AP Human Geography Population

These are the vocabulary words from Rubenstein's AP Human Geography textbook. Chapter-1: Thinking Geographically Chapter-2: Population Chapter-3: Migration Chapter-4: Folk and popular culture Chapter-5: Language Chapter-6: Religion Chapter-7: Ethnicity Chapter-8: Political Geography Chapter-9: Development Chapter-10: Agriculture Chapter-11: Industry Chapter-12: Services Chapter-13: Urban Patterns Chapter-14: Resource Issues

Terms in this set (...)

agricultural revolution
the development of farming
arithmetic density
The total number of people divided by the total land area
A complete enumeration of a population
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The number of deaths in a year per 1,000 people alive in a society
Demographic Transition
the process of change in a society's population as a combination of medical advances and economic development, affecting a population's desire and ability to control its own birth and death rates
the scientific study of population characteristics
Dependency ratio
the number of people under 15 and over 64 compared to the number of people in the workforce
Doubling Time
the number of years it takes for an area's population to double
the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Epidemiologic transition
The epidemiologic transition is that process by which the pattern of mortality and disease is transformed from one of high mortality among infants and children and episodic famine and epidemic affecting all age groups to one of degenerative and man-made diseases (such as those attributed to smoking) affecting principally the elderly.
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old per 1000 live births in a society
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live given current social, medical, and economic conditions.
Medical Revolution
medical technology from Europe and North America that was used to eliminate many diseases in the developing world
Term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate (NIR=CBR-CDR)
a situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Population Composition
Structure of population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education
Population Density
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
Population Distribution
Description of locations on Earth's surface where populations live
Population Pyramid
A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex
Sex ratio
the ratio of men to women
Standard of living
Goods and services and their distribution within a population
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years.
Zero population growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture (arable land).
Major Population Clusters -- East Asia
1/4 global population: East China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan
Major Population Clusters -- South Asia
1/4 of global population: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka
Major Population Clusters -- Southeast Asia
600 million people: Indonesia, Philippines, and the river deltas of the Indochina peninsula
Major Population Clusters -- Europe
600 million people: 50 countries mostly clustered in Western Europe in Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, and France
Industrial Revolution
a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and drastically altered society
Thomas Malthus
(1766-1834) An English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in food production, which would lead to widespread famine and disease.
One Child Policy
Chinese policy used to control population growth which began in the 1980's and restricted families to having only one child.
Family Planning
The practice of controlling the number and frequency of children conceived usually through the use of contraception or voluntary sterilization.
any process that eliminates a person's ability to produce children
The branch of medical science that is concerned with identifying, fighting, and preventing disease.
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
the level of development that can be maintained without depleting resources

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