36 terms

Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycles

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Species
Organisms that share same characteristics and features, can reproduce with other members of same species.
Population
Group of organisms of the same species that share a habitat.
Abiotic
Non-living environmental factors
Biotic
Living components that shape an ecosystem.
Community
Collection of populations that interact with + depend on each other. Some populations cannot live independently without depending on other species.
Ecosystem
Complex community, includes abiotic and biotic factors interacting with each other.
Biodiversity
The more variations of species in an ecosystem.
Niche
It includes what a species eats and what environment it needs to survive.
Predation
Relationship where one organism hunts the other for food.
Competition
When species compete for a resource, and possibly must adapt in order to benefit.
Primary consumer
Organisms that feed only on producers. They are herbivores and are present in every ecosystem.
Herbivore
The plant eaters in an ecosystem. They are also considered the primary consumers.
Trophic level
The step/level that an organism occupies in a food chain.
Tertiary consumer
An animal that feeds on secondary consumers in a food chain.
Carnivore
Only can eat the flesh of other animals
Food chain
A "chain" of energy passed throughout the trophic levels, there are many variations of it.
Food web
Shows all the feeding relationships between plants and animals and how they are interconnected with multiple paths.
Predator
Hunts other animals for food.
Primary succession
The growth of an organism in a newly developed area.
Secondary succession
Ecological succession that occurs on a previously colonized habitat that has been severely disturbed or damaged.
Pioneer species
The first species to inhabit an area.
Keystone species
A species crucial to the thriving of an ecosystem/community
Exotic species
An introduced species not native to the area.
Prey
Living animal being hunted for food
Symbiosis
A relationship between two organisms.
Mutualism
A type of symbiosis in which both species involved benefit.
Commensalism
A type of symbiosis in which one species benefits, and the other is not affected.
Parasitism
A type of symbiosis where one species benefits, and the other species is harmed in the process.
Nutrients
Travels through the geology, biology, and chemical reactions on earth.
Energy
Travels through the earth in one direction from the sun.
Flow of energy
Only a fraction of the energy (10%) gets passed through the trophic levels. Some gets used by the organisms, and the rest is transferred into heat energy.
Transpiration
The evaporation of water through the leaves of plants. (A biological process)
Phosphorus
The nutrient that does not enter the atmosphere
Nitrogen
The nutrient that has to be converted by bacteria from the gas state to a usable form by living organisms
Water
Nutrient essential for chemical reactions
Decomposers
Organisms that break down dead matter