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AP PSYCHOLOGY QUARTER 1 EXAM REVIEW
Terms in this set (49)
Sought to measure "atoms of the mind" the fastest and simplest mental processes. Introduced structuralism. Founding figure of modern psychology.
Behaviorism (psych perspective)
BF Skinner/JB Watson. Believe there is no such thing as a unconscious mind. All behavior is learned through punishment and reinforcement.
Humanistic (psych perspective)
Abraham Maslow/Carl Rogers. Believe each person has freedom in directing his or her own future and achieving personal growth.
Cognitive (psych perspective)
Studies how we process, store, retrieve, and use information and how cognitive processes influence behavior.
Biological (psych perspective)
Emphasize the impact of bodily events on our actions, thoughts, and feelings including physical problems and medical conditions. Also studies the extent to which our psychological characteristics influenced by heredity/genetics
Sociocultural (psych perspective)
Feel it is impossible to understand a person without understanding his/her culture, ethnic, and gender identity along with other sociocultural factors.
AKA sensory experience, the knowledge received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation.
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Random Assignment (research method)
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups
Cross-sectional study (research method)
organizing individuals into groups based on age. Then these groups are randomly sampled, surveyed, tested, or observed simultaneously.
Longitudinal study (research method)
studying the same group of people at regular intervals over a period of of years to determine whether their behaviors and/or feelings have changed and if so, how.
Single blind study (research method)
participants do not know their assignment
Double blind study (research method)
researchers nor participants know their assignment
Case study (research method)
one person is studied in depth with the hope of revealing universal principles
describe how two sets of data relate to each other. Correlation does not imply causation. Correlation measures the relationship between X and Y. Positive correlation: As X goes up Y goes up.
Negative correlation: As X goes up Y goes down.
The average. Take all the numbers and add them together then divide by how many there are.
The middle number
Standard deviation (statistics)
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied (the one that we change)
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable (depends on the effects of the change)
the basic building blocks of the nervous system.
cells of the nervous system specialized to transmit messages throughout the body
a neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.
nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses.
a nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.
Communicate info through the brain and body. Neurotransmitters, also known as chemical messengers, are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission
Collecting data, hypothesis, testing hypothesis, stating conclusions.
Step by step process of discovery
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
a network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body
Central Nervous system
consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
includes all nerves lying outside the central nervous system. branch out from the spinal cord to reach other parts of the body. the Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System are part of it.
Somatic Nervous system
part of the Peripheral Nervous System. handles both income and outgoing messages to and from the brain. Example: picking up a pen to write on a piece of paper.
Automatic Nervous System
part of the Peripheral Nervous System. Regulates involuntary functions such as heartbeat and respiration. Made up of two parts: the Sympathetic Nervous System and the Parasympathetic Nervous System.
involved in learning, memory, emotions, and movement.
involved in sleep, appetite, and mood. affects feelings of well being and happiness, helps control alertness, and associated with fight or flight.
activates muscles and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system.
involved in pain reduction and pleasure sensations.
records the electrical activity of the brain
Computed tomography scan
Imaging technique that is able to produce a cross-sectional view of the body
Position Emission tomography
produces color images showing brain structure activity and function
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
magnetic waves produce images of organs and tissues in all three planes of the body
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
Shows changes in brain activity over time by tracking blood flow and oxygen levels
reasoning, planning, creative thinking, emotion, and impulse control, personality, and movement (motor cortex) (PPTT)
perception of stimuli related to touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
primarily concerned with many aspects of vision.
concerned with perception and recognizing. Speaking, Emotion (amygdala), Auditory stimuli (hearing) and Memory (hippocampus) = (SEAM)
scientist who won a Nobel Prize for work with split brain patients.
Studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
The interpreter that instantly constructs theories to explain our behavior. It is more active when deliberating over decisions. Superior in speech.
Better at spacial patterns. Understands simple requests, perceives objects, and is more engaged when quick, intuitive responses are needed. Surpasses the left hemisphere at copying drawings, recognizing faces, perceiving differences, motion, and expression of emotion. Social conduct.
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