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AP Biology - Chapter 5 Vocab: Cell Membranes and Signaling
Terms in this set (54)
Fluid Mosaic Model
The model of the phospholipid bilayer where proteins float in it and explains observations about the structure of functional cell membranes
head is polar (electrically charged) so it is water loving
the non polar fatty acid tails hide in the middle
Repel/not mix with water
Dissolves in water
Speed of molecules moving through
lipid composition - the shorter or tighter packed the chain the quicker they move
temperature - the warmer the faster
Peripheral Membrane Proteins
Polar or charged membrane proteins that temporarily that interact with the membrane or phospholipids
Integral Membrane Proteins
Membrane proteins that are permanently connected to the biological membrane
Type of integral protein that covers the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached to
Lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glyosidic bond
Any class of proteins that have carbohydrate groups attached to the polypeptide chain
protein with even more COH molecules on it -longer than glycoprotein
Selectively choosing what will enter or exit the cell
The movement of molecules and biochemicals through a cell membrane without the use of energy
The movement of molecules across a cell membrane into a higher concentration with the use of energy
Movement of particles from a high-to-low concentration
Process in which a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary such as a integral membrane protein
Movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from a high water concentration to a lower water concentration
The pressure needed to prevent osmosis
When the concentration of solutes are greater outside the cell than the inside
When the concentration of solutes is both the same outside and inside the cell
Solution has a lower solute concentration than the cell so water moves into the cell causing plant and animal cells to swell
The pressure of water pushing the plasma membrane against the cell wall of a plant cell
A protein that allows the transport of specific substances across a cell membrane.
Proteins that transfer solute molecules across a lipid bilayer resembling enzyme-substrate reaction- they act as enzymes.
Passive transport process of molecules or ions across a cell's membrane using protein carriers.
Controls movement of ions across a neuronal membrane
A group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger
A ion or molecule that binds to a central metal atom to form a complex
Integral membrane proteins that serve as channels in the transfer of water across the membrane.
Primary Active Transport
Requires energy (ATP) to transport molecules across a membrane against their concentration gradient.
Secondary Active Transport
Transport of molecules across the cell membrane using energy in other forms than ATP.
Pumps sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell, powered by ATP.
release to the external environment
Uptake of materials from exterior the cell- Segment of plasma membrane folds inwards.
Where ligands, receptors, and other substances are sorted in the membrane enclosed compartment of the vesicle
Signal of hormones, light, heat, or chemical
Process of which certain living cells called phagocytes ingest other cells or particles.
the cell sweeps ofer extracellular fluid, including molecules such as sugars and proteins.
Process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones, other proteins
Cellular factor that recognizes and binds a specific ligand to induce a response
Proteins in a vesicle are released to te exterior of the cell as the membrane of the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane
Signal Transduction Pathway
Transmission of molecular signals from a cell's exterior to its interior.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell produces a hormone or chemical messenger that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell- leading to changes in the cell.
The form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior or differentiation of those cells.
Direct contact between the signaling and responding cell
Chemical substances that help to regulate processes in the body; produced by glands and travel to their target organs in the bloodstream
Regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site
small or nonpolar ligands can diffuse through the PLB so the bind to these inside the cell
Large or polar ligands hook up with these and cross over the PLB
Ion Channel Receptors
Receptors that bind a ligand and open a channel through the membrane that allows specific ions to pass through.
Protein Kinase Receptors
Kinase enzymes that modifie other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them
A family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior
Receptors that bind a ligand and activate a membrane protein called a G-protein, which then interacts with either an ion channel or an enzyme in the membrane.
A ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intracellular signaling molecules in eukaryotic cells; also regulates some bacterial operons.
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