- Connects to the idea of Deism, in which the universe was created by God and then abandoned; no supernatural controls would be exerted and all things were explainable by reason.
- Enlightenment philosphy dictated that human reason was adequate to solve mankind's problems and, correspondingly, much less faith was needed in the central role of God as an active force in the universe.
- Idea moved from Europe to become the New World's seed of culture, intellectualism, and society.
- Some important Enlightenment writers include Isaac Newton (Principia Mathematica, 1687), John Locke (Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1689), and Renè Descartes, whose basic tenet of philosophical theory existed in the phrase, "I think, therefore, I am."
- Early writings promoted the benefits of colonization to both Europeans and to the colonies themselves; authors included John Smith and William Penn.
- Religious issues and the Great Awakening provided material for written works by John Winthrop, Edward Winslow, Roger Williams, Jonathan Edwards, and George Whitefield.
- The political issues of revolution influenced writing in the mid-1700s, including works by Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Paine.
- Post-war writings such as The Federalist Papers explored the system of American values and governmental structure.
- The first American novel, published in 1789, was William Hill Brown's The Power of Sympathy.
- Art copied European styles but featured portraits of important Americans; famous artists included John Trumbull, Charles Peale, Benjamin West, and John Copley.
- Gilbert Stuart painted the portrait of George Washington that is now on the one-dollar bill.
- John C. Fremont (United States) won attacks on land and at sea in and near California.
- Zachary Taylor defeated large forces in Mexico.
- Mexico refused to negotiate, so President Polk ordered forces led by Winfield Scott into Mexico City.
- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 ended the war, giving the United States land originally sought by Slidell (New mexico, Arizona, California, Texas, and parts of Colorado, Utah, and Nevada.)
- Border was set at Rio Grande River.
- Raised questions of slavery in the new territory.
- Henry David Thoreau and a young Whig, Abraham Lincoln, opposed the war.
- Supreme Court case involving a slave, Scott, who was taken by his master from Missouri, a slave state, to Illinois, a free state.
- After Scott had been returned to Missouri, he sued for freedom for himself and his family, stating that by residing in a free state he had ended his slavery.
- President Buchanan meant for the case's decision to serve as the basis for the slavery issue.
- Pro-South Judge Taney ruled that Scott did not have the right of citizenship, which he would need to be able to bring forth a suit.
- Ruled further that the Missouri Compromise itself was unconstitutional because congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories, as slaves were property.
- The Scott decision would apply to all African Americans, who were regarded as inferior and, therefore, without rights.
- Began in December of 1860.
- Response to the election of Abraham Lincoln, who sought to contain slavery.
- South Carolina voted to secede on December 20, 1860.
- Over the following two months, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas seceded.
- The remaining states--Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina--seceded after the fall of Fort Sumter.
- These states declared themselves the confederate States of American and elected Jefferson Davis as president, adopting a constitution that permitted slavery rights and the sovereignty of states.
Old: Northern European (English, Germans, Irish Catholics), assimilated easier, high skill level, often spoke English
New: South/Eastern, wouldn't assimilate, close- knit community, uneducated, poor, unskilled laborers
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US (never signed), and signed by Germany to end WWI. The treaty:
1) stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce.
2) Germany had to pay war reparations (33 billion)
3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI
4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons
5) Germany had to accept French occupation of the Rhineland for 15 years
6) Territories taken from Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia are given their independence (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia)
7) Signers have to join League of Nations which includes Article X; that each member nation would stand ready to protect the independence and territorial integrity of the other nations