in America (in cash, not land).
Joseph Smith
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and led to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the book of Mormon and died a martyr.
(Stephen) Kearny, (John C.) Fremont, Winfield Scott
Kearny=commander of the Army of the West in the Mexican War, marched all the way to California, securing New Mexico
Fremont=Civil governor of California, led the Army exploration to help Kearny. Heard that a war with Mexico was coming, thought they could take California by himself before the war began and became a hero. He failed, so he joined forces with Kearny.
General Winfield Scott=led the U.S. forces' march on Mexico City during the Mexican War. He took the city and ended the war.
"Manifest Destiny"
Phrase commonly used in the 1840s and 1850s. It expressed the inevitability of continued expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific.
Mexican Cession
Some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
Mexican War: causes, results
Causes: annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of U.S./Mexican relations in the 1840s and particularly the provocation of U.S. troops on the Rio Grande. The first half of the war was fought in northern Mexico near the Texas border, with the U.S. Army led by Zachary Taylor. The second half of the war was fought in central Mexico after U.S. troops seized the port of Veracruz, with the Army being led by Winfield Scott. Results: U.S. captured Mexico City, Zachary Taylor was elected president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including new Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S.
Nicholas Philip Trist
Sent as a special envoy by President Polk to Mexico City in 1847 to negotiate an end to the Mexican War.
Oregon fever
1842-Many Eastern and Midwestern farmers and city dwellers were dissatisfied with their lives and began moving up the Oregon trail to the Willamette Valley. This free land was widely publicized.
Oregon territory
The territory that comprised of what are now the states of Oregon and Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada. This land was claimed by both the U.S. and Britain and was held jointly and under the Convention of 1818.
Reoccupation of Texas and reannexation of Oregon
Texas was annexed by Polk in 1845. Oregon was explored by Lewis and Clark from 1804 to 1806 and American fur traders set up there, but during the War of 1812, the British essentially took control of Oregon and held it jointly with the U.S. The land was returned to the U.S. with the Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk.
Republic of Texas
Created march, 1836 but not recognized until the next month after the battle of San Jacinto. Its second president attempted to establish a sound government and develop relations with England and France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conflicts and renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to joint him U.S. in 1845.
Rio Grande, Nueces River, disputed territory
Texas claimed its southern border was the Rio Grande; Mexico wanted the border drawn at the Nueces River, about 100 miles north of the Rio Grande. U.S. and Mexico agreed not to send troops into the disputed territory between the two rivers, but President Polk later reneged on the agreement.
Sam Houston
Former Governor of Tennessee and an adopted member of the Cherokee Indian tribe, Houston settled in Texas after being sent there by Pres. Jackson to negotiate with the local Indians. Appointed commander of the Texas army in 1835, he led them to victory at San Jacinto, where they outnumbered 2 to 1. He was the President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 & 1841-1845) and advocated Texas joining the Union in 1845. He later served as a Senator and Governor of Texas, but was removed form governorship in 1861 for refusing to ratify Texas joining the Confederacy.
San Jacinto
A surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas' independence. Mexicans- 1,500 dead, 1,000 captured. Texans - 4 dead.
Santa Ana
As dictator of Mexico, he led the attack on the Alamo in 1836. Hew as later defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.
Slidell mission to Mexico
Appointed minister to Mexico in 1845, John Slidell went to Mexico to pay for disputed Texas and California land. But the Mexican government was still angry about the annexation of Texas and refused to talk to him.
Stephen Austin
1822, Austin founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan independence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander of the settlers' army in the Texas revolution.
Texas War for Independence
After a few skirmishes with Mexican soldiers in 1835, Texas leaders met and organized a temporary government. Texas troops initially seized San Antonio, but lost it after the massacre of the outpost garrisoning the Alamo. In response, Texas issued a Declaration of Independence. Santa Ana tried to swiftly put down the rebellion, but Texan soldiers surprised him and his troops on April 21, 1836. They crushed his forces and captured him in the Battle of San Jacinto, and forced him to sign a treaty granting Texan independence. U.S. lent no aid.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provisions
This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the US. The US gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842-Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Wilmot Proviso
When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress' approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later Republican Party.
Clipper ships
Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. They were developed in the second quarter of the 1800s. These ships were unequalled din speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western US.
Cyrus Field
An American financier who backed the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic. After four failed attempts in 1857, 1858, 1865, a submarine cable was successfully laid between Newfoundland and Ireland in July, 1866.
Cyrus McCormick, mechanical reaper
McCormick built the reaping machine in 1831, and it made farming more efficient. Part of the industrial revolution, it allowed farmers to substantially increase the acreage that would be worked by a single family, and also made corporate farming possible.
Elias Howe
Invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing faster and more efficient.
Lowell factory, factory girls
Francis Cabot Lowell established a factory in 1814 at Waltham, Massachusetts. It was the first factory in the world to manufacture cotton cloth by power machinery in a building.
Lowell opened a chaperoned boarding house of the girls who worked in his factory. He hired girls because they could do the job as well as men (in textiles, sometimes better), and he didn't' have to pay them as much. He hired only unmarried women because they needed the money and would not be distracted from their work by domestic duties.
Robert Fulton, steamships
A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America's first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the nautilus, the first practical submarine.
Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph
Morse developed a working telegraph, which improved communications.
Samuel Slater
When he emigrated form England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English factory. With these plans, he helped build the first factory in America.
Ten-hour movement
Labor unions advocated a 10-hour workday. Previously workers had worked from sun up to sundown.
"Transportation revolution"
By the 1850s railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time. This linked city economies together.
Walker Tariff, 1846
1846-Sponsored by Polk's Secretary of Treasury, Robert J. Walker, it lowered the tariff. It introduced the warehouse system of storing goods until duty is paid.
Abolitionism
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces form the 1830s to the Civil War.
American Antislavery Society
Formed in 1833, a major abolitionist movement in the North.
American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.
David Walker, Walker's Appeal
A Boston free black man who published papers against slavery.
Denmark Vesey
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his 37 followers were hanged before the revolt started.
Frederick Douglass
A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglass became the best known abolitionist speaker. He edited an antislavery weekly, the North Star.
Free Soil Party
Formed in 1847-1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
Gabriel Prosser
A slave, he planned a revolt to make Virginia a state for Blacks. He organized about 1,000 slaves who met outside Richmond the night of August 30, 1800. They had planned to attack the city, but the roads leading to it were flooded. The attack was delayed and a slave owner found out about it. Twenty-five men were hanged Including Gabriel.
"King Cotton"
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make ware against cotton! ...Cotton is king!"
Southern mountain whites
Rednecks. Usually poor aspired to be successful enough to own slaves. Hated Blacks and rich Whites. Made up much of the Confederate Army, fighting primarily for sectionalism and states' rights. **?
Nat Turner's insurrection
1831-Slave uprising. A group of 60 slaves led by Nat Turner, who believed he was a divine instrument sent to free his people, killed almost 60 Whites in South Hampton, Virginia. This led to a sensational manhunt in which 100 Blacks were killed. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more united in their support of fugitive slave laws.
Personal liberty laws
1780-1861-statutes designed to prevent slave owners from reclaiming slaves who had escaped to the free states. Although Constitution granted owners the right to reclaim runaways, nearly all the free states thwarted them by passing anti-kidnapping and noncooperation laws. Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, for example, required claimants to obtain search warrants and assured accused blacks of jury trials. In 1842, however this strategy was crippled when the Supreme Court, in Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842), ruled that state laws obstructing the right of slave owners to reclaim slaves was unconstitutional.
Undeterred in 1843 Massachusetts passed a new type of personal liberty law, which banned the use of state officials and facilities to catch runaways. Force claimants to rely entirely on federal officials=in short supply. 1850 Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act which required all citizens to help apprehend runaways or face imprisonment and fines. Still Northern states continued to pass laws to protect runaways.
Sectionalism
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.
Sojourner Truth
Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery.
The Liberator
A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Lloyd Garrison.
William Lloyd Garrison
A militant abolitionist, he became editor of the Boston publication, the Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
36°30' line
According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was forbidden in the Louisiana territory north of the 36°30' N latitude. This was nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Birth of the Republican Party
A coalition of the Free Soil Party, the Know-Nothing Party and renegade Whigs merged in 1854 to form the Republican party, a liberal, antislavery party. The party's Presidential candidate, John C. Fremont, captured one-third of the popular vote in the 1856 election.
"Bleeding Kansas" and Lawrence
Also known as the Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John Brown's 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for 4 years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped precipitate the Civil War.
Buchanan and the secession crisis
After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.
California State Admission
Californians were so eager to join the union that they created and ratified a constitution and elected a government before receiving approval from Congress. California was split down the middle by the Missouri Compromise line, so there was a conflict over whether it should be slave or free.
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.
Compromise of 1850
Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in the District of Columbia and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
Crittenden Compromise proposal
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator of Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36°30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
Democratic Party conventions' Baltimore, Charleston
The Democratic Party split North and South. The Northern Democratic convention was held in Baltimore and the Southern in Charleston. Douglas was the Northern candidate and Breckenridge was the Southern (they disagreed on slavery)
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S. Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Election of 1852; end of Whigs
By this time the Whig party was so weakened that the Democrats swept Franklin Pierce into office by a huge margin. Eventually the Whigs became part of the new Republican party.
Election of 1856
Democrat-James Buchanan (won by a narrow margin) vs. Republican-John Fremont vs. Know-Nothing Party and Whig- Millard Fillmore. First election for the Republican Party. Know-Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing."
Election of 1860; candidates, parties, issues
Republican-Abraham Lincoln vs. Democrat- Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckenridge (southern democrats) , Constitutional Union-John Bell. Issues were slavery in the territories (Lincoln opposed adding any new slave states).
Forty-niners
Easterners who flocked to California after the discovery of gold there. They established claims all over northern California and overwhelmed the existing government. Arrived in 1849.
Freeport Doctrine
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldn't force a territory to become a slave state against its will.
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, which irritated the south to no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
George Fitzhugh, Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society
The most influential propagandist in the decade before the civil War. In his Sociology (1854), he said that the capitalism of the North was a failure. In another writing, he argued that slavery was justified when compared to the cannibalistic approach of capitalism. Tired to justify slavery.
Harriet Tubman
A former escaped slave, she was one of the shrewdest conductors of the underground railroad, leading 300 slaves to freedom.
Henry Clay
Clay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War.
Hinton Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South
Hinton Helper of North Carolina spoke for poor, non-slave-owning Whites in his 1857 book, which was a violent attack on slavery. It wasn't written with sympathy for Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer.
John Bell
He was a moderate and wanted the union to stay together. After southern states seceded from the Union, he urged the middle states to join the North.
John Breckinridge
Nominated by pro-slavers who had seceded from the Democratic convention, he was strongly for slavery and states' rights.
John Brown, Harpers Ferry Raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
John C. Calhoun
Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a south Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights.
John Sutter
A German immigrant who was instrumental in the early settlement of California by Americans, he had originally obtained his lands in Northern California through a Mexican grant. Gold was discovered by workmen excavating to build a sawmill on his land in the Sacramento Valley in 1848, touching off the California gold rush.
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
1854- This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine of congressional nonintervention in the territories. Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.
Lecompton Constitution
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union. It was rejected.
Lincoln's "house divided" speech
In his acceptance speech for nomination to the Senate in June, 1858, Lincoln paraphrased from the Bible: "A house divided against it cannot stand." He continued, "I do not believe this government can continue half slave and half free, I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do believe it will cease to be divided."
Lincoln-Douglas debates
A series of seven debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln's position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.
Nashville Convention
Meeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.
Ostend Manifesto
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another salve state.
Panic of 1857
Began with the failure of the Ohio Life Insurance Company and spread to the urban east. The depression affected the industrial east and the wheat belt more than the South.
Popular sovereignty
The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
Pottawatomie massacre
John Brown led a party of six in Kansas that killed 5 proslavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.
Republican Party; 1860 platform, supporters, leaders
1860 platform: free soil principles, a protective tariff. Supporters: anti-slavers, business, agriculture. Leaders: William M. Seward, Carl Chulz.
Stephen A. Douglas
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
Sumner-Brooks affair
1856-Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Preston A. (Andrew) Brooks for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him. Sumner was the first Republican martyr.
Uncle Tom's Cabin; (Harriet Beecher) Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and the South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
Underground railroad
A secret, shifting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly after 1840.
Webster's 7th of March speech
Daniel Webster, a Northerner and opposed to slavery, spoke before Congress on March 7, 1850. During this speech, he envisioned that the legacy of the fugitive slave laws would be to divide the nation over the issue of slavery.
Border States
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
Bull Run
At Bull Run, a creek, Confederate soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege Richmond. Union troops fled back to Washington. Confederates didn't realize their victory in time to follow up on it. First major battle of the Civil War- Both sides were ill-prepared.
Clara Barton
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham
An anti-war Democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, called him "King Abraham." He was arrested and exiled to the South.
Conscription draft riots
The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people.
Copperheads
Lincoln believed that anti-war Northern Democrats harbored traitorous ideas and he labeled them "Copperheads," poisonous snakes waiting to get him.
Election of 1864; candidates, parties
Lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan. Lincoln won 212 electoral votes to 21, but the popular vote was much closer. (Lincoln had fired McClellan from his position in the war).
Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862-Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded, after the northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
Financing of the war effort by the North and South
The North was much richer than the South, and financed the war through loans, treasury notes, taxes and duties on imported goods. The south had financial problems because they printed their Confederate notes without backing them with gold or silver.
Fort Sumter
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded form the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared the war on the Confederacy the next day.
Grant, McClellan, Sherman, Meade
Union Generals in the Civil War.
"continuous voyage"
This concept involves the idea that a voyage intended for an enemy port, regardless of the number of stops made before arrival in the port, contains contraband. During the Civil War the Union embraced this idea, seizing ships traveling from England to the West Indies with the final destination of Confederate ports.
Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens
Davis was chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861. Stephens was vice-president.
Lee, Jackson
General Robert E. Lee and General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson were major leaders and generals for the Confederacy. Best military leaders in the Civil War.
Monitor and the Merrimac
First engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion of the Chesapeake Bay known as Hampton Roads for 5 hours on March 9, 1862, ending in a draw. Monitor-Union vs. Merrimac-Confederacy. Historians use the name of the original ship Merrimac on whose hull the Southern ironclad was constructed, even thought he official confederate name for the ship was the CSS Virginia.
North's advantages in the Civil War
Larger number of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South's initial material advantage.
Northern blockade
Starting in 1862, the North began to blockade the Southern coast in an attempt to force the South to surrender. The Southern coast was so long that it could not be completely blockaded.
Republican legislation passed in Congress after Southerners left
Banking, tariff, homestead, transcontinental railroad. With no southerners to vote them down, the Northern Congressmen passed all the bills they wanted to. Led to the industrial revolution in America.
South's advantages in the Civil War
Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war and only needed to keep the North out of their states to win. Also had the nation's best military leaders, and most of the existing military equipment and supplies.
Suspension of habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox
Battle sites of the Civil War.
Gettysburg- 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won.
Vicksburg - besieged by Grant and surrendered after 6 months.
Antietam-turning point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln
Appomattox- Lee surrendered to Grant.
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner from Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Assassination of April 14, 1865
While sitting in his box at Ford's Theatre watching "Our American Cousin", President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth.
Black codes
Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.
Blanche K. Bruce
Became a senator in 1874 -- the only black to be elected to a full term until Edward Brooke in 1966.
Hiram Revels
Became the first African American senator in 1870. Fought in Civil War at the Battle of Vicksburg.
Charles Sumner
The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, Sumner returned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the State Suicide Theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
Chief Justice Chase
Chief Justice in 1868, he upheld Republican Reconstruction laws and ruled that paper money was not a legal substitute for specie.
Compromise of 1877 provisions
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
Election of 1872; Liberal Republicans, Greeley
Liberal Republicans sought honest government and nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley. Regular Republicans re-nominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.
Election of 1876; Hayes and Tilden
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.
Fifteenth Amendment
Ratified 1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
Fourteenth Amendment and its provisions
1866, ratified 1868. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants
Freedmen's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
General Oliver O. Howard
Service as director of the Freedmen's Bureau.
Hiram R. Revels
North Carolina free black, he became a senator in 1870.
John Wilkes Booth
An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.
Joint Committee on Reconstruction
Six senators and nine representatives drafted the 14th Amendment and Reconstruction Acts. The purpose of the committee was to set the pace of Reconstruction. Most were radical Republicans.
Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by six former Confederate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.
Lincoln's ten percent plan
Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.
Maximilian in Mexico
Emperor of Mexico 1832-1867.
Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be re-colonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Purchase of Alaska
In December, 1866, the U.S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox", the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U.S. Alaska's resources of fish, timber, oil and gold.
Radical Republicans
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Reconstruction acts, 1867
1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
Scalawags, carpetbaggers
- A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.
- A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish
A member of the Grant administration, he was an able diplomat who peacefully settled conflicts with Great Britain through the Treaty of Washington.
Secretary of State William Seward
1867 - An eager expansionist, he was the energetic supporter of the Alaskan purchase and negotiator of the deal often called "Seward's Folly" because Alaska was not fit for settlement or farming.
Secretary of War Stanton
As Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. The dismissal of Stanton let to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.
Segregation
The separation of blacks and whites, mostly in the South, in public facilities, transportation, schools, etc.
Sharecropping, crop lien system
Sharecropping provided the necessities for Black farmers. Storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The results, for Blacks, were not unlike slavery.
Solid South
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
State suicide theory
The Southern states had relinquished their rights when they seceded. This, in effect, was suicide. This theory was used to justify the North taking military control of the South.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".
Thaddeus Stevens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
The unreconstructed South
The South's infrastructure had been destroyed - manufacturing had almost ceased. Few banks were solvent and in some areas starvation was imminent. General Sherman had virtually destroyed large areas on his "march to the sea".
Thirteenth Amendment
1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
Treaty of Washington
1871 - Settled the Northern claims between the U.S. and Great Britain. Canada gave the U.S. permanent fishing rights to the St. Lawrence River.
Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
Wade-Davis bill, veto, Manifesto
1864 - Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.
Ableman v. Booth
1859 - Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a federal court for assisting in a fugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy of federal government over state government.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Ex Parte Milligan
1866 - Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are inoperative or the region is under martial law.
Mississippi v. Johnson
Mississippi wanted the president to stop enforcing the Reconstruction Acts because they were unconstitutional. The Supreme Court decided that the Acts were constitutional and the states must obey them.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
Texas v. White
1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution for a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to undergo reconstruction.
Benjamin Harrison, Billion Dollar Congress, Czar Reed (1833-1901), Billion Dollar Congress, Czar Reed
Harrison: Republican, ran against Cleveland, became the 23rd president. Billion Dollar Congress: The first session where Congress spent over $1 billion. Czar Reed: The nickname of Thomas Braket, Speaker of the House 1889-1891. He tried to increase the power of the Speaker.
Chester A. Arthur
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
Cleveland's 1887 Annual Address
Emphasized civil service reform, and fought high tariffs.
Compromise of 1877
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
Dingley's Tariff
Passed in 1897, the highest protective tariff in U.S. history with an average duty of 57%. It replaced the Wilson - Gorman Tariff, and was replaced by the Payne - Aldrich Tariff in 1909. It was pushed through by big Northern industries and businesses.
Election of 1884, Blaine, Cleveland
Democrat - Cleveland - 219 electoral, 4,911,017 popular. Republican - Blaine - 182 electoral, 4,848,334 popular. Butler - 175,370 popular. St. John - 150,369 popular. Cleveland was the first Democrat to be president since Buchanan. He benefited from the split in the Republican Party.
Election of 1888, candidates, issues
Republican - Harrison - 233 electoral; 5,444,337 popular. Democrat - Cleveland - 168 electoral, 5,540,050 popular. Fisk - 250,125 popular. Harrison said he would protect American industry with a high tariff. Issues were civil service reform and tariffs.
Election of 1892: candidates, issues
Democrat - Grover Cleveland and V.P. Adlai E. Stevenson - 5,554,414 popular; 227 electoral votes. Republican - Benjamin Harrison and V.P. Whitecar Reed - 145 electoral votes. National Prohibition Convention - John Brownwell and V.P. James B. Cranfil. Socialist Labor Convention - Simon Wing and V.P. Charles H. Machett. Republicans wanted a high protective tariff, but Democrats opposed it. Democrats secured a majority in both houses.
Greenback-Labor Party
Founded in 1878, the party was primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during the Panic of 1873. The Party fought for increased monetary circulation through issuance of paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender), supported inflationary programs in the belief that they would benefit debtors, and sought benefits for labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau. They had the support of several labor groups and they wanted the government to print more greenbacks.
Greenbacks
Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.
Ku Klux Klan
A White-supremacist group which was formed by six former Confederate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.
Legal Tender Cases
The Supreme Court debated whether it was constitutional for the federal government to print paper money (greenbacks).
Liberal Republicans: Schurz, Greeley
Carl Schurz and Horace Greeley were liberal republicans - they believed in civil service reform, opposed corruption, wanted lower tariffs, and were lenient toward the South.
McKinley Tariff
A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.
Mugwumps
Republicans who changed their vote during the 1884 election from Blaine to Cleveland. Mugwump is the Algonquin Indian word for "chief" and was used in a N.Y. Sun editorial to criticize the arrogance of the renegade Republicans.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 - The first federal regulatory commission. Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty. Brought about by the assassination of Garfield by an immigrant, who was angry about being unable to get a government job. The assassination raised questions about how people should be chosen for civil service jobs.
Roscoe Conkling
A Stalwart leader and part of the political machine.
"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"
James Gillespie Blaine said that the Irish Catholics were people of "rum, Romanism, and rebellion." It offended many people and cost Blaine the election.
Secret ballot
First used in Australia in the 1880s. All candidates' names were to be printed on the same white piece of paper at the government's expense and polling was to be done in private. It was opposed by the party machines, who wanted to be able to pressure people into voting for their candidates, but it was implemented and is still in use.
Solid South
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
Specie Resumption Act
1879 - Congress said that greenbacks were redeemable for gold, but no one wanted to redeem them for face gold value. Because paper money was much more convenient than gold, they remained in circulation.
Treaty of Washington, 1871
1871 - Settled the Northern claims between the U.S. and Great Britain. Canada gave the U.S. permanent fishing rights to the St. Lawrence River.
Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations
Promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics.
Alexander Graham Bell
1876 - Invented the telephone.
Andrew Carnegie
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works.
Andrew Mellon
One of the wealthiest bankers of his day, and along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.
Bessemer Process
Bessemer invented a process for removing air pockets from iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.
Charles Schwab
Founder and president of the U.S. Steel Corporation. First president of the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1901, he was also involved in the stock market.
Cornelius Vanderbilt, NY Central Railroad
A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad.
Credit Mobilier
A construction company owned by the larger stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad. After Union Pacific received the government contract to build the transcontinental railroad, it "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual construction, charging the federal government nearly twice the actual cost of the project. When the scheme was discovered, the company tried to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the investigation. This precipitated the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history, and led to greater public awareness of government corruption.
Depression of 1873
Unrestrained speculation on the railroads let to disaster - inflation and strikes by railroad workers. 18,000 businesses failed and 3 million people were out of work. Federal troops were called in to end the strike.
US vs. E.C. Knight
In an 8-1 decision written by Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller, the Court ruled that the government lacked power under the Constitution to enforce the Sherman Act against the company's manufacturing operations. Congress has the power to regulate trade but not manufacturing.
14th Amendment's "due process clause"
No state shall deny a person life, liberty, or property without due process of law. (The accused must have a trial.)
Gustavus Swift
In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.
Henry Clay Frick
He formed Frick & Co. with several of his associates, purchased coal operations, and began to produce coke from the coal. His company became the largest producer of coke in the world, operating 12,000 coke ovens and acquiring 40,000 acres of coal.
Holding companies
Companies that hold a majority of another company's stock in order to control the management of that company. Can be used to establish a monopoly.
Horizontal consolidation
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.
Interstate Commerce Act and Commission
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
J. Pierpont Morgan
Financier who arranged the merger which created the U.S. Steel Corporation, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Everyone involved in the merger became rich. (Vertical consolidation).
Jay Gould and Jim Fiske
Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.
John D. Rockefeller
Joined his brother William in the formation of the Standard Oil Company in 1870 and became very wealthy.
Laissez-faire
A theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.
Leland Stanford
Multimillionaire railroad builder, he founded Stanford University in memory of his only son, who died young. He founded the Central Pacific Railroad.
Long haul, short haul
Different railroad companies charged separate rates for hauling goods a long or short distance. The Interstate Commerce Act made it illegal to charge more per mile for a short haul than a long one.
Philip Armour
Pioneered the shipping of hogs to Chicago for slaughter, canning, and exporting of meat.
Pools, trusts
- Agreement between railroads to divide competition. Equalization was achieved by dividing traffic - Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
Rebates
Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.
"Robber Barons"
The owners of big businesses who made large amounts of money by cheating the federal government.
Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890
1890 - A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
"Stock watering"
Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.
Thomas A. Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific: Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central Pacific: Went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the federal government and used substandard materials.
US Steel Corporation, Elbert H. Gary
Gary was corporate lawyer who became the U.S. Steel Corporation president in 1898. U.S. Steel was the leading steel producer at the time.
Vertical consolidation
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of every step of the manufacturing process for a single product, such as an auto maker that also owns its own steel mills, rubber plantations, and other companies that supply its parts. This allows the company to lower its costs of production and drive its competition out of business.
AFL
Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.
American Railway Union
Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike, composed mostly of railroad workers.
Blacklist
A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
Closed shop
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
Collective bargaining
Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions.
Company unions
People working for a particular company would gather and as a unit demand better wages, working conditions and hours.
Danbury Hatters strike
Workers in a hat-making factory went on strike.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Great Railroad strike, 1877
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
Haymarket Square riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
Injunction
A judicial order forcing a person or group to refrain from doing something.
John Peter Altgeld
Governor of Illinois during the Haymarket riots, he pardoned three convicted bombers in 1893, believing them victims of the "malicious ferocity" of the courts.
Knights of labor: Stephens, Powderly
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
National Labor Union
Established 1866, and headed by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick, it concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals.
Pinkertons
Members of the Chicago police force headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were often used as strike breakers.
Pullman strike, 1894
Started by enraged workers who were part of George Pullman's "model town", it began when Pullman fired three workers on a committee. Pullman refused to negotiate and troops were brought in to ensure that trains would continue to run. When orders for Pullman cars slacked off, Pullman cut wages, but did not cut rents or store prices.
Richard Olney
Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.
Samuel Gompers
President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.
Strikes, boycotts
- The unions' method for having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very effective form of attack. - People refuse to buy a company's product until the company meets demands.
William Sylvis
Leader of the National Labor Union.
Yellow dog contracts
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
American Protective Association
A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.
Anthony Comstock
Social reformer who worked against obscenity.
Boss Tweed
Large political boss and head of Tammany Hall, he controlled New York and believed in "Honest Graft".
Chinese Exclusion law, 1882
Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immigrants who would work for less pay.
Denis Kearney
Irish immigrant who settled in San Francisco and fought for workers rights. He led strikes in protest of the growing number of imported Chinese workers who worked for less than the Americans. He founded the Workingman's Party, which was later absorbed into the Granger movement.
Dillingham Commission Report, 1911
1911 - Congressional commission set up to investigate demands for immigration restriction. Its report was a list of complaints against the "new immigrants."
George Washington Plunkitt
He was head of Tammany Hall and believed in "Honest Graft".
James Bryce, the American Commonwealth
Opposed the Nativist sentiment and promoted the "melting pot" idea of American culture.
Jane Addams, Hull House
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
John A. Roebling
Civil engineer and designer of bridges. From Prussia. Brooklyn Bridge was his last achievement, linked NY and Manhattan.
Literacy tests
Immigrants were required to pass a literacy test in order to gain citizenship. Many immigrants were uneducated or non-English-speakers, so they could not pass. Meant to discourage immigration.
Louis Henry Sullivan
One of the most influential architects to come out of the Chicago School of architecture in the late 1800s. He is often called the "father of the skyscraper", the "prophet of modern architecture" and conceived the most famous phrase ever to come out of his profession.
"New immigration"
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; between 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
Streetcar suburbs
The appearance of the streetcar made living within the heart of the city unnecessary. People began moving to the edges of the cities and commuting to work by streetcar. Led to growth of suburbs.
Tammany Hall
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
Tenements
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
Alice Paul
She was a feminist, suffragist, and political strategist.
Andrew Carnegie, the Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
Bret Harte
Wrote humorous short stories about the American West, popularized the use of regional dialects as a literary device.
Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Charles Darwin, Origin of Species
Presented the theory of evolution, which proposed that creation was an ongoing process in which mutation and natural selection constantly give rise to new species. Sparked a long-running religious debate over the issue of creation.
Clara Barton
Superintendent of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War, founded the American Red Cross is 1881. See card # 651 for more information.
Dwight L. Moody
Evangelist who preached the social gospel.
E.L. Godkin, editor of The Nation
Political writer who founded The Nation magazine, which called for reform.
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward, 2000-1887
1888 - Utopian novel which predicted the U.S. would become a socialist state in which the government would own and oversee the means of production and would unite all people under moral laws.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Francis Willard
Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
"Gilded Age"
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
Hatch Act, 1887
1887 - Provided for agricultural experimentation stations in every state to improve farming techniques.
Henry George, Progress and Poverty
Said that poverty was the inevitable side-effect of progress.
Henry James
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw."
Henry Ward Beecher
Minister who worked against slavery in Kansas Border War, promoted civil service reform.
Herbert Spencer
British, developed a system of philosophy based on the theory of evolution, believed in the primacy of personal freedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a system whereby all human endeavors could be explained rationally and scientifically.
Horatio Alger's books for youth
A 19th-century American author, a leading proponent of Social Darwinism during the Gilded Age (1865-1900), who wrote over 130 dime novels, describing how down-and-out boys were able to achieve the American dream of wealth and success through hard work, courage, determination, and concern for others.
James McNeill Whistler
(1834-1903) A member of the realist movement, although his works were often moody and eccentric. Best known for his Arrangement in Black and Grey, No.1, also known as Whistler's Mother.
Johns Hopkins University
A private university which emphasized pure research. It's entrance requirements were unusually strict -- applicants needed to have already earned a college degree elsewhere in order to enroll.
Joseph Pulitzer
A muckraker who designed the modern newspaper format (factual articles in one section, editorial and opinion articles in another section).
Josiah Willard Gibbs
America's greatest theoretical scientist, he studied thermodynamics and physical chemistry.
Lester Frank Ward
Sociologist who attacked social Darwinism in his book, Dynamic Sociology.
Mark Twain
Master of satire. A regionalist writer who gave his stories "local color" through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, "The Amazing Jumping Frog of Calaverus County," and stories about the American West.
Mary Baker Eddy
Founded the Church of Christian Scientists and set forth the basic doctrine of Christian Science.
Nouveau riche
French for "new rich." Referred to people who had become rich through business rather than through having been born into a rich family. The nouveau riche made up much of the American upper class of the late 1800s.
Pragmatism
A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.
Rev. Josiah Strong
Envisioned a "final competition of races," in which the Anglo-Saxons would emerge victorious.
Rev. Russell Conwell, "Acres of Diamonds"
Baptist preacher whose famous speech said that hard work and thrift would lead to success.
Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Social Gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
Stephen Crane
Writer who introduced grim realism to the American novel. His major work, The Red Badge of Courage is a psychological study of a Civil War soldier. Crane had never been near a war when he wrote it, but later he was a reporter in the Spanish-American War.
Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1869.
The Gilded Age, Twain and Warner
This story was about a city, which from far, looked as if it was made of gold, but instead, was covered in cheap gold paint. It reflected the truth about America, where companies such as the railroad companies wove tales about streets made of gold to attract immigrants to work for them.
The single tax
A flat tax proposed by Henry George. (A flat tax is one in which every person pays the same amount, regardless of whether they are rich or poor.)
Walter Rauschenbusch
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other
was the leading American advocate of Social Darwinism. He was a professor of sociology at Yale University. As a sociologist, his major accomplishments were developing the concepts of diffusion, folkways, and ethnocentrism. Sumner's work with folkways led him to conclude that attempts at reform were useless. He was a staunch advocate of laissez-faire economics, arguing that the practices of the Gilded Age were rather plutocracy.
William James
Developed the philosophy of pragmatism. One of the founders of modern psychology, and the first to attempt to apply psychology as a science rather than a philosophy.
William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol.
Atlanta Compromise
Booker T. Washington's speech encouraged blacks to seek a vocational education in order to rise above their second-class status in society.
Bourbons or Redeemers
Bourbons: from 1876 to 1904 to refer to a member of the Democratic Party, conservative or classical liberal, especially one who supported President Grover Cleveland in 1884-1888/1892-1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904. After 1904, the Bourbons faded away.
Redeemers: a political coalition in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era, who sought to oust the Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags. They were the southern wing of the Bourbon Democrats, who were the conservative, pro-business wing of the Democratic Party.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
The Civil Rights Act (1875) was introduced to Congress by Charles Sumner and Benjamin Butler in 1870 but did not become law until 1st March, 1875. It promised that all persons, regardless of race, color, or previous condition, was entitled to full and equal employment of accommodation in "inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement." In 1883 the Supreme Court declared the act as unconstitutional and asserted that Congress did not have the power to regulate the conduct and transactions of individuals.
Civil Rights Cases, 1833
In the Civil Rights Cases decision of 1883, the U.S. Supreme Court limited the powers of Congress with its finding that the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment did not pertain to actions involving private parties. This case decided five similar discrimination cases that had been grouped together as the Civil Rights Cases when they were heard by the Supreme Court.
Disenfranchisement
1898 - The Mississippi supreme court ruled in Williams v. Mississippi that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal.
George Washington Carver
A black chemist and director of agriculture at the Tuskegee Institute, where he invented many new uses for peanuts. He believed that education was the key to improving the social status of blacks.
Grandfather clause
Said that a citizen could vote only if his grandfather had been able to vote. At the time, the grandfathers of black men in the South had been slaves with no right to vote. Another method for disenfranchising blacks.
(Joel Chandler) Harris
Wrote the "Uncle Remis" stories, which promoted black stereotypes and used them for humor.
Jim Crow laws
State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities.
Lynching
The practice of an angry mob hanging a perceived criminal without regard to due process. In the South, blacks who did not behave as the inferiors to whites might be lynched by white mobs.
Mississippi Plan
1890 - In order to vote in Mississippi, citizens had to display the receipt which proved they had paid the poll tax and pass a literacy test by reading and interpreting a selection from the Constitution. Prevented blacks, who were generally poor and uneducated, from voting.
NAACP
Founded in 1909 by a group of black and white intellectuals to advance black rights.
The Crisis
The NAACP's pamphlet, which borrowed the name from Thomas Paine's speech about the American Revolution.
New South, Henry Grady
1886 - His speech said that the South wanted to grow, embrace industry, and eliminate racism and Confederate separatist feelings. Was an attempt to get Northern businessmen to invest in the South.
Niagara Movement
A group of black and white reformers, including W. E. B. DuBois. They organized the NAACP in 1909.
Sharecropping, crop lien laws
Sharecropping provided the necessities for Black farmers. Storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The results, for Blacks, was not unlike slavery.
Slaughterhouse Cases
A series of post-Civil War Supreme Court cases containing the first judicial pronouncements on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. The Court held that these amendments had been adopted solely to protect the rights of freed blacks, and could not be extended to guarantee the civil rights of other citizens against deprivations of due process by state governments. These rulings were disapproved by later decisions.
Springfield, IL riot 1908
On the evening of August 14,1908, a race war broke out in the Illinois capital of Springfield. Angry over reports that a black man had sexually assaulted a white woman, a white mob wanted to take a recently arrested suspect from the city jail and kill him.
"Talented tenth"
According to W.E.B. Dubois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks.
W.E.B. Du Bois
A black orator and essayist. Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's theories, and took a militant position on race relations.
16 to 1
Standard proposed by "Coin Harvey" for bimetallism in which gold was worth 16X silver.
Barbed wire, Joseph Glidden
He marketed the first barbed wire, solving the problem of how to fence cattle in the vast open spaces of the Great Plains where lumber was scarce, thus changing the American West.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
1876 - General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
Battle of Wounded Knee
1890 - The Sioux, convinced they had been made invincible by magic, were massacred by troops at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
Bimetallism
Use of two metals, gold and silver, for currency as America did with the Bland-Allison Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Ended in 1900 with the enactment of the Gold Standard Act.
Bland-Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Chief Joseph
Lead the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. His speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" mourned the young Indian men killed in the fighting.
Chivington massacre
November 28, 1861 - Colonel Chivington and his troops killed 450 Indians in a friendly Cheyenne village in Colorado.
Comstock Lode
Rich deposits of silver found in Nevada in 1859.
"Cross of Gold" speech
Given by Bryan on June 18, 1896. He said people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold", referring to the Republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage and adopt a strict gold standard.
Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
Also called the General Allotment Act, it tried to dissolve Indian tribes by redistributing the land. Designed to forestall growing Indian poverty, it resulted in many Indians losing their lands to speculators.
Depression of 1893
In some places it began before 1890, in a deep agricultural crisis that hit Southern cotton-growing regions and the Great Plains in the late 1880s. The shock hit Wall Street and urban areas in 1893, as part of a massive worldwide economic crisis. A quarter of the nation's railroads went bankrupt; in some cities, unemployment among industrial workers exceeded 20 or even 25 percent.
Election of 1896
McKinley (Gold, Republican) vs. Bryan (Silver, Democrat)
Farmer's Alliance
Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful.
Frederick Jackson Turner, Frontier Thesis
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Free silver
Movement for using silver in all aspects of currency. Not adopted because all other countries used a gold standard.
Gold Standard Act, 1900
1900 - This was signed by McKinley. It stated that all paper money would be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold gold in reserve in case people decided they wanted to trade in their money. Eliminated silver coins, but allowed paper Silver Certificates issued under the Bland-Allison Act to continue to circulate.
Granger Movement
1867 - Nation Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. A group of agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power of farmers. They opposed corrupt business practices and monopolies, and supported relief for debtors. Although technically not a political party, local granges led to the creation of a number of political parties, which eventually joined with the growing labor movement to form the Progressive Party.
Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region.
Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor
A muckraker whose book exposed the unjust manner in which the U.S. government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
Homestead Act, 1862
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Ignatius Donnelly
A leader of the Populist Party in Minnesota.
Indian Appropriations Act, 1871
1851 - The U.S. government reorganized Indian land and moved the Indians onto reservations.
James B. Weaver
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
Mary Ellen Lease
A speaker for the Populist Party and the Farmer's Alliance. One of the founders of the Populist Party.
Ocala Demands
The platform called for an eight-hour workday and immigration restriction, strongly condemned the use of Pinkerton detectives against strikers, and supported such political reforms as the secret ballot, initiative, and referendum.
Oliver H. Kelley
Worked in the Department of Agriculture and lead the Granger Movement.
Plains Indians
Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses.
Populist Party platform , Omaha Platform, 1892
-Officially named the People's Party, but commonly known as the Populist Party, it was founded in 1891 in Cincinnati, Ohio.
-Wrote a platform for the 1892 election (running for president-James Weaver, vice president-James Field) in which they called for free coinage of silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election of senators; regulation of railroads; and other government reforms to help farmers. The part was split between South and West.
Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchases Act
1893 - Act repealed by President Cleveland to protect gold reserves.
Safety valve thesis
Proposed by Frederick Jackson Turner to explain America's unique non-European culture, held that people who couldn't succeed in eastern society could move west for cheap land and a new start.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
1890 - Directed the Treasury to buy even larger amounts of silver that the Bland-Allison Act and at inflated prices. The introduction of large quantities of overvalued silver into the economy lead to a run on the federal gold reserves, leading to the Panic of 1893. Repealed in 1893.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic and Populist leader and a magnetic orator who ran unsuccessfully three times for the U.S. presidency (1896, 1900, 1908). His enemies regarded him as an ambitious demagogue, but his supporters viewed him as a champion of liberal causes.
Aguinaldo, Philippine insurrection
Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) led a Filipino insurrection against the Spanish in 1896 and assisted the U.S. invasion. He served as leader of the provisional government but was removed by the U.S. because he wanted to make the Philippines independent before the U.S. felt it was ready for independence.
American Anti-Imperialist League
A league containing anti-imperialist groups; it was never strong due to differences on domestic issues. Isolationists.
Annexation of Hawaii
By the late 1800s, U.S. had exclusive use of Pearl Harbor. In July 1898, Congress made Hawaii a U.S. territory, for the use of the islands as naval ports.
Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt
In charge of the navy when the Maine crisis occurred, he had rebuilt the navy and tried to start a war with Cuba.
Boxer Rebellion
1900 - A secret Chinese society called the Boxers because their symbol was a fist revolted against foreigners in their midst and laid siege to foreign legislations in Beijing.
Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan
In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
Cleveland and Hawaii
President Cleveland did not want to forcibly annex Hawaii, so he waited five years to do so. McKinley finally did it. Cleveland felt the annexation overstepped the federal government's power.
"Colossus of the North"
1906 - Relations between U.S. and Canada including a reciprocal trade agreement. Tight relations made the U.S. and Canada a "Colossus."
Commodore Dewey, Manila Bay
May 1, 1898 - Commodore Dewey took his ship into Manila Bay, in the Philippine Islands, and attacked the Spanish Pacific fleet there. The U.S. had been planning to take this strategic port in the Pacific. Dewey caught the Spanish at anchor in the bay and sank or crippled their entire fleet.
Dominican Republic
In 1905, the U.S. imposed financial restrictions upon this Caribbean nation. Part of making sure Latin America traded with the U.S. and not Europe.
Drago Doctrine
Argentine jurist, Luis Drago, proposed that European countries could not use force to collect debts owed by countries in the Americas. They could not blockade South American ports. Adopted as part of the Hague Convention in 1907.
Elihu Root
Secretary of War under Roosevelt, he reorganized and modernized the U.S. Army. Later served as ambassador for the U.S. and won the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize.
Extraterritoriality
In the 1920's, China awaited an end to the exemption of foreigners accused of crimes from China's legal jurisdiction.
Gentleman's Agreement
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
Hay-Herran Treaty
Kept the purchase price of the canal strip in Panama the same but enlarged the area from 6 to 10 miles.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama Canal Zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
Insular Cases
A group of‐some fourteen decisions of the period 1901-1904 that involve the application of the Constitution and Bill of Rights to overseas territories. The cases arose after the United States acquired island territories through the treaty ending the Spanish‐American War (1898). The nation's determination to become a world power, as evidenced by the war and the acquisition of foreign territories, received overwhelming popular endorsement in the presidential election of 1900.
James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism
The 1884 nomination for the Republican presidential candidate. Pan-Americanism stated that events in the Americans affected the U.S. and we thus had reason to intervene.
Josiah Strong, Our Country
In this book, Strong argued that the American country and people were superior because they were Anglo-Saxon.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Maine explosion
February 15, 1898 - An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havana crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.
Most favored nation clause
Part of RTA Act in 1834, allowed a nation to make a special agreement with another nation and give them a preferential low tariff rate.
Panama Canal
Built to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster.
Panama revolution
The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.
Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico
The U.S. acquired these territories from Spain through the Treaty of Paris (1898), which ended the Spanish-American War.
Platt Amendment
A rider to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901, it specified the conditions under which the U.S. could intervene in Cuba's internal affairs, and provided that Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence. Its provisions where later incorporated into the Cuban Constitution.
Protectorate
A weak country under the control and protection of a stronger country. Puerto Rico, Cuba, etc. were protectorates of the U.S.
Queen Liliuokalani
Queen of Hawaii who gave the U.S. naval rights to Pearl Harbor in 1887. Deposed by American settlers in 1893.
Re-concentration policy
General Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau began a policy of moving Cuban civilians to central locations where they would be under the control of the Spanish army. In addition, he put the entire island under martial law. The Cuban civilians alive and protected until the Spanish were victorious. Unfortunately at least 30% perished from lack of proper food, sanitary conditions, and medicines. The policy generated severe anti-Spanish feeling in the United States which helped propel it into war in 1898. Finally, it did not benefit the Spanish in the war.
Roosevelt's Big Stick diplomacy
Roosevelt said, "walk softly and carry a big stick." In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen. It was his foreign policy in Latin America.
Roosevelt Corollary
U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
1898 - Theodore Roosevelt formed the Rough Riders (volunteers) to fight in the Spanish- American War in Cuba. They charged up San Juan Hill during the battle of Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth
Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Manchuria after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.
San Francisco School Board incident
1906 - Racist schools segregated Chinese, Korean and Japanese students because of anti-oriental sentiment in California.
Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door Notes
September, 1899 - Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
Spheres of influence
Region in which political and economic control is exerted by on European nation to the exclusion of all others. Spheres of influence appeared primarily in the East, and also in Africa.
Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
Treaty of Paris, 1898
Approved by the Senate on February 6, 1898, it ended the Spanish-American War. The U.S. gained Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
USS Oregon
Warship involved in Spanish-American blockade in Cuba in 1898. Went from Cuba to the Philippines by going around the Southern tip of South America. Showed that we need a better route between the Atlantic and the Pacific
Walter Reed
Discovered that the mosquito transmitted yellow fever and developed a cure. Yellow fever was the leading cause of death of American troops in the Spanish-American War.
"Yellow journalism"
Term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolf Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.
16th Amendment
Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913
17th Amendment
Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states. 1919
18th Amendment
Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. 1920
19th Amendment
Amendment gave women the right to vote.
ABC powers
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.
Anthracite coal strike, 1902, George F. Baer
Large strike by coal miners. Baer led the miner's union at the time.
Ballinger-Pinchot controversy
Cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources. Pinchot, head of the Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of abandoning federal conservation policy. Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot.
Bull Moose Party
The Progressive Party, it was Roosevelt's party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.
Charles Evans Hughes
Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.
Clayton Antitrust Act, labor's Magna Carta
1914, passed by the U.S. Congress as an amendment to clarify and supplement the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. It was drafted by Henry De Lamar Clayton. The act prohibited exclusive sales contracts, local price cutting to freeze out competitors, rebates, interlocking directorates in corporations capitalized at $1 million or more in the same field of business, and intercorporate stock holdings. Labor unions and agricultural cooperatives were excluded from the forbidden combinations in the restraint of trade. The act restricted the use of the injunction against labor, and it legalized peaceful strikes, picketing, and boycotts.
Daniel DeLeon
DeLeon denounced populists because they believed in free enterprise. Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies. The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.
Department of Labor
Originally started in 1903 as the Department of Commerce and Labor, it was combined with the Bureau of Corporations in 1913 to create the Department of Labor
Direct primary
An election where people directly elect their party's candidates for office. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and undemocratic. This made elected official more accountable to the people.
"Dollar diplomacy"
Taft and Knox cam up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
Election of 1908: candidates, issues
Taft, Republican, won over Bryan, Democrat, because of his support of Roosevelt.
Election of 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, Debs, issues
Wilson, Democrat beat Roosevelt, Progressive (Bull Moose), Taft, Republican and Debs, Socialist. The issues were the economy and growing conflict in Europe.
Elkins Act, 1903, rebates
This strengthened earlier federal legislation that outlawed preferential pricing through rebates. Rebates are returns of parts of the amount paid for goods or services, serving as a reduction or discount. This act also prohibited railroads from transporting goods they owned. As a dodge around previous legislation, railroads were buying goods and transporting them as if they were their own.
Eugene V. Debs, Socialist Party
Debs repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act.
Federal Highways Act, 1916
Passed by Wilson, it provided federal money to build roads. It helped to provide competition to the railroads' monopoly on public transportation.
Federal Reserve Act
Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
Federal Trade Commission, cease and desist order
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.
Florence Kelly, consumerism
Founded the National Consumer's League, which wanted legislation to protect consumers from being cheated or harmed by big business.
Forest Reserve Act, 1891
First national forest conservation policy, authorized the president to set aside areas of land for national forests.
Frank Norris, the Octopus
A leader of the naturalism movement in literature, he believed that a novel should serve a moral purpose. Wrote The Octopus in 1901 about how railroads controlled the lives of a group of California farmers. A muckraker novel.
Henry Demarest Lloyd, Wealth Against Comonwealth
American writer, he won fame for revealing illegal business practices in the U.S. in the late 1800's. Said many corporations put their interest above the good of the workers. Muckraker novel.
Hepburn Act, 1906
It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.
Ida Tarbell, History of the Standard Oil Co.
This 1904 book exposed the monopolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel.
Income tax
The first step toward building government revenues and redistributing wealth, a tax that was levied on annual income over a specific amount and with certain legally permitted deductions.
Initiative, referendum, recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.
Jane Addams, Hull House
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
John Dewey, The School and Society
American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms.
John Spargo, The Bitter Cry of the Children
Journalist and novelist, he wrote of the unfair treatment of children used as child labor. Stressed better education, better schools and teachers. A muckraker novel.
Jones Act, 1916 (Phillipines)
Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
Jones Act, 1917 (Puerto Rico)
1917 - Puerto Ricans won U.S. citizenship and the right to elect their own upper house.
La Follette Seaman's Act
providing the merchant marine with rights similar to those gained by factory workers. This law had been prompted by the sinking of the Titanic in 1912, a disaster that had clearly illustrated the lack of planning and concern exhibited by the major shipping companies.
Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities
A muckraker novel concerning the poor living conditions in the cities.
Louis Brandeis, "Brandeis brief"
A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling.
Mann-Elkins Act, 1910
Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
Margaret Sanger
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
IWW, "Big Bill" Haywood
Haywood wanted his IWW to be "One Big Union" for the entire American working class to battle the Corporate Plutocrats of J.P. Morgan's Gilded Age. IWW organizers faced lynching or murder by company detectives. Strikers faced beatings, blacklists, and trumped-up prosecutions. Still, the IWW attracted some 300,000 members at its peak.
Mexican migration to the US
In the 1800's, Mexicans began moving north to work in agriculture. In the 1920's, they moved into the cities. Men outnumbered women. They faced racial discrimination from Whites.
"Muckrakers"
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
New lands Reclamation Act. 1902
Authorized the use of federal money to develop the west, it helped to protect national resources.
Northern Securities Co. case
The Supreme Court ordered this company to dissolve because it was a trust.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Supreme Court
A famous justice of the Supreme Court during the early 1900s. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the imposition of national regulations and standards, and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislation.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909
With the fear of foreign competition gone, it lowered rates to 38%. Democrats felt it did not go far enough and passed the Underwood Tariff in 1913 to further lower taxes.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
*Frederick Taylor, scientific management
Frederick Winslow Taylor is a controversial figure in management history. His innovations in industrial engineering, particularly in time and motion studies, paid off in dramatic improvements in productivity. At the same time, he has been credited with destroying the soul of work, of dehumanizing factories, making men into automatons. Published essays in 1911.
Regulatory commissions
Formed to set safety standards and to enforce fair practices of business competition for the sake of the U.S. public.
Richard Ely
He asserted that economic theory should reflect social conditions, and believed that the government should act to regulate the economy to prevent social injustice.
Robert M. La Follette
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
Roosevelt's Osawatomie, Kansas's speech
On August 31, 1910, Theodore Roosevelt delivered what was perhaps the most important speech ever given in Kansas. This speech, later called the "New Nationalism Address," evoked a wide variety of responses. It was labeled "Communistic," "Socialistic," and "Anarchistic" in various quarters.
*Scientific management, Taylor (description above)
1911 - Increased industrial output by rationalizing and refining the production process.
Secretary of State Knox
Developed dollar diplomacy with Taft, he encouraged and protected U.S. investment abroad.
Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan
Served as Secretary of State under Wilson from 1913-1915, he resigned in protest of U.S. involvement in WW I.
Square Deal
Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as president to safeguard the rights of the workers.
Taft-Roosevelt split
They split over ideology. Roosevelt believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while allowing "good" trusts to continue. Taft opposed all trusts. Roosevelt wanted more involvement in foreign affairs, and Taft was an isolationist. Roosevelt ran against Taft in 1912.
Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism
A system in which government authority would be balanced and coordinate economic activity. Government would regulate business.
Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class
An economist, he believed that society was always evolving, but not that the wealthiest members of society were the "fittest." Attacked the behavior of the wealthy. Muckraker novel.
Tom Johnson, Sam Jones, Whitlock, Pingree
Mayors for social reform, they wanted a reform of values over more legislation.
"trustbuster"
Nicknamed for Teddy Roosevelt, this is a federal official who seeks to dissolve monopolistic trusts through vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws.
Underwood-Simmons Tariff
October 13, 1913 - Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.
"watchful waiting"
Often said by President Monroe during the U.S.'s isolationism period, when the U.S. was trying to stay out of the affairs of other countries in order to avoid war.
William Howard Taft
27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President of the U.S. and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Overweight, he was the only president to get stuck in the White House bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him.
Wisconsin, "laboratory of democracy"
Wisconsin was called the "Laboratory of Democracy" because many of the reform ideas of the Progressive era came out of Wisconsin, specifically from Robert M. LaFollette.
Woodrow Wilson, New Freedom
He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom."
AEF
American Expeditionary Force was the first American ground troops to reach the European front. Commanded by Pershing, they began arriving in France in the summer of 1917.
Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty
One of the more controversial articles, it dealt with the legal liability of Germany vs. the moral liability.
Article X of the Versailles Treaty
Created the League of Nations
Bernard Baruch
Millionaire, he headed the War Industries Board after 1918.
Big Four: Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando
Leaders of the four most influential countries after World War I - U.S., Britain, France and Italy, respectively.
Black migration to Northern cities
During WWI, southern Blacks began to move north, where there were more jobs and less racism. The increased number of Blacks led to a White backlash and conditions like Southern racism.
Bond drives
Celebrities and government representatives traveled around the U.S. selling government bonds to raise money for the war effort. Extremely successful in raising funds.
British blockade
Declared a loose, ineffectual and hence illegal blockade, it defined a broad list of contraband which was not to be shipped to Germany by neutral countries.
Collective security
An Article 10 provision of the League charter, it stated that if one country was involved in a confrontation, other nations would support it. Collective security is agreements between countries for mutual defense and to discourage aggression.
Congressional elections of 1918
The 66th Congress, under President Wilson. He begged people to elect Democrats so that they could support his foreign policy initiatives in Congress, but the public rejected him. The senate had 47 Democrats and 49 Republicans and the House had 216 Democrats, 210 Republicans and 6 others.
Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.
Election of 1916: Hughes, Wilson, issues
The Democrats emphasized a program of domestic reform. Charles Evans Hughes left the Supreme Court to challenge Wilson, a democrat.
Election of 1920
Harding.
Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918
Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.
Eugene V. Debs imprisoned
Debs repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act.
Fourteen Points
Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.
Herbert Hoover, Food Administration
He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution.
"Irreconcilable": Borah, Johnson, La Follette
Some Senators would have been willing to support the League of Nations if certain reservations were made to the treaty. The "Irreconcilables" voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations.
League of Nations
Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
Lusitania, Arabic pledge, Sussex pledge
May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs, but the Lusitania had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.
"Make the world safe for democracy"
Wilson gave this as a reason for U.S. involvement in WWI.
Mandate system
A half-way system between outright imperial domination and independence, it was used to split Germany's empire after WW I.
New nations, self-determination
After WW I, Germany, Eastern Europe and the western portion of the former Russian Empire split into new countries. Wilson wanted them to have their own governments.
Red Scare, Palmer Raids
In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S., and Americans feared Communism. In January, 1920, Palmer raids in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. 4,000 "Communists" were jailed, some were deported.
Reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly led to a severe depression in Germany.
Selective service
1917 - Stated that all men between the ages of 20 and 45 had to be registered for possible military service. Used in case draft became necessary.
Senate rejection, (Senator Henry Cabot) Lodge, reservations
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
Strikes: 1919, coal, steel, police
In September, 1919, Boston police went on strike, then 350,000 steel workers went on strike. This badly damaged the unions.
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance for protection from the Triple Entente.
Triple Entente
Britain, France and Russia all had economic and territorial ambitions and they all disliked Germany, so they formed an alliance for protection.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
This was the German practice of attacking any and all shipping to countries it was at war with. It annoyed neutral countries.
Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
War declared, April 1917
U.S. declared war on Germany due to the Zimmerman telegram and the attack on the Lusitania.
War Industries Board
The most powerful agency of the war, it had to satisfy the allied needs for goods and direct American industries in what to produce.
Wartime manpower losses
WWI involved violent, modern weapons and old fighting styles. With so many men at war, nations needed other people to work in the factories and other wartime industries.
Zimmermann Note
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilize against Germany, which had proven it was hostile.
Abrams V. US
was a decision of the United States Supreme Court involving the Sedition Act of 1918, which made it a criminal offense to criticize the U.S. federal government. The Court ruled 7-2 that the Act did not violate civil rights under the First Amendment, with Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis Brandeis dissenting. The case was overturned during the Vietnam War era.
Bailey v. Drexel Furniture CO
As an exercise of its taxing powers Congress enacted the Revenue Act of 1919, also called the Child Labor Tax Law. Under the law, companies employing children less than fourteen years of age would be assessed ten percent of their annual profits. During the same year in which the act was passed, Drexel Furniture Company was found in violation of it and required to pay over $6000 in taxes, which it did under protest.
Civil Rights Cases, 1883
These state Supreme Court cases ruled that Constitutional amendments against discrimination applied only to the federal and state governments, not to individuals or private institutions. Thus the government could not order segregation, but restaurants, hotels, and railroads could. Gave legal sanction to Jim Crow laws.
Danbury Hatters' Case
Decided in 1908 by the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1902 the hatters' union instituted a nationwide boycott of the products of a nonunion hat manufacturer in Danbury, Conn., and the manufacturer brought suit against the union for unlawfully combining to restrain trade in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Supreme Court held that the union was subject to an injunction and liable for the payment of treble damages. This precedent for federal court interference with labor activities was later modified by statutes.
Hammer v. Dagenhart
The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act prohibited the interstate shipment of goods produced by child labor. Reuben Dagenhart's father had sued on behalf of his freedom to allow his fourteen year old son to work in a textile mill.
In Re Debs, 1895
The injunction had been issued because of the violent nature of the strike. However, Debs refused to end the strike and was subsequently cited for contempt of court; he appealed the decision to the courts.
Insular Cases, 1901, 1903, 1904
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
Legal Tender Cases 1870, 1871
affirmed the constitutionality of paper money. In the 1870 case of Hepburn v. Griswold, the Court had held that paper money violated the United States Constitution. The Legal Tender Cases reversed Hepburn, beginning with Knox v. Lee and Parker v. Davis in 1871,[1] and then Juilliard v. Greenman in 1884.[2]
Lochner v. New York
The state of New York enacted a statute forbidding bakers to work more than 60 hours a week or 10 hours a day.
Minor v. Happensett
1875 - Limited the right to vote to men.
Muller v. Oregon
Oregon enacted a law that limited women to ten hours of work in factories and laundries.
Northern Securities Case
The Supreme Court ordered this company to dissolve because it was a trust.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1886 - Plessy was a black man who had been instructed by the NAACP to refuse to ride in the train car reserved for blacks. The NAACP hoped to force a court decision on segregation. However, the Supreme Court ruled against Plessy and the NAACP, saying that segregated facilities for whites and blacks were legal as long as the facilities were of equal quality.
Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Co., 1895
1895 - The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which specifically allows taxation of income (ratified 1913).
Schenck v. US
During World War I, Schenck mailed circulars to draftees. The circulars suggested that the draft was a monstrous wrong motivated by the capitalist system. The circulars urged "Do not submit to intimidation" but advised only peaceful action such as petitioning to repeal the Conscription Act. Schenck was charged with conspiracy to violate the Espionage Act by attempting to cause insubordination in the military and to obstruct recruitment.
Slaughterhouse Cases
A series of post-Civil War Supreme Court cases containing the first judicial pronouncements on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. The Court held that these amendments had been adopted solely to protect the rights of freed blacks, and could not be extended to guarantee the civil rights of other citizens against deprivations of due process by state governments. These rulings were disapproved by later decisions.
Standard Oil v. US, US v. American Tobacco Co., US v. US Steel Corporation
- 1911 - Supreme Court allowed restrictions on competition through the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
-John D. Rockefeller owned the largest and richest trust in America. He controlled the nation's oil business and scorned congressional efforts to outlaw combinations in restraint of trade (i.e., antitrust). In 1909, a federal court found Rockefeller's company, Standard Oil, in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. The court ordered the dissolution of the company
Wabash, St.Louis & Pacific RR Co. v. Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey
1920's sports heros, Ruth set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and Dempsey was the heavyweight boxing champion.
Billy Sunday
Baseball player and preacher, his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.
Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows
Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.
Bureau of the Budget
Created in 1921, its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget, improving it and encouraging government efficiency.
Cecil B. De Mille
Motion picture producer and director, he was famous for Biblical films and epic movies.
Charles Lindbergh, Spirit of St. Louis
Lindbergh flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
Election of 1920: candidates and running mates, issues
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
Election of 1924: candidates, Progressives
With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive La Follette, the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive, allowing Coolidge to win.
Election of 1928: candidates
Herbert Hoover, the Republican, was a Quaker from Iowa, orphaned at 10, who worked his way through Stanford University. He expounded nationalism and old values of success through individual hard work. Alfred E. Smith, the Democrat, was a Catholic from New York, of immigration stock and advocated social reform programs.
Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms
He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WW I.
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
or Railroad Transportation Act, was a United States federal law that returned railroads to private operation after World War I, with much regulation.[1]It also officially encouraged private consolidation of railroads and mandated that the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) ensure their profitability.
F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
Most critics regard this as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.
Federal Farm Board
Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought, flood, or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
Fundamentalists
Broad movement in Protestantism in the U.S. which tried to preserve what it considered the basic ideas of Christianity against criticism by liberal theologies. It stressed the literal truths of the Bible and creation.
H.L. Mencken, The American Mercury
In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken's criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class.
Harding scandals: Forbes, Daugherty, Fall-Teapot Dome, Sinclair
- Forbes served time for fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts. He took millions of dollars from the Veteran's Bureau.
- Daugherty was implicated for accepting bribes.
- Fall leased government land to the oil companies (Teapot Dome Scandal) and was convicted of accepting a bribe.
-1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.
- He leased government land to the oil companies and was forced to resign due to the investigation. He was acquitted on the bribery charges.
Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes
Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems, stories, essays and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers, musicians, and intellectuals.
Henry Ford, Model T, Alfred P. Sloan
1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped found project.
Immigration Acts, 1921, 1924, quota
1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
James Weldon Johnson
American poet and part of the Harlem Renaissance, he was influenced by jazz music.
KDKA Pittsburgh
is a radio station licensed to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Created by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation on November 2, 1920, it is the world's first commercial radio station
KKK
White-supremacist group formed by six former Confederate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.
Leopold and Loeb case
Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were convicted of killing a young boy, Bobby Franks, in Chicago just to see if they could get away with it. Defended by Clarence Darrow, they got life imprisonment. Both geniuses, they had decided to commit the perfect murder. The first use of the insanity defense in court.
Marcus Garvey, Universal Negro Improvement Association
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and financial independence for Blacks, he started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.
McNary-Haugen Bill, vetoes
The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. The government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoes twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.
New woman, flappers
1920's - Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.
Normalcy
Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WW I.
Prohibition, Volstead Act, Al Capone
Prohibition - 1919: the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. Volstead Act - 1919: Defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors" under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition. Al Capone: In Chicago, he was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime of the era.
Rudolph Valentino, Charlie Chaplin
Valentino, a romantic leading man, was one of the most popular dramatic stars of silent films. Chaplin was a popular star of silent slap-stick comedies.
Sacco and Venzetti case
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.
Scopes trial, Darrow, Bryan
1925 - Prosecution of Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of the Butler Act, a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, prosecuted the case, and the famous criminal attorney, Clarence Darrow, defended Scopes. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
Secretary of Treasury Mellon, tax cuts
An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.
Senator George Norris
He served in Congress for 40 years and is often called the Father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, a series of dams and power plants designed to bring electricity to some of the poorest areas of the U.S., like Appalachia.
Sigmund Freud's theories
Sigmund Freud's work and theories helped shape our views of childhood, personality, memory, sexuality and therapy.
Sinclair Lewis, Main Street, Babbit
He gained international fame for his novels attacking the weakness in American society. The first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature, Main Street (1920) was a satire on the dullness and lack of culture in a typical American town. Babbit (1922) focuses on a typical small business person's futile attempts to break loose from the confinements in the life of an American citizen.
T.S.Elliot, The Waste Land
One of the most influential poets of the early 20th century, he had been born in St. Louis, Missouri, but moved to England after college and spent his adult life in Europe. The poem, written in 1922, contrasts the spiritual bankruptcy of modern Europe with the values and unity of the past. Displayed profound despair. Considered the foundation of modernist, 20th century poetry.
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer, Al Jolson.
"the Lost Generation"
Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. Hemingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the U.S. was materialistic and the criticized conformity.
Theodore Dreiser, An American Tragedy
Foremost American writer in the Naturalism movement, this book, written in 1925, criticized repressive, hypocritical society. It tells about a weak young man trying unsuccessfully to rise out of poverty into upper class society who is executed for the murder of his pregnant girlfriend.
5-5-3-1.75-1.75 ratio
These ratios were conceived on Dec 14, 1920 at the Washington Arms Conference. The numbers are the allowed amount of tonnage for each nations' supply of battleships. The ideal tonnage ratio for the countries were 5-US, 5-GB, 3-Japan, 1.75-France, 1.75 Italy.
Dawes Plan
Post-WW I depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924, U.S. Vice President Charles Dawes formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modified in 1929 by U.S. financier Owen Young.
Four-Power Treaty
all parties agreement to maintain the status quo in the Pacific, by respecting the Pacific holdings of the other countries signing the agreement, not seeking further territorial expansion, and mutual consultation with each other in the event of a dispute over territorial possessions. However, the main result of the Four-Power Treaty was the termination of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902.
Kellogg-Briand Treaty
"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Twenty-one demands
were a set of demands made by the Empire of Japan underPrime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu sent to the nominal government of the Republic of China on January 18, 1915, resulting in two treaties with Japan on May 25, 1915.
Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
Washington Disarmament Conference
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.
World Court
The judicial arm of the League of Nations, supported by several presidents.
Bonus Army
1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.
Causes of the Depression
Much debt, stock prices spiraling up, over-production and under-consuming - the stock market crashed. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures, which spread to the U.S.
Election of 1932: candidates, issues
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection. FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922
Pushed by Congress in 1922, it raised tariff rates.
Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor." The phrase came to be used to describe the U.S. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy," the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of the international depression.
"Hooverville"
Name given to the makeshift shanty towns built in vacant lots during the Depression.
Hoover Moratorium
June 30, 1931 - Acting on President Hoover's advice, the Allies suspended Germany's reparation payments for one year.
Mexico's nationalization of oil
1938 - Mexico nationalized oil fields along the Gulf of Mexico which had been owned by investors from the U.S., Britain, and the Netherlands because the companies refused to raise the wages of their Mexican employees.
Norris-La Guardia Act
Liberal Republicans, Feorelo LaGuardia and George Norris cosponsored the Norris-LaGuardia Federal Anti-Injunction Act, which protected the rights of striking workers, by severely restricting the federal courts' power to issue injunctions against strikes and other union activities.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, RFC
Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II.
12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
21st Amendment
Passed February, 1933 to repeal the 18th Amendment (Prohibition). Congress legalized light beer. Took effect December, 1933. Based on recommendation of the Wickersham Commission that Prohibition had lead to a vast increase in crime.
AAA, 2nd AAA
1933 - The AAA offered contracts to farmers to reduce their output of designated products. It paid farmers for processing taxes on these products, and made loans to farmers who stored crops on their farms. The Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
"bank holiday"
March 11, 1933 - Roosevelt closed all banks and forbade the export of gold or redemption of currency in gold.
Brain Trust
Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet.
CCC
Created in April 1933. Within 4 months, 1300 CCC camps were in operation and 300,000 men between ages 18 and 25 worked for the reconstruction of cities. More than 2.5 million men lived and/or worked in CCC camps.
FERA
Appropriated $500 million for aid to the poor to be distributed by state and local government. Harry Hopkins was the leader of FERA.
CWA
Hired unemployed workers to do make-shift jobs like sweeping streets. Sent men ages 18-24 to camps to work on flood control, soil conservation, and forest projects under the War Department. A small monthly payment was made to the family of each member.
PWA, Harold Ickes
Under Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, the PWA distributed $3.3 billion to state and local governments for building schools, highways, hospitals, ect.
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes
Began to vote with the more liberal members in the liberal-dominated Supreme Court. In June a conservative justice retired and Roosevelt had an opportunity to make an appointment, shifting the Court's stance to support of New Deal legislation.
CIO, John L. Lewis
Originally formed by leaders within the AFL who wanted to expand its principles to include workers in mass production industries. In 1935, they created coalition of the 8 unions comprising the AFL and the United Mine Workers of America, led by John L. Lewis. After a split within the organization in 1938, the CIO was established as a separate entity.
Coalition of Democratic Party
Union took an active role providing campaign funds and votes. Blacks had traditionally been Republican but 3/4 had shifted to the Democratic party. Roosevelt still received strong support from ethnic whites in big cities and Midwestern farmers.
"Conservative coalition" in Congress
1938 - Coalition of conservative Democrats and Republicans who united to curb further New Deal legislators. Motivated by fears of excessive federal spending and the expansion of federal power.
"Court packing" proposal
Because the Supreme Court was striking down New Deal legislation, Roosevelt decided to curb the power of the Court by proposing a bill to allow the president to name a new federal judge for each who did not retire by age 70 and 1/2. At the time, 6 justices were over the age limit. Would have increased the number of justices from 9 to 15, giving FDR a majority of his own appointees on the court. The court-packing bill was not passed by Congress.
Deficit spending
FDR's admnistration was based on this concept. It involved stimulating consumer buying power, business enterprise, and ultimately employment by pouring billions of dollars of federal money into the economy even if the government didn't have the funds, and had to borrow money.
Dr. Francis Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
Dust bowl, Okies, Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
1939 - Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath was about "Okies" from Oklahoma migrating from the Dust Bowl to California in the midst of the Depression.
Eleanor Roosevelt
A strong first lady who supported civil rights.
Election of 1936: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Rebublican - Governor Alfred Landon, Union Party - William Lemke
Issues were the New Deal (which Landon criticized as unconstitutional laws), a balanced budget, and low taxes. Roosevelt carried all states but Maine and Vermont.
Emergency Banking Relief Act
March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks.
Fair labor Standards Act: maximum hours and minimum wage
June 1938 - Set maximum hours at 40 hours a week and minimum wage at 20 cents an hour (gradually rose to 40 cents).
Father Charles Coughlin
Headed the National Union for Social Justice. Began as a religious radio broadcaster, but turned to politics and finance and attracted an audiance of millions from many faiths. Promoted inflationary currency, anti-Semitism.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
A federal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking Reform Act of 1933.
Federal Housing Authority
1934 - Created by Congress to insure long-term, low-interest mortgages for home construction and repair.
Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor
The nation's first woman cabinet member.
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insures the accounts of depositors of its member banks. It outlawed banks investing in the stock market.
Gold Clause
It voided any clause in past or future contracts requiring payment in gold. It was enacted to help enforce 1933 legislation discontinuing the gold standard and outlawing circulation of gold coin.
Hatch Act
1939 - Prohibited federal office holders from participating actively in political campaigns or soliciting or accepting contributions.
Home Owner's Loan Corporation (HOLC)
in 1933 by the Home Owners' Loan Corporation Act under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Its purpose was to refinance home mortgages currently in default to prevent foreclosure. This was accomplished by selling bonds to lenders in exchange for the home mortgages.
Huey Long, Share the Wealth, Gerald L.K. Smith
The Share the Wealth society was founded in 1934 by Senator Huey Long of Louisiana. He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935 and his successor Gerald K. Smith lacked the ability to be a strong head of the society.
Hundred Days
March 9, 1933 - At Roosevelt's request, Congress began a special session to review recovery and reform laws submitted by the President for Congressional approval. It actually lasted only 99 days.
Indian Reorganization Act
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Keynesian economics
The British economist John Maynard Keynes believed that the government could pull the economy out of a depression by increasing government spending, thus creating jobs and increasing consumer buying power.
Liberty League
Formed in 1934 by conservatives to defend business interests and promote the open shop.
Literary Digest Poll
1936- An inaccurate poll taken on upcoming the presidential election. It over-represented the wealthy and thus erroneously predicted a Republican victory.
Miller-Tyding Poll/Act
1937 - Amended anti-trust laws to allow agreements to resell products at fixed retail prices in situations involving sales of trademarked good to a company's retail dealers.
Monetary policy, fiscal policy
In monetary policy, government manipulates the nation's money supply to control inflation and depression. In fiscal policy, the government uses taxing and spending programs (including deficit spending) to control inflation and depression.
National Labor Relations Board
Created to insure fairness in labor-management relations and the mediate employers' disputes with unions.
National Youth Administration
June 1935 - Established as part of the WPA to provide part-time jobs for high school and college students to enable them to stay in school and to help young adults not in school find jobs.
NIRA
The chief measure to promote recovery was the NIRA. It set up the National Industrial Recovery Administration and set prices, wages, work hours, and production for each industry. Based on theory that regulation of the economy would allow industries to return to full production, thereby leading to full employment and a return of prosperity.
NRA
As part of the New Deal in the United States, the National Recovery Administration developed by Roosevelt and his Administration pushed industries to make codes and rules for "fair competition". It gave more rights to workers and employees, and assisted industries as well as poor unemployed people of the early 1930s. The NRA established minimum wages and maximum labor hours.
The NRA was declared unconstitutional in 1935 by the US Supreme Court on the grounds that its codes were an illegal delegation of authority and invaded areas reserved for states.
"The Blue Eagle", Hugh Johnson
-The NRA Blue Eagle was a symbol Hugh Johnson devised to generate enthusiasm for the NRA codes. Employers who accepted the provisions of NRA could display it in their windows. The symbol showed up everywhere, along with the NRA slogan "We Do Our Part."
-Director of the NRA.
Recognition of the USSR
November 1933 - In an effort to open trade with Russia, mutual recognition was negotiated. The financial results were disappointing.
"Relief, recovery, reform"
The first step in FDR's relief program was to establish the Civilian Conservation Corps in April, 1933. The chief measure designed to promote recovery was the National Industrial Recovery Act. The New Deal acts most often classified as reform measures were those designed to guarantee the rights of labor and limit the powers of businesses.
Revenue Act, 1935
1935 - Increased income taxes on higher incomes and also increased inheritance, large gft, and capital gains taxes.
Robinson-Patman Act
1937 - Amended federal anti-trust laws so as to outlaw "price discrimination," whereby companies create a monopolistic network of related suppliers and vendors who give each other more favorable prices than they do others.
Rural Electrification Administration
May 1936 - Created to provide loans and WPA labor to electric cooperatives to build lines into rural areas not served by private companies.
Second New Deal
Some thought the first New Deal (legislation passed in 1933) did too much and created a big deficit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping the Depression, which led F. D. R. to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935, referred to the Second New Deal.
Section 7a of the NRA
Provided that workers had the right to join unions and to bargain collectively.
Securities and Exchange Commission
1934 - Created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in securities trading.
Sit down strikes
The strikers occupied the workplace to prevent any production.
Social Security Act
One of the most important features of the Second New Deal established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and employer.
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
1936 - The second AAA appropriated funds for soil conservation paymnets to farmers who would remove land from production.
TVA, Senator Norris
A public corporation headed by a 3-member board. The TVA built 20 dams, conducted demonstration projects for farmers, and engaged in reforestation to rehabilitate the area.
Wagner Act
May 1935 - Replaced Section 7A of the NIRA. It reaffirmed labor's right to unionize, prohibited unfair labor practices, and created the National Labor Relations Board.
Wickersham Commission
National Law Enforcement Commission, so named after its chair, George Wickersham, it was a national commission on law observance and enforcement created by Hoover in 1929. Its 1930 report recommended the repeal of Prohibition.
WPA, Harry Hopkins, Federal Arts Project
The WPA started in May 1935 and was headed by Harold Hopkins. It employed people for 30 hours a week (so it could hire all the unemployed). The Federal Arts Project had unemployed artists painting murals in public buildings; actors, musicians, and dancers performing in poor neighborhood; and writers compiling guide books and local histories.
NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp.
April 1937 - Supreme Court upheld the Wagner Act, ensuring the right to unionize, in a 5 to 4 decision. This decision signaled a change in the Court's attitude towards support of the New Deal and lead FDR to abandon his court-packing plan.
Schechter Poultry Corp v. US
May, 1935 - The U.S. Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. It held that Congress had improperly delegated legislative authority to the National Industrial Recovery Administration and that the federal government had exceeded its jurisdiction because Schechter was not engaged in interstate commerce.
US v. Butler (Butler Case)
1936 - Declared AAA unconstitutional because it involved Congress levying a tax against the general welfare.
Atlantic Charter
August 1941 - Drawn up by FDR and Churchill with eight main principles:
• Renunciation of territorial aggression
• No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned
• Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government
• Access to raw material for all nations
• World economic cooperation
• Freedom from fear and want
• Freedom of the seas
Disarmament of aggressors
America First Committee
1940 - Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U.S. going to war.
Atomic bomb
A bomb that uses the fission of radioactive elements such as uranium or plutonium to create explosions equal to the force of thousands of pounds of regular explosives.
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
Bond drives
Campaigns to get people to but government war bonds to finance the war, people traveled around America selling them and it was extremely successful in raising funds.
Buenos Aires Conference
1936 - The U.S. agreed to submit all disputes from the Americas to arbitration.
Cairo Conference
November, 1943 - A meeting of Allied leaders Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek in Egypt to define the Allies goals with respect to the war against Japan, they announced their intention to seek Japan's unconditional surrender and to strip Japan of all territory it had gained since WW I.
Casablanca Conference
Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Churchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the form of supplies and money to the Allies, who would fight the war for us.
D-Day June 6, 1944
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Declaration of Panama
1939 - Latin American governments drew a security line around the Western hemisphere and warned away foreign aggressors.
Destroyer deal
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
Ethiopia
- Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.
- Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943. Wanted to recreate the Roman Empire.
Invasion of Poland, Blitzkrieg
September, 1939 - Germany used series of "lightning campaigns" to conquer Poland. The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
Isolationism, Charles Lindbergh
Lindbergh, known for making the first solo flight across the Atlantic, became politically controversial because he was an isolationist and pro-Germany.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Physics professor at U.C. Berkeley and CalTech, he headed the U.S. atomic bomb project in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He later served on the Atomic Energy Commission, although removed for a time the late 1950's, over suspicion he was a Communist sympathizer.
Japanese relocation
The bombing of Pearl Harbor created widespread fear that the Japanese livings in the U.S. were actually spies. FDR issued executive order 9066, which moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the U.S. into internment camps in the interior of the U.S.
Jones Act
-1916-Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
-1917- Puerto Ricans won U.S. citizenship and the right to elect their own upper house.
"lend lease"
March 1941 - Authorized the president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment to any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U.S. Allowed the U.S. to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies without technically becoming a co-belligerent.
Lima conference
1938 - Last of the Pan-American conferences held before the outbreak of World War II. Issued the Declaration of Lima asserting the unity of the Latin American nations and their determination to resist all forms of foreign aggression.
Manhattan Project
A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
"merchants of death"
It is a liberal isolationists' term for companies, which manufactured armaments. They felt that the companies were undermining national interests by assisting aggressor nations.
Montevideo Conference
The first of several Pan-America conferences held during the period between World War I and World War II concerning mutual defense and corporate between the countries of Latin America. The U.S. renounced the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries.
Nye Committee
Gerald Nye of North Dakota believed that the U.S. should stay out of foreign wars.
Okinawa
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
Panay incident
1937 - On the Yangtze River in China, Japanese aircraft sank an American gunboat escorting tankers. The U.S. accepted Japan's apologies.
Pearl Harbor
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
"Quarantine speech"
1937 - In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist aggression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine aggressor nations.
Rio de Janeiro Conference
1933 - Delegation of 21 Latin American leaders, including Summer Will and Aswalina Avanna. Led to the break in diplomatic relations between the U.S. and the Latin American powers.
Smith Act
Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
Stalingrad
Site of critical World War II Soviet victory that reversed Germany's advance to the East. In late 1942, Russian forces surrounded the Germans, and on Feb. 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered. First major defeat for the Germans in World War II.
Teheran Conference
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
Tojo (Hideki)
Prime Minister of Japan (1941-1944) and leading advocate of Japanese military conquest during World War II.
"unconditional surrender"
It means the victor decides all the conditions the loser must agree to. The Allies wanted Germany and Japan to agree to unconditional surrender.
War Labor Board
Acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.
War Production Board
Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output tripled.
Winston Churchill
Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II.
Alliance for Progress
1961 - Formed by John F. Kennedy to build up Third World nations to the point where they could manage their own affairs.
Atomic Energy Commission
Created in 1946 to oversee the research and production of atomic power.
Bay of Pigs
1961 - 1400 American-trained Cuban expatriates left from Nicaragua to try to topple Castro's regime, landing at the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba. They had expected a popular uprising to sweep them to victory, but the local populace refused to support them. When promised U.S. air cover also failed to materialize, the invaders were easily killed or captured by the Cuban forces. Many of the survivors were ransomed back to the U.S. for $64 million. President Kennedy had directed the operation.
Berlin blockade
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under France, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
Bricker Amendment
Proposal that international agreements negotiated by the executive branch would become law if and only if they were approved by Congress and didn't conflict with state laws. Isolationist measure didn't pass.
Brinkmanship
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
Castro-revolution
1959 - A band of insurgents led by Fidel Castro succeeded in overthrowing the corrupt government of Juan Baptista, and Cuba became Communist.
Charles de Gaulle
He formed the French resistance movement in London immediately after the French surrender at Vichy. He was elected President of the Free French government in exile during the war and he was the first provisional president of France after its liberation.
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang and the nationalists were forced to flee to Formosa, a large island off the southern coast of China, after the Communist victory in the civil war. Throughout the 1950's, the U.S. continued to recognize and support Chiang's government in Formosa as the legitimate government of China, and to ignore the existence of the Communist People's Republic on the mainland.
Common Market
Popular name for the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries of Western Europe and to lower tariffs on trade between its members.
Containment, George F. Kennan
A member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.
Cuban missile crisis
October 14-28, 1962 - After discovering that the Russians were building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, the U.S. announced a quarantine of Cuba, which was really a blockade, but couldn't be called that since blockades are a violation of international law. After 6 days of confrontation that led to the brink of nuclear war, Khrushchev backed down and agreed to dismantle the launch sites.
Czechoslovakian coup
1948 - Czechoslovakia succumbed to Soviet subversion. Although moderates and Communists shared power after WWII, in 1947-1948, fearing a loss of popular support, the Communists seized control of the government and the moderates gave in to avoid civil war.
Department of Defense created
Headed by McNamara, it succeeded in bringing the armed services under tight civilian control.
Dien Bien Phu
France had exercised colonial control of Indochina until WWII. After Japan's defeat in 1945, the Viet Minh seized Hanoi and declared the North an independent republic. War with France broke out in 1946. In the Spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. Lead to the withdrawal of France from Indochina.
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
In a meeting near Washington, D.C., held from August 21 to October 7, 1944, U.S., Great Britain, U.S.S.R. and China met to draft the constitution of the United Nations.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
Fall of China, Mao Zedong
Mao Tse-Tung led the Communists in China. Because of the failure to form a coalition government between Chiang Kai-Shek and the Communists, civil war broke out in China after WWII. The Communists won in 1949, but the new government was not recognized by much of the world, including the U.S.
Gandhi
Great revolutionary who led India to independence from Great Britain through passive resistance and civil disobedience based upon Henry David Thoreau's doctrines.
Hungarian revolt
1956 - Hungary tried to overthrow the Communist government, partly encouraged by the U.S. The rebellion was quickly crushed.
ICBM
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for ICBM's in Cuba.
Israel created
1948 - In 1947 the UN General Assembly had approved the creation of a Jewish homeland by ending the British mandate in Palestine and partitioning it into two states: one Jewish and one Arab. On May 14, 1948, the Jews proclaimed the State of Israel, and all of the surrounding Arab nations declared war and invaded. After a short war, the Israelis gained control of the country.
John Foster Dulles
As Secretary of State. He viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.
Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
Korean War, limited war
After WWII, Korea had been partitioned along the 38th parallel into a northern zone governed by the Soviet Union, and a southern zone controlled by the U.S. In 1950, after the Russians had withdrawn, leaving a communist government in the North, the North invaded the South. The U.N. raised an international army led by the U.S. to stop the North. It was the first use of U.N. military forces to enforce international peace. Called a limited war, because the fighting was to be confined solely to the Korean peninsula, rather than the countries involved on each side attacking one another directly.
Marshall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
"massive retaliation"
In the 1950's after Stalin died, Dulles and Eisenhower warned the Soviets that if aggression was undertaken, the U.S. would retaliate with its full nuclear arsenal against the Soviet Union itself. However, the U.S. would not start conflicts.
Nasser, Suez Canal Crisis
Egypt's dictator, Abdul Gamal Nasser, a former army officer who had led the coup that overthrew King Farouk, nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, and was attacked by British, French and Israeli forces. The U.S. intervened on behalf of Egypt. Damaged Britain and France's standing as world powers.
NATO
Chartered April, 1949. The 11 member nations agreed to fight for each other if attacked. It is an international military force for enforcing its charter.
Warsaw Pact
To counter the NATO buildup, the Soviets formed this military organization with the nations of Eastern Europe. Also gave Russia an excuse for garrisoning troops in these countries.
Organization of American States (OAS)
Founded in 1948 by 21 nations at the Ninth Pa-American Conference, now consists of 32 nations of Central and South America and the U.S. Settled disputes between its members and discouraged foreign intervention in American disputes.
Partitioning of Korea, Vietnam, Germany
The U.S. played a role in dividing these countries into sections, each of which would be ruled by different authority figures and managed by one of the Allied powers.
Peaceful coexistence
Khrushchev's proposal that the U.S. and U.S.S.R. could compromise and learn to live with each other.
Point Four
Program proposed by Truman to help the world's backwards areas.
Potsdam Conference
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
Preemptive strike
The doctrine of attacking an enemy force before they can attack you.
Quemoy, Matsu (Formosa)
Small islands off the coast of China occupied by the nationalists and claimed by the People's Republic. Late in 1954, the U.S. hinted at defending them because they were considered vital to the defense of Formosa, even though they were not expressly covered by the mutual defense treaty.
San Francisco Conference, UN Charter
1945 - This conference expanded the drafts of the Yalta and Dumbarton Oaks conferences and adopted the United Nations Charter.
Satellites
Eastern European countries conquered by the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
SEATO
September, 1954 - Alliance of non-Communist Asian nations modeled after NATO. Unlike NATO, it didn't establish a military force.
Hitler, Hiroshima, Nagasaki
German fascist dictator. Leader of the National Socialist Workers Party, or Nazis. Elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he quickly established himself as an absolute dictator.
First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945.
Truman Doctrine
1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
Truman-MacArthur conflict
Truman removed MacArthur from command in Korea as punishment for MacArthur's public criticism of the U.S. government's handling of the war. Intended to confirm the American tradition of civilian control over the military, but Truman's decision was widely criticized.
U-2 incident
The U-2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane, but was forced to admit it when the U.S.S.R produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to corroborate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who had led the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, educated in Moscow, and was an ardent Communist. Became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.
Winston Churchill, "Iron Curtain" Speech
Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II.
Yalta Conference
February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.
1948 election: candidates, issues
Democrat - Harry Truman
Republican - John Dewey
States' Rights Democrat (Dixiecrat) - Strom Thurmond
Progressive - Henry Wallace
The Democratic party was torn apart by the dispute between the liberal civil rights platform of the majority and the conservative, states' rights views of the southern membership, and the Progressive party pulled away liberal votes as well. Although everyone expected Dewey to win, Truman managed a surprise victory.
1952 election: candidates, issues
Republicans - Eisenhower/Nixon, Democrats - Adlai Stevenson
Issues were conservatism and containment of Communism. Republicans won by a landslide.
22nd Amendment
Proposed in 1947 and ratified in 1951. It limited the number of terms that a president may serve to two. Was brought on by FDR's 4-term presidency.
AFL-CIO merger
In 1955 at a New York City Convention, these two once-rival organizations decided to put aside their differences and unite. Had a total membership of over 15 million.
Alaska, Hawaii
McKinley had purchased Alaska in 1867 for nine cents an acre and it was admitted to the Union in 1959. Alaska had great natural resources, including gold and oil reserves. Hawaii became the 50th state in 1959.
Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Baby boom
30 million war babies were born between 1942 and 1950.
Dixiecrats, J Strom Thurmond
Southern Democrats disgruntled over the strong civil rights proposals of the Democrats' 1948 National Convention. Formed the States' Rights Democratic Party and nominated Thurmond (governor of South Carolina) for president.
Fair Deal
Truman's policy agenda -- he raised the minimum wage from 65 to 75 cents an hour, expanded Social Security benefits to cover 10 million more people, and provided government funding for 100,000 low-income public housing units and for urban renewal.
G.I. Bill of Rights
1944 - Servicemen's Readjustment Act, also called the G.I. Bill of Rights. Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society after demobilization.
House of Un-American Activities Committee
Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry.
Ike and Modern Republicans
Conservative about federal spending, liberal about personal freedoms. Believed in a balanced budget and lower taxes, but not in getting rid of existing social and economic legislation.
Interstate Highway Act
1944 - Began federal funding for an interstate highway system.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Landrum-Griffin Act
1959 - Specially tailored to make labor officials responsible for the union's financial affairs, to prevent bully-boy tactics, ensure democratic voting practices within unions, outlaw secondary boycotts, and restrict picketing.
McCarran Internal Security Act
1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. It was a response to the onset of the Korean War.
McCarran-Walter Immigration Act
1952 - Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, it kept limited immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas for persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to the U.S. People suspected of being Communists could be refused entry or deported.
McCarthyism, Senator Joseph McCarthy
Wisconsin Senator who began sensational campaign in February, 1950 by asserting that the U.S. State Department had been infiltrated by Communists. In 1953 became Chair of the Senate Sub- Committee on Investigations and accused the Army of covering up foreign espionage. The Army-McCarthy Hearings made McCarthy look so foolish that further investigations were halted.
"military-industrial complex"
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
Revenue Act of 1942
Effort to increase tax revenues to cover the cost of WWII by adding additional graduated steps to the income tax and lowering the threshold at which lower income earners began to pay tax.
"right-to-work" laws
State laws that provide that unions cannot impose a requirement that workers join the union as a condition of their employment.
Sen. Robert A. Taft
A key Republican leader in the Senate and a supporter of Joseph McCarthy.
Sputnik
October, 1957 - The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.
Taft-Hartley Act
1947 - Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with New Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.
A. Philip Randolph
President of the Brotherhood of Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination.
Civil Rights Act, 1957
Created by the U.S. Commission of Civil Rights and the Civil Rights division of the Justice Department.
Civil Rights Act, 1960
It gave the Federal Courts the power to register Black voters and provided for voting referees who served wherever there was racial discrimination in voting, making sure Whites did not try to stop Blacks from voting.
Desegregation of the armed forces
In July, Truman issued an executive order establishing a policy of racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into effect as rapidly as possible." He also created a committee to ensure its implementation.
Detroit race riots
June 25, 1943 - Outright racial war broke out between Blacks and Whites and the government did not send help.
Fair Employment Practices Committee
Enacted by executive order 8802 on June 25, 1941 prohibit discrimination in armed forces.
Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma
He wrote this to increase White awareness of the awful discrimination against Blacks.
Korean War
At the end of WW II, Korea had been divided into a northern sector occupied by the U.S.S.R. and a southern sector occupied by the U.S. who instituted a democratic government. On June 25, 1950, the North invaded the South. The United Nations created an international army, lead by the U.S. to fight for the South and China joined the war on the side of North Korea. This was the first time the United Nations had intervened militarily.
Literacy tests, grandfather clause, poll taxes
Literacy tests: Voters had to prove basic literacy to be entitled to vote. Because of poor schools, Blacks were often prevented from voting. Grandfather clause: Said that a person could vote only if their grandfather had been registered to vote, which disqualified Blacks whose grandparents had been slaves. Poll taxes and White primaries were other methods used to keep Blacks from voting.
White primaries
A method of electoral discrimination against African-American, Latino, and other minority voters widely used in the South until the U.S. Supreme Court intervened in the early 1940s. States and party organizations previously had great leeway to set their own rules regarding participation in primary elections which nominate party candidates. In the South which was overwhelmingly Democratic, victory in the primary was tantamount to winning the election. To preclude minority political participation, segregationist authorities imposed a variety of discriminatory rules on voters such as limiting voting in primary elections to whites only.
Little Rock, Arkansas crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
Reverend Martin Luther King Jr.
An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, he earned a Ph.D. at Boston University. The leader of the Civil Rights Movement and President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, he was assassinated outside his hotel room.
Rosa Parks, Montgomery bus boycotts
December, 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, she refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
"separate but equal"
In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate but supposedly equal facilities for Blacks and Whites were legal.
Thurgood Marshall
In 1967, appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal defense fund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.
Brown v. Board of education of Topeka
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Dennis vs. US
In 1948, the Attorney General indicted two key Communist leaders for violation of the Smith Act of 1940 which prohibited conspiring to teach violent overthrow of the government. They were convicted in a 6-2 decision and their appeal was rejected.
Korematsu v. US
Upheld the U.S. government's decision to put Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II.
Smith v. Allwright
Outlawed White primaries held by the Democratic Party, in violation of the 15th Amendment.
Sweatt vs. Painter
Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment.
Adam Clayton Powell
Flamboyant Congressman from Harlem and chairman of the House and Labor Committee, he was elected to the House of Representatives in 1968, but removed from office for alleged misuse of funds.
Angela Davis
Black Communist college professor affiliated with the Black Panthers, she was accused of having been involved in a murderous jail-break attempt by that organization.
Black Muslims
Common name for the Nation of Islam, a religion that encouraged separatism from White society. They claimed the "White Devil" was the chief source of evil in the world.
Black Panthers
Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.
Black power
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Public Accommodations Section
This portion of the Act stated that public accommodations could not be segregated and that nobody could be denied access to public accommodation on the basis of race.
Civil Rights Act, 1968
Attempted to provide Blacks with equal-opportunity housing.
CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)
1941-42 - Interracial until 1962, when it became predominately Black, after 1964, only Blacks were allowed to join. It concentrated on organizing votes for Black candidates and political causes, successful even in states like Mississippi and Alabama.
De facto, de jure segregation
De Facto means "it is that way because it just is," and De Jure means that there are rules and laws behind it. In 1965, President Johnson said that getting rid of De Jure segregation was not enough.
H. Rap Brown
A proponent of Black Power, he succeeded Stokely Carmichael as head of SNCC. He was indicted by inciting riot and for arson.
"I have a dream" speech
Given August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Kerner Commission of Civil Disorders
In 1968, this commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the formation of two different American cultures: inner-city Blacks and suburban Whites.
Malcolm X
Malcolm X was an influential black leader who called for unity between blacks to combat oppressive forces in the United States. He was a part of the Nation of Islam, but broke with them to form a black nationalist group, the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU). He advocated Black Power.
March of Washington, 1963
August - 200,000 demonstrators converged on the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. King's speech and to celebrate Kennedy's support for the civil rights movement.
Medgar Evers
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks; he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
Montgomery bus boycott
December, 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
NAACP
Founded in 1909 to improve living conditions for inner city Blacks, evolved into a national organization dedicated to establishing equal legal rights for Blacks.
SCLC
Headed by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., a coalition of churches and Christians organizations who met to discuss civil rights.
SNCC
Organized in the fall of 1960 by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and to register to vote.
Sit-ins, freedom riders
Late 1950's, early 1960's, these were nonviolent demonstrations and marches that challenged segregation laws, often braving attacks by angry White mobs.
Stokely Carmichael
In 1966, as chair of SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration.
Thurgood Marshall
In 1967, appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal defense fund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.
24th Amendment
1964 - It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
Urban League
Helping Blacks to find jobs and homes, it was founded in 1966 and was a social service agency providing facts about discrimination.
Voting Rights Act, 1965
Passed by Congress in 1965, it allowed for supervisors to register Blacks to vote in places where they had not been allowed to vote before.
Watts, Detroit race riots
Watts: August, 1965, the riot began due to the arrest of a Black by a White and resulted in 34 dead, 800 injured, 3500 arrested and $140,000,000 in damages.
Detroit: July, 1967, the army was called in to restore order in race riots that resulted in 43 dead and $200,000,000 in damages.
White backlash
Resistance to Black demands led by "law and order" advocates whose real purpose was to oppose integration.
Bombing of Laos and Cambodia
March, 1969 - U.S. bombed North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia and Laos. Technically illegal because Cambodia and Laos were neutral, but done because North Vietnam was itself illegally moving its troops through those areas. Not learned by the American public until July, 1973.
Daniel Ellsberg, Pentagon Papers
Papers were part of a top-secret government study on the Vietnam War and said that the U.S. government had lied to the citizens of the U.S. and the world about its intentions in Vietnam.
Demilitarized zone
An area that both militaries are required to stay out in order to create a buffer between nations. In Vietnam, a five mile wide DMZ was established between the North and South along the 17th parallel.
Domino theory
1957 - It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect.
Geneva Conference, 1954
French wanted out of Vietnam, the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
August, 1964 - After the U.S. Navy ship Maddux reportedly was fired on, the U.S. Congress passed this resolution which gave the president power to send troops to Vietnam to protect against further North Vietnamese aggression.
Hanoi, Haiphong
The Declaration of Independence by the Vietnamese was proclaimed in Hanoi on September 2, 1945. Haiphong is Hanoi's harbor.
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who had led the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, was an ardent Communist, and became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.
Kent State and Jackson State incident
Kent State: May 4, 1970 - National Guardsmen opened fire on a group of students protesting the Vietnam War.
Jackson State: Police opened fire in a dormitory.
My Lai, Lt. Calley
March, 1968 - An American unit destroyed the village of My Lai, killing many women and children. The incident was not revealed to the public until 20 months later. Lt. Calley, who led the patrol, was convicted of murder and sentenced to 10 years for killing 20 people.
National Liberation Front, NLF
Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.
Paris Accords
In 1973, after Lyndon Johnson died of a heart attack, Nixon declared that a peace had been reached in Vietnam. The Paris Accords ended the war between the North Vietnamese government and Thieu government of South Vietnam. It was also agreed that the future of North Vietnam would not be determined by war.
Senator Fulbright
Anti-Vietnam War Senator from Arkansas, he was head of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. In 1966 and 1967, he held a series of hearings to air anti-war sentiments.
Tet offensive
1968, during Tet, the Vietnam lunar new year - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army raiding forces attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the U.S. embassy for a time. U.S. opinion began turning against the war.
Viet Cong
Name given to the guerilla fighters on the Communist side. The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) was regular troops.
Vietnamization
The effort to build up South Vietnamese troops while withdrawing American troops; it was an attempt to turn the war over to the Vietnamese.
Abolition of immigration quotas
1965 - Amendments to Immigration and Nationality Act abolished national origin quotas and instead, based immigration on skills and need for political asylum.
Alliance for Progress
1961 - Formed by Kennedy to build up third-world nations to the point where they could manage themselves.
Bay of Pigs
1961 - 1400 American-trained Cuban expatriates left from Nicaragua to try to topple Castro's regime, landing at the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba. They had expected a popular uprising to sweep them to victory, but the local populace refused to support them. When promised U.S. air cover also failed to materialize, the invaders were easily killed or captured by the Cuban forces. Many of the survivors were ransomed back to the U.S. for $64 million. President Kennedy had directed the operation.
Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique
1963 - Depicted how difficult a woman's life is because she doesn't think about herself, only her family. It said that middle-class society stifled women and didn't let them use their talents. Attacked the "cult of domesticity."
Chicago, Democratic Party Convention riot
August, 1968 - With national media coverage, thousands of anti-war protestors, Blacks and Democratic supporters were clubbed by Major Daley's police.
Cuban missile crisis
October 14-28, 1962 - After discovering that the Russians were building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, the U.S. announced a quarantine of Cuba, which was really a blockade, but couldn't be called that since blockades are a violation of international law. After 6 days of confrontation that led to the brink of nuclear war, Khrushchev backed down and agreed to dismantle the launch sites.
Czechoslovakia invaded
1968 - Liberalization of Czechoslovakia was crushed by the Soviet Union invasion
Dominican Republic, 1965
In 1905, the U.S. imposed financial restrictions upon this Caribbean nation. Part of making sure Latin America traded with the U.S. and not Europe.
**Election of 1960: "missile gap, issues, candidates
** Kennedy, the Democrat, won 303 electoral votes, Nixon, the Republican, won 219 electoral votes, Byrd, the Independent, won 15 electoral votes. Kennedy and Nixon split the popular vote almost 50/50, with Kennedy winning by 118,000. The issues were discussed in televised debates. The "Missile gap" referred to the U.S. military claim that the U.S.S.R. had more nuclear missiles that the U.S., creating a "gap" in U.S. defensive capabilities.
**Election of 1964: LBJ, Goldwater
** Goldwater alienated people and was believed to be too conservative. He was perceived as an extremist who advocated the use of nuclear weapons if needed to win the war in Vietnam. LBJ won by the largest margin ever.
Election of 1968: candidates, issues
Richard M. Nixon, Republican, won by a 1% margin against Hubert Humphrey, Democrat. The issues were the war in Vietnam and urban crisis of law and order.
"flexible response"
Kennedy abandoned Eisenhower's theory of massive nuclear war in favor of a military that could respond flexibly to any situation at any time, in different ways.
"flower children"
Hippies who were unified by their rejection of traditional values and assumptions of Western society.
Governor George Wallace of Alabama
1968 - Ran as the American Independent Party candidate in the presidential election. A right- wing racist, he appealed to the people's fear of big government and made a good showing.
Great Society
Platform for LBJ's campaign, it stressed the 5 P's: Peace, Prosperity, anti-Poverty, Prudence and Progress.
HUD
Created by Congress in 1965, it was 11th in cabinet office. Afro-American economist Dr. Robert C. Weaver was named head, and the department regulated and monitored housing and suburban development. It also provided rent supplements for low-income families.
(Department of Housing and Urban Development)
John Birch Society
Right-wing group named for an American missionary to China who had been executed by Communist troops. They opposed the liberal tendencies of the Great Society programs, and attempted to impeach Earl Warren for his liberal, "Communist" actions.
Lee Harvey Oswald, Warren Commission
November, 22, 1963 - Oswald shot Kennedy from a Dallas book depository building, and was later himself killed by Jack Ruby. Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled that they both acted alone.
Medicare
Enacted in 1965 - provided, under Social Security, for federal subsidies to pay for the hospitalization of sick people age 65 and over.
Moon race, Neil Armstrong
July 20, 1969 - Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon, beating the Communists in the moon race and fulfilling Kennedy's goal. Cost $24 billion.
National Women's Political Caucus
Established by Betty Friedan, encouraged women to seek help or run for political office.
New Frontier
The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view.
New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
Nixon's "Southern strategy"
His political strategy of "courting" the South and bad-mouthing those Northerners who bad- mouthed the South. He chose Spiro Agnew, the Governor of Maryland, as his running mate to get the Southern vote.
NOW
Inspired by Betty Frieden, a reform organization that battled for equal rights with men by lobbying and testing laws in court. NOW wanted equal employment opportunities, equal pay, ERA, divorce law changes, and legalized abortion.
(National Organization for Women)
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963
Reacting to Soviet nuclear tests, this treaty was signed on August 5, 1963 and prohibited nuclear testing undersea, in air and in space. Only underground testing was permitted. It was signed by all major powers except France and China.
Office of Economic Opportunity
1965 - Part of the war on poverty, it was headed by R. Sargent Shiver, and was ineffective due to the complexity of the problem. It provided Job Corps, loans, training, VISTA, and educational programs.
Panama Canal treaties
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Peace Corps, VISTA
Established by Congress in September, 1961 under Kennedy, dedicated Americans volunteered to go to about 50 third-world countries and show the impoverished people how to improve their lives.
Berlin Wall
1961 - The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushchev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, after Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.
Ralph Nader, Unsafe at Any Speed
1965 - Nader said that poor design and construction of automobiles were the major causes of highway deaths. He upset Congress by asking for legislation regulating car design and creation of national auto safety board, NATSA.
Robert Kennedy
Attorney General under his brother, JFK, he was assassinated in June 1968 while campaigning for the Democratic party nomination.
SDS (Students for Democratic Society)
Formed in 1962 in Port Huron, Michigan, SDS condemned anti-Democratic tendencies of large corporations, racism and poverty, and called for a participatory Democracy.
Sunbelt versus Frostbelt
A trend wherein people moved from the northern and eastern states to the south and southwest region from Virginia to California.
Trade Expansion Act
October, 1962 - The Act gave the President the power to reduce tariffs in order to promote trade. Kennedy could lower some tariffs by as much as 50%, and, in some cases, he could eliminate them.
UN in the Congo (1960)
A Black uprising against the Belgian colonial government in the Congo became increasingly violent with White settlers being raped and butchered. The U.N. sent in troops to try to prevent civil war.
War on Poverty (1965)
1965 - Johnson figured that since the Gross National Profit had risen, the country had lots of extra money "just lying around," so he'd use it to fight poverty. It started many small programs, Medicare, Head Start, and reorganized immigration to eliminate national origin quotas. It was put on hold during the Vietnam War.
Alaska pipeline
Built in 1975 along the pipeline to Valdez, it was an above-ground pipe 4 feet in diameter used to pump oil from the vast oil fields of northern Alaska to the tanker station in Valdez Bay where the oil was put aboard ships for transport to refineries in the continental U.S.
American Indian Movement, Wounded Knee
Formed in 1968 by urban Indians who seized the village of Wounded Knee in February, 1973 to bring attention to Indian rights. This 71-day confrontation with federal marshals ended in a government agreement to reexamine treaty rights of the Ogalala Sioux.
Vietnam Amnesty
A general pardon by which the government absolves offenders, President Carter offered amnesty of Americans who had fled to other countries to avoid the draft for the Vietnam War.
Arab oil embargo
October 6, 1973 - Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. Moscow backed Egypt and both U.S. and U.S.S.R. put their armed forced on alert. In an attempt to pressure America into a pro-Arab stance, OPEC imposed an embargo on all oil to the U.S.
Camp David Accords
Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter.
Cesar Chavez
Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike against fruit and vegetable growers. Unionized Mexican-American farm workers.
Chicanos
Name given to Mexican-Americans, who in 1970, were the majority of migrant farm labor in the U.S.
China visit
February 21 - Nixon visited for a week to meet with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung for improved relations with China, Called "ping-pong diplomacy" because Nixon played ping pong with Mao during his visit. Nixon agreed to support China's admission to the United Nations.
CREEP
Established in 1971 to help Nixon get reelected. Involved in illegal activities such as the Watergate break-in.
Department of Energy
1977 - Carter added it to the Cabinet to acknowledge the importance of energy conservation
Détente
A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.
Election of 1972: candidates, issues
People feared that George S. McGovern, the Democratic candidate, was an isolationist because he promised cuts in defense spending. Richard M. Nixon, the Republican, promised an end to the Vietnam War and won by 60.7% of the popular vote.
Election of 1976: candidates issues
Jimmy Carter, Democrat defeated Gerald Ford, Republican. The issues were energy, transportation, and conservation. Carter had no Washington ties. Ford appealed to the upper- middle class, but Carter won by 1.7 million votes.
Gerald Ford
Nixon's vice president after Agnew resigned; he became the only president never to be elected. Taking office after Nixon resigned, he pardoned Nixon for all federal crimes that he "committed or may have committed."
H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, John Dean, John Mitchell
All were involved in the Watergate scandal. Dean refused to cover up Nixon's involvement in Watergate. Nixon fired Dean and Haldeman and Ehrlichman who headed the White House Staff resigned. All three and former Attorney General Mitchell were indicted on March 1974.
Henry Kissinger, "shuttle diplomacy"
Policy of this Secretary of State to travel around the world to various nations to discuss and encourage the policy of detente.
Impeachment proceedings
Special committee led by Ervin began impeachment talks about Nixon. Impeachment hearing was opened May 9, 1974 against Nixon by the House Judiciary Committee. The Committee recommended 3 articles of impeachment against Nixon: taking part in a criminal conspiracy to obstruct justice, "repeatedly" failing to carry out his constitutional oath, and unconstitutional defiance of committee subpoenas. Nixon resigned on August 9.
Iranian crisis, the Shah, Ayatollah Khomeini
1978 - A popular uprising forced the Shah to flee Iran and a Muslim and national leader, the Ayatollah Khomeini, established an Islamic Republic based on the Koran. President Carter allowed the Shah to come to the U.S. for medical reasons. Young Iranian militants broke into the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and kept the staff hostage for 444 days, releasing them January, 1981.
Jimmy Carter
Elected to the Senate in 1962 and 1964, in 1974 he became the 39th President, with Vice President Walter Mondale. He secured energy programs, set the framework for Egypt-Israel treaty, and sought to base foreign policy on human rights.
Multinational corporations
Most were American business firms whose sales, work force, production facilities or other operations were worldwide in scope. They represented the latest development in the continuing growth of corporate organization.
Nixon pardon
On Aug. 9, 1974, Ford became the first vice president to inherit leadership of the nation after the president resigned. To put the nation forward, General Ford granted pardon for ex-President Nixon. As a result, many people were angry that the government could easily forgive corruption and dishonesty.
Nixon, "New Federalism"
Slogan which meant returning power to the states, reversing the flow of power and resources from states and communities to Washington, and start power and resources flowing back to people all over America. Involved a 5-year plan to distribute $30 billion of federal revenues to states.
OPEC
An international oil cartel dominated by an Arab majority, joined together to protect themselves.
Panama Canal Treaty
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Recognition of China
Nixon established a trade policy and recognized the People's Republic of China, which surprised many because China had been an enemy during the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
"Revenue sharing"
1972 - A Nixon program that returned federal funds to the states to use as they saw fit.
SALT I Agreement
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks by Nixon and Brezhnev in Moscow in May, 1972. Limited Anti-Ballistic Missiles to two major departments and 200 missiles.
SALT II
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
Senator George McGovern
Democratic nominee for the 1972 election, from South Dakota. Somewhat of a radical, many voters thought he was a hippie and too supportive of women and militant Blacks. Ran an unsuccessful campaign, hampered by lack of funds.
Spiro T. Agnew, his resignation
October, 1973 - Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
"Stagflation"
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
25th Amendment
Made the replacement of a vice president the same as for a Supreme Court justice, i.e., the president nominates someone and Congress decides.
26th Amendment
Lowered voting age to 18.
Wage and price controls
1971 - To curb inflation, President Nixon froze prices, wages, and revenues for 90 days.
War Powers Act
Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.
Watergate
June 17, 1972 - five men arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee's executive quarters in the Watergate Hotel. Two White House aides were indicted; they quit, Senate hearing began in May, 1973, Nixon admitted to complicity in the burglary. In July, 1974, Nixon's impeachment began, so he resigned with disbarment.
Watergate tapes
Tapes which proved Nixon was involved in the Watergate scandal. Although he withheld them at first, the Supreme Court made Nixon turn over these recordings of the plans for the cover-up of the scandal.
White House "plumbers"
Name given to the special investigations committee established along with CREEP in 1971. Its job was to stop the leaking of confidential information to the public and press.
Warren Burger appointed
A conservative appointed by Nixon, he filled Earl Warren's liberal spot.
Afghanistan
The Soviet Union sent troops into neighboring Afghanistan to support its Communist government against guerilla attacks by fundamentalist Muslims.
Agent Orange
Agent Orange was a chemical sprayed by U.S. planes on the jungles of Vietnam during the war which caused the defoliation of trees and shrubs and made enemy positions more visible. In the 1970s it was found that Agent Orange was harmful to humans. In 1984, manufacturers agreed to pay veterans injured by the chemical.
AIDS
First diagnosed in 1981, 97,000 cases were reported in 1989. Originally concentrated among homosexual men, needle-sharing drug users, and sex partners of high risk groups, the disease soon spread. AIDS prompted a change from the "free love" attitude of the 1970s, to a "safe sex" attitude of the 1990s.
Arias Peace Plan in Central America
Oscar Arias Sánchez, the president of Costa Rica, was very influential in pushing for peace in Central America which was stalled because of civil wars in the region and the tensions between Nicaragua's Sandinista government and the U.S. In 1986, the warring nations signed a peace agreement.
Berlin Wall opens
The dismantling of the Berlin Wall began in 1989. Germany, having been divided into East and West Germany since World War II, unified in October 1990. The wall which separated the two countries fell, and citizens were once again permitted to travel between East and West Germany.
Betty Friedan, The Second Stage
In her novel The Second Stage, Friedan stresses the need to add family matters to the cause of women's rights. She reasons no person should ignore such a significant issue while focusing on female independence and advancement in society.
Challenger disaster
1986: The space shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds into flight, killing all aboard. The explosion was caused by a faulty seal in the fuel tank. The shuttle program was halted while investigators and officials drew up new safety regulations, but was resumed in 1988 with the flight of the Discovery.
Col. (Oliver) North
Oliver North was tried in 1988 in relation to his activities while at the National Security Council. He was indicted on sixteen felony counts and convicted of three: accepting an illegal gratuity, aiding and abetting in the obstruction of a congressional inquiry, and destruction of documents. He was sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell on July 5, 1989, to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service.
El Salvador
Three U.S. nuns found shot in El Salvador in December, 1980. President Carter had stopped aid to El Salvador's right-wing dictator, but President Reagan started it again.
Election of 1980: candidates, issues
Ronald Wilson Reagan, Republican defeated Jimmy Carter, Democrat and John B. Anderson, Independent. The issues were government spending and traditional values.
Election of 1984: candidates, issues
Former Vice President Walter Mondale got the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson, backed by minority groups, and Gary Hart, who appealed to the young. Reagan's campaign revolved around the optimistic slogan "It's Morning in America" and he rode the tide of prosperity to a decisive victory.
Election of 1988: candidates, issues
Bush got the Republican nomination while Michael Dukakis won the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson. Bush chose Quayle as his running mate for his good looks. Taxes, crime, and personal appearance were the main issues in 1988. Bush won fairly decisively on a negative campaign.
EPA, Environmental Protection Agency
It was created in 1969 by President Nixon to enforce government standards for water and the air quality for work safety. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was also created to enforce the hygiene.
George Bush
Bush was Vice President under Reagan, and was president from 1989 to 1993. As president, Bush was successful in areas of foreign relations. He eased relations with Russia, resisted the Russian military's attempted coup in 1991, and fought Saddam Hussein in the Persian gulf. He was not as successful in domestic affairs as the economy dwindled and the deficit rose; the effects of the era of Reaganomics. Bush was defeated by Bill Clinton and Al Gore in the 1992 election.
Geraldine Ferraro
The first woman ever to be on the ticket of a major party, Ferraro was chosen by Walter Mondale to be his Vice-Presidential candidate in 1984. However, her presence failed to win Mondale the election, as a higher percentage of women voted republican in 1984 than in 1980.
Gorbachev, glasnost, perestroika
Mikhail Gorbachev welded influence in transforming the Soviet Union into a less rigidly communist regime. His program of economic and political reform was called perestroika or restructuring. Gorbachev's call for more openness in government was given the name glasnost. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union continued to improve which furthered the thaw in the Cold War.
Grenada, 1983
On October 23, 1983, 2,000 U.S. Marine soldiers invaded the island of Grenada, and overthrew the disruptive radical government, and put in a U.S.-friendly regime. The new government that the United States had just installed was collaborating well with the local Grenadians.
Holes in the "Iron Curtain"
Due to Gorbachev's more liberalized policies, Moscow began losing direct control over Eastern Europe. The USSR reduced its military force in its eastern satellites and allowed more freedom of expression. Non-Communist political movements soon developed in Poland, Hungary, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia.
INF Treaty, 1987
(Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty): The treaty was a 1987 agreement between Reagan and Gorbachev which banned INF's but did little to end the nuclear threat as 95% of the world's nuclear arsenal remained. It is an example of the warming Soviet-American relations and renewed the arms control process.
Iran-Contra affair, Irangate
Caught selling arms to the anti-American government of Iran, Reagan admitted it and stated his aim had been to encourage "moderate elements" in Tehran and gain the release of American hostages. Key players included Oliver North, who sent millions of dollars from these sales to contras in Nicaragua when Congress had forbidden such aid, and John Poindexter, who hid the affair from the president. Criminal charges were filed against only North.
Iran-Iraq War
The war began in 1980 over territorial disputes. Fighting spread throughout the gulf region and the U.S. was dragged into the conflict several times, either being attacked or attacking hostile targets. The war ended in 1988, as Iraq began preparing to invade Kuwait. The area remained a volatile region.
Love Canal, Niagara Falls, NY
In the 1970s and early 1980s, chemical wastes that had leaked from a former disposal site threatened the health of residents in that area. Both the New York state government and the federal government provided financial aid to help move families from the Love Canal to other areas.
"Moral Majority"
The Moral Majority was Jerry Falwell's pro-Reagan followers who embraced the new evangelical revival of the late seventies. The Moral Majority was politically active in targeting such issues as abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and school prayer. They were strongly conservative, anticommunist, and influential. The Moral Majority was started in 1979 as a secular political group, and was finished as a political force by the late 1980s.
"New Federalism" proposals, 1982
New Federalism proposed to reverse the flow of power and resources from the states and communities to the state capital. The president proposed a revenue sharing bill that transferred some federal revenues to the states and prominent cities.
Nuclear freeze movement
The movement was a popular reaction to the military and nuclear buildup under Reagan. Protests, rallies, and resolutions against nukes were passed. It was the first popular challenge to Reaganism. Responding to pressure, the U.S. began talks on strategic-arms reductions with the Soviets.
Moscow Olympic boycott, 1980
When Carter and Brezhnev could not agree on the rules and regulations of the SALT II agreement, the United States picked up an anti-Soviet relationship towards everything that had to do with Russia, which unfortunately included the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.
Reaganomics
Also known as voodoo economics, George Bush named this new economic strategy Reaganomics in the 1980 primary campaign. President Reagan believed that the government should leave the economy alone. He hoped that it would run by itself. It was a return to the laissez faire theory of Adam Smith, yet Reagan expanded his theory by advocating supply-side economics as a method to solve the economic hardships.
Rev. Jerry Falwell
An engineering student before turning to religion, he founded Thomas Road Baptist Church in 1956 and later Liberty Baptist College. His Old-Time Gospel Hour television show serves as outreach for his church. In 1979 he organized the Moral Majority to encourage his followers to become involved in politics; he withdrew from its leadership in 1990 to return to preaching. A fundamentalist interpreter of the Bible, he is known for his sometimes extreme conservatism.
Rev. Jesse Jackson, Rainbow Coalition
Jackson, once an associate of King, tried to build a "rainbow coalition" of blacks, Hispanics, displaced workers, and other political outsiders to try to gain nomination and election in 1984. Jackson ran several times for the presidency, but was not moderate enough to gain popular approval.
Sandra Day O'Connor
She was a feminist who generally deplored Reagan's programs. However, she was delighted when he nominated her as the first woman justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. Many people supported Reagan's decisions in favor of women's rights.
SDI, Star Wars, Strategic Defense Initiative
SDI was a proposed system of space based lasers and other high-tech defenses against nuclear attack, popularly dubbed "Star Wars." It was proposed by Reagan in 1983 in an effort to ward off the perceived threat of a Soviet strike as U.S.-Soviet relations worsened. Many argued it would escalate the conflict. The system carried a huge price tag, and was fiercely debated until the end of the Reagan administration. The system was never used.
Supply side economics
In contrast to Adam Smith's belief in supply-and-demand, Reagan assumed that if the economy provided the products and services, the public would purchase them. Consequently, Reagan lowered income taxes to stimulate the economy by expanding the money supply.
Three Mile Island
In 1979, a near catastrophe occurred at Three Mile Island when there was an accident involving a nuclear power plant. Safety measures were taken so that a future incident would not occur. The plants were placed far away to reduce the hazards of near fatal accidents.
Baker v. Carr, Wesberry v. Sanders, Reynolds v. Sims
- Declared that the principle of "one person, one vote" must prevail at both state and national levels. Decision required that districts be redrawn as that each representative represented the same number of people.
- Supreme Court required states to draw their congressional districts so that each represented the same number of people. "As nearly as practical, one man's vote . . . is to be worth as much as another's".
- Supreme Court created the one person, one vote grounded in the Equal Protection Clause.
Bakke v. Board of Regents
Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to admit.
Diamond v. Chakrabarty
Ruled that a man-made life form (genetic engineering) could be patented.
Roe v. Wade
1973 Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional most state statutes restricting abortion. It ruled that a state may not prevent a woman from having an abortion during the first 3 months of pregnancy, and could regulate, but not prohibit abortion during the second trimester. Decision in effect overturned anti-abortion laws in 46 states.
Engel v. Vitale
Local and state laws requiring prayer in public schools were banned on the grounds that such laws violated the First Amendment.
Escobedo v. Illinois
Court ruled that there was a right to counsel at the police station. This was needed to deter forced confessions given without the benefit of counsel.
Gideon v. Wainwright
The Supreme Court held that all defendants in serious criminal cases are entitled to legal counsel, so the state must appoint a free attorney to represent defendants who are too poor to afford one.
Miranda v. Arizona
Court declared that police officers must inform persons they arrest of their rights: the right to remain silent and the right to counsel during interrogation.
Reed v. Reed
1971. Equal protection: the Supreme Court engaged in independent judicial review of a statute which discriminated between persons on the basis of sex, making it clear that the Supreme Court would no longer treat sex-based classifications with judicial deference.
Swan v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
1971. A unanimous decision that the busing of students may be ordered to achieve racial desegregation.