31 terms

Chemistry Acid-Base Unit

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monoprotic acids
contain 1 ionizable hydrogen
ex. HNO3
diprotic acids
contain 2 ionizable hydrogens
ex. H2SO4
triprotic acids
contain 3 ionizable hydrogens
ex. H3PO4
conjugate acid
particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion
conjugate base
particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion
conjugate acid-base pair
consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion
hydronium ion (H3O)
water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion and becomes positively changed one
amphoteric
substance that can act as both an acid and base
Lewis acid
a substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
Lewis base
substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
self-ionization
reaction in which water molecules produce ions
neutral solution
aqueous solution in which [H+] and [OH-] are equal
ion-product constant for water(Kw)
product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water
acidic solution
[H+] > [OH-]
basic solution
[H+] < [OH-]
alkaline solutions
basic solutions
pH
negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration
strong acids
completely ionize in water
weak acids
ionize onl slightly in aq solution
acid dissociation constant(Ka)
ratio of the concentration of the dissociated(or ionized) form of an acid to the concentration of the undissociated (or nonionized)
strong bases
dissociate completely into metal ions and hydroxide ions
base dissociation constant(Kb)
the ratio of the concentration of teh conjugate acid times the concentration of the hydroxide ion to the concentration of the base
weak bases
react with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base
neutralization reactions
reactions in which an acid and a base react in an aq solution to produce a salt and water
equivalence point
moles of hydrogen ions = moles of hydroxide ion (when acid and base are mixed)
standard solution
solution of known concentration
titration
process of adding known amount of solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution
end point
point at which the indicator changes color of a titration
salt hydrolysis
cations or anions of a dissociated salt remove hydrogen ions from or donate hydrogen ions to water
buffer
a solution in which the pH remains relatively constant when small amounts of acid or base are added
buffer capacity
amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs