Prime minister of Piedmont. Transformed Italy into a nation-state under a constitutional monarchy. Had began as a conservative, but became moderately liberal. Inspired by the ideals of the Enlightenment and classical economics (laissez-faire). Was a strong monarchist who rejected republicanism. Believed that if the Italians proved they were efficient and economically progressive, the great powers may recognize their independence. Therefore, he promoted free trade, railway construction, expansion of credit, and agricultural improvement. Believed only French intervention could defeat Austria and thus, unite Italy. Provoked a war with Austria, and due to French intervention, Austrians were defeated. However, France concluded peace before all of Italy could be regained from Austria. He then stopped Garibaldi before he could form a republican Italy, and united Italy under a constitutional monarchy. The correct chronological order of Bismarck's moves leading to the unification of Germany was in victories against:
a. Denmark, Austria, and France
b. Austria, Denmark and France
c. France, Denmark, and Austria
d, France, Austria, and Denmark
e. Austria, France, and Denmark
Wrote Principles of Political Economy (1817); also known for his concept, the "iron law of wages", in which a rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation. Wages raised, parents have more kids, who would then enter the working field, thus lowering wages; lowered wages would lead to less kids, thus less workers in the working field, resulting in higher wages. Continuing, never-ending cycle. New regime under Louis Phillippe. Politically, was more liberal than the restoration government. Under his reign, revolutionary flag is used, new constitution is regarded as a right for all citizens, Catholicism becomes a religion of a majority, not an official relgion, the government becomes anticlerical, censorship is abolished, and franchise is made wider. Socially however, proved to be conservative. There was much corruption, and the government had little to no sympathy to the lower classes. (1792-7) consisted of the nations of Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, Sardinia. Drove the French from the Austrian Netherlands, and peasants in Western France revolted against being drafted into the army. They were supported and encouraged in their resistance by devout Catholics, royalists, and foreign agents. Attempted to protect their social structures, political systems, and economic interests against the aggression of the revolution. A French noble of the robe, lawyer, and philosophe; a member of parlement and the Bordeaux Academy of Science. Saw the need for reform. In his satires, such as in "The Persian Letters", he criticized European life. Just as with Voltaire, he visited England and was impressed with its society and freedom. His most influential work was "Spirit of Laws". He favored a monarchical government for France that was limited by lesser institutions, such as the aristocracy, etc. Was a political conservative who believed that the oppressive absolutism of France accounted for the degradation of French life. In this, he favored a revival of the aristocracy. Was the first to suggest a division of powers being beneficial to the efficiency of government, in which he somewhat wrongly used Britain as an example. Believed that women were not naturally inferior to men and should have a wider role in society. He showed he was aware of the repression women faced in society. Regardless, he still retained the traditional view of male dominance in the home. Supported women's right of divorce, but favored chastity. Existed after the mid-18th century. Erupted from the literate public and the growing influence of secular printed materials, creating an increasingly influential force that was this. Was a collective effect on political and social life of views circulated in print and discussed in the home, workplace, and in the centers of leisure. Readers of philosophe writers discuss their ideas, then circulate them widely. Supported the expansion of trade, the improvement of agriculture and transport, and the invention of new machinery for manufacturing. Chief bond was the desire to reform religion, political thought, society, government, and the economy for the sake of human liberty. One of the most famous of female astronomers in Germany, she married Gottfried Kirch, who was the official astronomer at the Berlin Academy of Sciences, and became his assistant. She discovered a comet in 1702, but it was not until 1930 that the discovery was ascribed to her, rather than her husband. When her husband died, she applied for permission to continue her work in 1710, but was denied by the academy, even though they knew of her accomplishments. Returned to the academy as an assistant to her son, who was now appointed astronomer. Once again, she was asked to leave. Later died in 1720.