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736 terms

THE BIG AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY VOCAB LIST

all the words to know for the AP exam
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Acid Deposition
Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-- where they mix with oxygen and woter to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-- and return to Earth's surface.
Acid Precipitation
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain snow or fog
Acitve Solar Energy Systems
Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors
Agribusiness
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-proccessing industry, usually through the ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Agricultural Revoluion
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Agriculture
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of the Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenence or economic gain.
Air Pollution
Concentration of trace substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air.
Animate Power
Power supplied by people or animals.
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, such as thunderstorms and earthquakes, have discrete spirit and concious life.
Annexation
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
Apartheid
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physicall separated different races into different geographic areas.
Arithmic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Autonomous Religion
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Balance of Power
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
Balkanization
process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Balkanized
A small geographic area that could not be successfully organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
Base Line
An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Basic Industries
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution.
Biodiversity
The number of species within a specific habitat.
Biomass Fuel
Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste.
Blockbusting
A process by which real estate agents convinced white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families would soon be moving into the neighborhood.
Boundary
Invisible line that marks the extent of a state territory.
Brain Drain
Large-scale emigration by talented people.
Branch (of a religion)
A large and fundamental division within a religion.
Break-of-Bulk Point
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
Breeder reactor
A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium.
British Received Pronunciation
The dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
Bulk-gaining Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
Bulk-reducing Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
Business Services
Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses.
Cartography
The science of making maps.
Caste
The class or distinct hereditary order into which a hindu is assigned according to religious law.
Census Tract
An area delineated by the U.S, Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized ares, they correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
Census
A compete enumeration of a population.
Central Business District
The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered.
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel further.\
Central Place
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Centripetal Force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance a state.
Cereal Grain
A grass yielding grain for food.
Chaff
Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
Chain Migration
Migration of paople to a specific location because of relatives or people of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Chlorofluorocarbon
A gas used as a solvent, a propelant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastics foams and fire extinguishers.
Circulation
Short-term, repetative, or cyclical movemens that recur on a regular basis.
City-state
A sovreign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
Clustered Rural Settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlements.
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Colony
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
Combine
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
Commercial Agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Compact State
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Concentration
The spread of something over a given area.
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Connections
Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
Conservation
The sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced.
Consumer Services
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
Contagious Diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Cosmogony
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Cottage Industry
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Council of Government
A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States.
Counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Creole
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Crop Rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Crop
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
Crude Birth Rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude Death Rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Cultural Ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural Landscape
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.
Culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.
Custom
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
Demographic Transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Demography
the scientific study of population characteristics
Density
The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
Density Gradient
the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
Desertification
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Denomination
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
Development
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
Dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Diffusion
the process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Diocese
The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church
Dispersed Rural Settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
Double Cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Ebonics
Dialect spoken by some African-Americans.
Economic Base
A community's collection of basic industries.
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Edge City
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
Elongated State
A state with a long, narrow shape.
Emigration
Migration from a location.
Enclosure Movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Environmental Determinism
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
Epidemiology
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Epidemiological Transition
distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Ethnic Cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Ethnic Religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
Extinct language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
Federal State
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Ferrous
Metals, including iron ore, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel.
Filtering
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
Fission
The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy.
Floodplain
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.
Folk Culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Forced Migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
Fordist Production
Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
Formal Region
An area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.
Fossil Fuel
Energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
Fragmented State
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
Franglais
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of franfais and anglai." the French words for "French" and "English," respectively.
Frontier
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Functional Region
An area organized around a node or focal point
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Fusion
Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium.
Gender Empowerment Measure
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
Gender-Related Development Index
Compares the level of development with that of both sexes.
Gentrification
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
Geothermal Energy
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks.
Gerrymandering
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Ghetto
During the Middle Aes, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
GIS
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Global Positioning System
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
Grain
Seed of cereal grass.
Gravity Model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Green Revolution
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Greenbelt
A ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Greenhouse Effect
Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
Greenwhich Mean Time
the time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian or 0 longitude
Gross Domestic Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year).
Guest Workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
Habit
A repetative act by a particular individual.
Hearth
The region from which innovative ideas originate.
Hierarchical Diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Hierarchical Religion
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
Horticulture
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Hull
The outer covering of steel.
Human Development Index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Hydroelectric Power
Power generated from moving water.
Ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
Immigration
Migration to a new location.
Imperialism
Control of a territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.
Inanimate Power
Power supplied by machines.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Internal Migration
Permanent Movement within a particular country.
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
International Migration
Permanent movement from one country to another.
Interregional Migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Intervening Obstacle
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
Intraregional Migration
Permanent movement within one region of a country.
Isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
Isolated Language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Labor-intensive Industry
An industry for which labor costs comprises a high percentage of total expenses
Landlocked State
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Land ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
Language Branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
Language Family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Language Group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
Less Developed Country
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Lingua Franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
Literacy Rate
percentage of people who can read and write.
Literary Tradition
A language that is written as well as spoken.
Location
The position of anything on Earth's surface.
Longitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°).
Map
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.
Maquiladora
Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much cheaper labor costs in Mexico.
Market Area
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Mental Map
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
Meridian
An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
Metropolitan Statisical Area
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Micropolitan Statistical Area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Microstate
A state that encompasses a very small land area.
Migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Migration Transition
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Milkshed
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Missionary
An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion.
Mobility
All types of movement from one location to another.
Monotheism
the doctrine or belief that there is only one God
More Developed Country
Also known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relativety far along a continuum of development.
Multi-ethnic State
A state that contains more than one ethnicity.
Multinational State
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Nationality
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
Nation-state
A state who's territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Natural Increase Rate
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Net Migration
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
New International Division of Labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
Nonbasic Industries
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
Nonferrous
metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel.
Nonrenewable Energy
A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
Official Language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Ozone
gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 kilometers (9 to 30 miles) above Earth's surface.
Paddy
Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
pagan
A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times.
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Parallel
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
Passive Solar Energy Systems
Solar energy that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices.
Pastoral Nomadism
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Pasture
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
Pattern
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.
Perforated State
a state that completely surrounds another one
Peripheral Model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Personal Services
Services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers.
Photochemical Smog
An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions.
Photovoltaic Cell
Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Pigdin Language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Place
a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character.
Plantation
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Polder
land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
Pollution
Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate.
Polytheism
Belief in or worship of more than one god.
Popular Culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Population Pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Post-Fordist Production
Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.
Potential Reserve
The amount of energy in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist.
Preservation
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible.
Primary Sector
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
Primate City
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Primate City Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Prime Agricultural Land
Most productive farmland.
Prime Meridian
The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
Principal Meridian
A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Producer Services
Services that primarily help people conduct business.
Productivity
The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
Projection
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
Prorupted State
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension.
Proven Reserve
The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits.
Public Housing
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
Public Services
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.
Pull Factors
Factors that induce people to move to a new location.
Push Factors
Factors that induce people to leave old residences.
Quota
In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
Race
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Racism
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Racist
A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.
Radioactive Waste
Particles from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethat to people and must therefore be safely stored for thousonds of years.
Ranching
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
Range
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Rank-size Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Reaper
Amachine that cuts grain standing in the feild.
Recycling
the separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material
Redlining
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Region
An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
Regional Studies
An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phemona in a particular area study.
Relocation Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Remote Sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Renewable Energy
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
Resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
Retail Services
Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
Ridge Tillage
System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
Right-to-work State
A U.S. state that has passed a law preventing union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of e3mployment.
Rush Hour
four consecutive 15 minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic.
Sanitary Landfill
A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin.
Sawah
A flooded feild for growing rice.
Scale
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
Secondary Sector
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
Sect
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
Section
A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections.
Sector Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Seed Agriculture
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.
Self-determinism
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
Service
any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.
Settlement
A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants.
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in a population.
Sharecropper
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Shifting Cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Site
The physical character of a place.
Site Factors
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
Situation
The location of a place relative to other places.
Situation Factors
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Slash-and-burn Agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because feilds are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Solstice
Time when the Sun is farthest from the equator.
Sovreignty
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Space
The physical gap or interval between two objects.
Space-time Compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distinct place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
Spanglish
Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans.
Sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Spring Wheat
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Squatter Settlement
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Standard Language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
State
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Stimulus Diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Structural Adjustment Program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.
Subsistence Agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Sustainable Agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
Sustainable Development
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.
Swidden
Apatch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Taboo
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.
Tertiary Sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
Textile
A fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing
Tresh
To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it.
Threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Toponym
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
Total Fertility Rate
The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.
Township
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.
Trading Bloc
A group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs
Transhumance
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Transitional Corporation
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
Transportation and Information Services
Services that diffuse and distribut services.
Triangular Slave Trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
Truck Farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.
Underclass
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Undocumented Immigrants
People who enter a country without proper documents.
Uneven Development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
Unitary State
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Universalizing Religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Urban Renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Urbanized Area
In the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs.
Value Added
the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
Vegetative Planting
reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
Vernacular Region
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
Voluntary Migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
Vulgar Latin
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
Wet Rice
Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
Winnow
To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind.
Winter Wheat
wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer
Zero Population Growth
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Zoning Ordinance
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area
Base Line
An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States
Cartography
The science of making maps
Concentration
The spread of something over a given area
Connections
Relationships amoung peopleand objects across the barrier of space
Contagious Diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Cultural Ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
Cultural Landscape
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
Culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition
Density
The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
Diffusion
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearence of a phenomnon with increasing distance from its origin
Distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Environmental Determinism
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography thast argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the phyisical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the phyisical environment caused human activities
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Formal Region
(or uniform or homogeneous region) An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional Region
(or nodal region) An area organized around a node or focal point
Geographic Information System (GIS)
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and display geographic data
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and recievers
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in that time zone ecompassing the Prime Meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
Hearth
The region from which innovative ideas originate
Heirarchical Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
Latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
Location
The position of anything on Earth's surface
Longitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°).
Map
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it
Mental Map
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
Meridian
An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
Parallel
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
Pattern
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
Polder
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
Possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Prime Meridian
The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
Principal Meridian
A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Projection
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
Region
An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
Regional Studies
An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phemona in a particular area study (cultural landscape)
Relocation Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Remote Sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
Scale
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
Section
A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections.
Site
The physical character of a place
Situation
The location of a place relative to other places.
Space
The physical gap or interval between two objects.
Space-Time Compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Stimulus Diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Toponym
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
Township
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.
Transnational Corporation
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
Uneven Development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
Vernacular Region
An area that people believe to exsist as part of their cultural identity (perceptual region)
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Demographic Transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics.
Dependency Ration
The number of people under the age of 15 and over the age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Epidemiologic Transition
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Epidemiology
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population Pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in a population
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The aver number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
A decline in the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
migration
a permanent move to a new location
emigration
migration from a location
immigration
migration to a location
net migration
the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants
mobility
a more general term covering all types of movements from one place to another
circulation
short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis, such as daily, monthly, or annually
push factor
induces people to move out of their present location
pull factor
induces people to move into a new location
refugees
people who have been forced to migrate from their home and cannot return in fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
floodplain
the area subject to flooding during a specific number of years, based on historical trends
intervening obstacle
an environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration
internal migration
permanent movement within the same country
international migration
permanent movement from one country to another
interregional migration
movement from one region of a country to another
intraregional migration
movement within one region
voluntary migration
the migrant has chosen to move for economic improvements
forced migration
the migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors
migration transition
changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic transition
undocumented immigrants
those who are entering without proper documents
chain migration
the migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
quotas
maximum limits on the number of people who could immigrate to the United States from each country during a one-year period
brain drain
a large-scale emigration by talented people
guest workers
citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East
counterurbanization
net migration from urban to rural areas
Culture
The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society.
Folk Culture
Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, customs, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
Popular Culture
Cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are a part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influemced western societies.
Local Culture
Group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who wrk to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themsleves from others.
Material Culture
The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.
Nonmaterial Culture
The beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people.
Hierarchical Diffusion
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples.
Hearth
The area where an idea or cultural trait originates.
Assimilation
The process through which people lose orginally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture.
Custom
Practice routinely followed by agroup of people.
Cultural Appropriation
The process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit.
Neolocalism
The seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world.
Ethnic Neighborhood
Neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitain city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs.
Commodification
The process through which something is given monetary value. Occurs when a when a good or idea that was previously not regarded as an item to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy.
Authenticity
The accuracy with which a single stereotypical or typecast image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture or its customs.
Distance Decay
The effects of distance interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction.
Time-space Compression
A term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the socail and physiological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity.
Reterritiorialization
With respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own.
Cultural Landscape
The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape.
Placelessness
Defined by the geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next.
Global-local Continuum
The notion that what happens at a global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa.
Glocalization
The process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes.
Folk-housing Region
A region in which the housing stock prodominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area.
Diffusion Routes
The spacial trajectory through which cultural traits or other phenomena spreads.
Accent
A way of pronouncing words that indicates the place of origin or social background of the speaker.
Dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Esperanto
An artificial language invented in 1887, based on the root forms of some words common to the major European languages.
Extinct language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
Ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
Isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
Isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
Language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
Language group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Language family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Lingua franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
Literary tradition
A language that is written as well as spoken.
Monolinguality
Speaking only one language.
Bilinguality
Speaking two languages.
Multilinguality
Speaking several languages.
Official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Orthography
The study of established correct spelling.
Pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
Toponym
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
Trade language
A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other.
Vernacular
The everyday language of the people in a country or region, as distinct from official or formal language.
British Received Pronunication (BRP)
The dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
Creole/Creolized language
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
Ebonics
Dialect spoken by some African Americans.
Franglais
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language.
Spanglish
Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans.
Vulgar Latin
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romand, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Autonomous religion
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Branch (of a religion)
A large and fundamental division within a religion.
Caste
The class of distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law.
Cosmogony
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Denomination
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
Diocese
The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church.
Ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Ghetto
During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Hierarchical religion
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
Missionary
An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion.
Monotheism
The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god.
Pagan
A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times.
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Polytheism
Belief in or worship of more than one god.
Sect
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
Solstice
Time when the Sun is farthest from the equator.
Universalizing religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Interfaith boundary
The boundaries between the world's major faiths.
Intrafaith boundary
The boundaries within a major religion.
Religion
The service and worship of God or the supernatural.
Secularism
A doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations.
Shamanism
Form of a tribal religion that involved community acceptance of a shaman, a religious leader, healer, and worker of magic who, through special powers, can intercede with and interpret the spirit world.
Syncretism
The blending traits from two different cultures to form a new trait.
Traditional/tribal religion
Special forms of ethnic religions distinguished by their small size, their unique identity with localized culture groups not yet fully absorbed into modern society, and their close ties to nature.
Zionism
A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.
Apartheid
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Balkanization
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Balkanized
A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
Blockbusting
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the environment.
Centripetal force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
Ethnic cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcible removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogenous region.
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Multi-ethnic state
State that contains more than one ethnicity.
Multinational state
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Nationality
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
Nation-state
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Race
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Racism
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences product an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Racist
A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.
Self-determination
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
Sharecropper
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Triangular slave trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
political geography
a subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface.
state
a politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community
territoriality
in political geography, a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
sovereignty
a principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states
territorial integrity
the right of a state to defend soverign territory against incurrsion from other states
Peace of Westphalia
Peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years's War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion
mercantilism
a protectionist policy of European states during the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries that promoted a state's economic position in the contest with other countries
nation
a tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes
nation-state
a recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by people who see themselves
democracy
government based on the principle that the people are the ultimate sovereign and have the final say over what happens within the state
multinational state
state with more than one nation within its borders
multistate nation
nation that stretches across borders and across states
stateless nation
a nation that does not have a state
colonialism
rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place
scale
representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization
capitalism
economic model wherein people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit
commodification
the process through which something is given monetary value. It occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy
core
processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth that periphery processes in the world economy
periphery
processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth that core processes in the world economy
semiperiphery
.places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery
ability
in the context of political power, the capacity of a state to influence other states or achieve its goals through diplomatic, economic, and militaristic means
centripetal
forces that tend to unify a country-such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological obectives, and a common faith
centrifugal
forces that tend to divide a country-such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
unitary
highly centralized government where the capital city serves as a focus of power
federal
a government where the state is organized into territories, which have control over government policies and funds
devolution
movement of power from the central government to region governments within the state
territorial representation
system where in each representative is elected from a territorially defined district
reapportionment
process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
splitting
the process by which the majority and minority populations are spread evenly across each of the districts to be created therein ensuring control by the majority of each of the districts
majority-minority districts
the process by which a majority of the population is from the minority
gerrymandering boundary
drawing voting districts to benefit one group over another
geometric boundary
based on grid system. For example, U.S. and Canada is a certain latitude
physical-political boundary
agreed on a geographic landscape. For example, U.S. and Mexico is the Rio Grande
heartland theory
this states that if you control East Europe, you control the world
critical geopolitics
process by which geopoliticians deconstruct and focus on explaining the underlying spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of politicians
unilateralism
world order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process
supranational organization
opposite of devolution, 3 or more members, for mutual benefit of shared goals. Examples-EU, NATO, NAFTA, OPEC, and OEEC
Developing Country
Term that analysts use instead of the term "less developed country."
Economic Development
Process of improving economic/material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology.
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
Compares the ability of men and women to participate in economic and political decision making.
Gender-related Development Index (GDI)
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
Gross Domestic Product
Value of the total number of goods and services produced in a country in a given period of time (normally one year). Also known as GNI (Gross National Income).
Gross National Product
Like "gross domestic product," only the incomes that people earn abroad are also considered.
Human Development Index (HDI)
Created by the United Nations to recognize a country's level of development as function of three factors: economic, social, and demographic factors.
Less Developed Country (LDC)
Country in an earlier stage of development. Several analysts prefer the term "developing country."
Literacy Rate
Percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
More Developed Country (MDC)
Also known as a relatively developed country or a developed country, country that has progressed further along the development continuum.
Neo-colonialism
Country that displays economic dependence on another country; a country that displays so much economic independence on another country, that it seems to be a colony of the independent country.
Primary Sector
Where workers extract materials from Earth through agriculture, and sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry; the portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
Productivity
Value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
What a state's dollar can actually buy compared to another state's dollar; what a country is able to buy.
Quarternary Sector
Sector that includes jobs that focus on business services, such as trade, insurance, banking, advertising, and wholesaling.
Rostow's "Modernization Model"
Model created by W.W. Rostow in the 1950's that gives an idea of where a country is in their stage of development. There are five stages in this model, including: 1. "The traditional society," 2. "The preconditions for takeoff," 3. "The takeoff," 4. "The drive to maturity," 5. "The age of mass consumption."
Secondary Sector
Portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing the process, transformation, and assembly of raw materials into useful products.
Structural Adjustment Programs
Economic policies that encourage international trade.
Tertiary Sector
Portion of the economy concerned with the transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
Value Added
Gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy.
Commodity Chain
Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is exchanged on the world market.
Developing
With response to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare.
Gross National Product
The total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. It includes all goods and services produced by corporations and individuals of a country; whether or not they are located within the country.
Gross National Income
Calculates the monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country, as a more accurate way of measuring a country's wealth in the context of a global economy.
Per Capita GNI
The Gross National Product of a given country divided by its population.
Formal Economy
The legal economy that is taxed and monitored by a government and is included in a government's Gross National Product; as opposed to an informal economy
Informal Economy
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product; as opposed to a formal economy.
Modernization Model
A model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow. The modernization model (sometimes referred to as modernization theory) maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption.
Context
The geographical situation in which something occurs; the combination of what is happening at a variety of scales concurrently
Neocolonialism
The entrenchment of the colonial order, such as trade and investment, under a new guise.
Structuralist Theory
A general term for a model of economic development that treats economic disparities among countries or regions as the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system.
Dependency Theory
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
Dollarization
When a poorer country ties the value of its currency to that of a wealthier country, or when it abandons its currency and adopts the wealthier country's currency as its own.
World-Systems Theory
Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.
Three-Tier Structure
With reference to Immanuel Wallerstein's world-system's theory, the divisions of the world into the core, the periphery, and the semi-periphery as means to help explain the interconnections between places in the global economy.
Trafficking
When a family sends a child or an adult to a labor recruiter in hope that the labor recruiter will send money, and the family member will earn more money to send home.
Structural Adjustment Loans
Loans granted by international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to countries in the periphery and the semi periphery in exchange for certain economic and governmental reforms in that country(e.g. privatization of certain government entities and opening the country to foreign trade and investment)
Vectored Diseases
A disease carried from one host to another by an intermediate host.
Malaria
Vectored Disease spread by mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite in their saliva and which kills approximately 150000 children in the global periphery each year.
Export Processing Zones
Zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment.
Maquiladoras
The term given to zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. The low-wage workers in the primarily foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then export finished goods.
Special Economic Zones
The specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business.
North American Free Trade Agreement
Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries.
Desertification
The encroachment of desert conditions on moister zones along the desert margins, where plant cover and soils are threatened by desiccation-though overuse, in part by humans and their domestic animals, and, possibly, in part because of inexorable shifts in the Earth's environmental zones.
Island of Development
Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure.
Nongovernmental Organizations
International organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues.
Microcredit Program
Program that provides small loans to poor people, especially women, to encourage development of small businesses.
organic agriculture
approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicieds, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs
agriculture
the purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
primary economic activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment; such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
secondary economic activity
economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
tertiary economic activity
economic activity associated with the provision fo services (transportation, banking, retailing, education, routine, office-based jobs)
quaternary economic activity
service sector industires concerned with the collection, processing, and manipuation of information and capital (finance, administration, insurance, legal services)
quinary economic activity
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill (scientific research, high-level management)
plant domestication
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
root crops
crops that are reproduced by cultivating either the roots or cuttings from the plants
seed crops
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants
First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
animal domestication
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
subsistence agriculture
self sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology & emphasizes food production for local consumption, not trade
shifting cultivation
cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegitation has been removed by cutting and burning
slash-and-burn agriculture
see shifting cultivation; cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegitation has been removed by cutting and burning
Second Agricultural Revolution
dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
von Thunen model
A model that explains the location of agricultureal activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Green Revolution
the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
Genetically modified organisms
crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
rectangular survey system
Also called the Public Land Survey, the system was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.
township and range system
A rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior.
metes and bounds system
A system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees. Because of the imprecise nature of metes and bounds surveying, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey system.
longlot survey system
distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Luisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
primogeniture
system where the eldest son in a family, or in exceptional cases, a daughter inherits all of the parent's land
commercial agriculture
term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor fores, and the latest technoloty
monoculture
dependence on a single agricultural commodity
Koppen climatic classification system
Developed by Wladimir Koppen, a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitatiion
climatic regions
Areas of the world with similar climatic characteristics
plantation agriculture
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
luxury crops
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
livestock ranching
the raising of domesticated animals for the produciton of meat and byproducts (leather, wool)
Mediterranean agriculture
specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry summer Mediterranean climate prevails (grapes, olives, figs, citrus, fruits, dates, et al0
agribusiness
General term for the businesses that provide the vast array of goods and services that support the agriculture industry
basic industries
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
business services
services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
central business district (CBD)
the area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered
central place
a market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
central place theory
a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
city-state
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
clustered rural settlement
a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
consumer services
businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services
dispersed rural settlement
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
economic base
a community's collection of basic industries
enclosure movement
the process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century
gravity model
a model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
market area/hinterland
the area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
nonbasic industries
industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
primate city
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
primate city rule
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
public services
services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
range (of a service)
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
rank-size rule
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
service
an activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
settlement
a permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work, and obtain services
threshold
the minimum number of people needed to support the service
Annexation
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States.
Census tract
An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of hte Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
Concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA)
In the United States, two or more adjacent metropolitan statistical areas with overlapping commuting patterns.
Council of government
A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States.
Density gradient
The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
Edge city
A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
Filtering
A process of change in the use of a house, from a single family owner occupancy to abandonment
Gentrification
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
Greenbelt
A ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county withing whica the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indication a functional connection to the central city.
Multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Peripheral model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounding by large suburban residential and business area tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Primary metropolitan statistical area (PMSA)
In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area exceeding 1 million population located within a consolidates metropolitan statistical area.
Public housing
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
Redlining
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Rush (or peak) hour
The four consecutive 15 minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
Sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the CBD.
Smart growth
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and a preserve farmland.
Sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Squatter settlement
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Underclass
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics
Urban renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Urbanized area
In the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built up suburbs
Zoning ordinance
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
acid deposition
Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-and return to Earth's Surface
acid precipitation
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to earth as rain,snow, or fog.
active solar energy systems
Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors.
air pollution
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level that occurs in average air.
animate power
Power supplied by people or animals.
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste;a measure of water pollution
Biodiversity
The number of species within a specific habitat.
biomass fuel
Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
breeder reactor
A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium.
chlorofluorocarbon
A gas used as a solvent, a propelant in aerosols a refrigerant and inplastic foams and fire extinguishers
Conservation
The sustainable use and management of a natural resource through consuming it as a less rapid rate than it can be replaced.
Ferrous
Metals, including iron, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel.
fission
The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy.
fossil fuel
Energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
fusion
Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium.
geothermal energy
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks.
greenhouse effect
Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
hydroelectric power
Power generated by moving water.
inanimate power
Power supplied by machines
Nonferrous
Metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel.
nonrenewable energy
A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
ozone
A gas that absorbs ultraviolet radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 km above Earth's surface.
passive solar energy systems
Solar energy that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices.
photochemical smog
An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution especially from motor vehicles emissions
photovoltaic cell
Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon that collect solar rays.
pollution
Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate.
potential reserve
The amount of energy in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist.
Preservation
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition with as little human impact as possible.
proven reserve
The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits.
radioactive waste
Particles from a nuclear reaction that emits radaition
Recycling
The separation, collection, processing, marketing and reuse of unwanted material.
renewable energy
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
sanitary landfill
A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emission of gasses and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires and to discourage vermin.
sustainable development
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.