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Health Psychology Exam #2
Terms in this set (100)
Actions taken to slow the damage of disease or rehabilitate a patient are generally referred to as:
What are the three types of prevention?
Primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention
What are examples of health behaviors?
Exercising, using sunscreen, wearing a seatbelt, etc.
What are not examples of health behaviors?
Eating a low protein diet, smoking, using drugs, alcohol, etc.
Health behaviors are:
Health-enhancing behaviors or habits
Which theory emphasizes the importance of perceived susceptibility to a health threat, perceived severity of the threat, and perceived benefits of treatment?
Wearing a seat belt is to _________ prevention as taking chemotherapy to treat a cancerous tumor is to _________ prevention.
Morbidity refers to a state of being:
Disabled, ill, or in pain
Regular exercise reduces an older person's risk for:
Cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis
Compared with people who have health insurance, people who do not have health insurance:
Receive less medical care
A health message that focuses on a negative outcome from failing to perform a health-promoting behavior is a:
Loss-framed messages are particularly effective in promoting _________ behaviors, whereas gain-framed messages are particularly effect in promoting _______ behaviors.
After an especially stressful day at work, Connie isn't interested in talking to her family and just wants to be by herself. Connie's behavior is an example of:
Self-efficacy refers to:
The belief that one is able to successfully perform a health behavior
The major finding of the Alameda Health Study was that:
Men who regularly practice seven health habits had lower mortality rates than those who practiced few or none of these health habits
According to the theory of planned behavior, the best way to predict whether a health behavior will occur is to measure a person's:
Lower cortisol levels and stronger immune systems are found in people who:
Have a strong sense of control in their lives
The most widely used health education model is the:
More people are treated for _________ in the United States than for all other health conditions combined.
The Glycemic Index ranks _________ based on how quickly your body converts them to _________.
What is the unhealthiest type of fat?
The so-called bad cholesterol is to _________ as good cholesterol is to _________.
The best predictor of heart disease is the total level of:
LDL in the body
The minimum number of calories your body needs to maintain bodily functions at rest is called:
Basal metabolic rate
When a person's weight falls below its set point, he or she is likely to feel a(n) _________ in hunger and a(n) _________ in metabolic rate.
From an evolutionary perspective, what is the advantage of a set point for body weight?
The tendency to maintain excess calories as fat helped protect people during food shortages.
The brain's "master center" for weight regulation is the:
Obesity is defined as a BMI greater than:
The relationship between BMI and relative risk of death is best described as being:
What does BMI stand for?
Body mass index
What is true regarding obesity in the United States?
Obesity and income are inversely related, obesity is inversely related to education level, and obesity is more prevalent among African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, and other minority groups.
What has been offered as an explanation for the relationship between obesity and socioeconomic status?
Fresh foods are expensive and the stress of poverty may trigger increased eating as a defensive coping mechanism, lower-income people have more limited access to health care services, and less educated people may lack knowledge about the hazards of obesity.
What are food deserts?
Geographical areas with little or no access to healthy foods
What is included in the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa?
Intense fear of weight gain, refusal to maintain a body weight above 85% what is "normal", and disturbance of body image.
What is no included in the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa?
Lack of control over eating
A person who engages in bouts of excessive overeating, followed by feeling of distress - but who does not binge, purge, fast, or exercise excessively - is said to have:
What are characteristics of patients and families of women with bulimia?
A higher-than-average incidence of depression, poor impulse control, and a higher-than-average incidence of alcoholism.
What is not a characteristic of patients and families of women with bulimia?
Overprotective, competitive parents
Anorexia patients are most likely to have parents who:
Are high achieving and protective
The chances that a young woman will be diagnosed with a clinical eating disorder are much greater if she has:
A high rate of depression before the onset of disordered eating, a twin who has anorexia, or a female relative who has anorexia.
The first priority in treating anorexia nervosa is:
Restoring body weight
What is the social cognitive theory?
Emphasizes reciprocally determined relationships among environmental events, internal processes, and behavior.
The biggest factor in the impact of care giving on a person's health is the:
Length of the patient's illness
What is primary prevention?
Health-enhancing efforts to prevent disease or injury from occurring
What are examples of primary prevention?
seatbelts, good nutrition, exercising, not smoking, health screening
What is secondary prevention?
Identifying and treating illness/disability early
What are examples of secondary prevention?
Monitoring symptoms, medication, dietary changes, following treatment regimens
What is tertiary prevention?
Containing damage once disease or disability has progressed beyond its early stages
What are examples of tertiary prevention?
Radiation therapy, chemotherapy
What is a downfall of tertiary prevention?
Less cost-effective and beneficial than primary or secondary prevention
What is the most common form of prevention in the USA?
How many adults are sleep deprived?
What is sleep deprivation caused by?
Sleep disorders, stress/demanding work/study schedule
What are examples of sleep disorders?
Insomnia, narcolepsy, sleepwalking, sleep apnea
What are effects of sleep debt?
Increased weight, suppression of immune function, mimicking accelerated aging, impaired concentration
What are examples of prevention?
Exercise, use of infant car seats, using condoms
What are examples of detection?
Skin cancer, HIV testing
What was determined concerning lymphocytes and finding benefit?
Lymphocyte improvement is related to increased finding benefit
What are examples of Low Glycemic Foods?
Skim milk, apples, oranges, plums, sweet potatoes
What are examples of Moderate Glycemic Foods?
Bananas, pineapple, whole wheat bread, rye bread, brown rice
What are examples of High Glycemic Foods?
Watermelon, instant rice, french fries, table sugar, white potatoes/bread
How much of obesity is related to genes?
The weights of adopted siblings are:
What are psychological factors of obesity?
Emotions, stress, lifestyles, depression
What is a risk for binge eating?
Obese people are more sensitive to:
External food-related cues, such as smelling McDonald's
Obesity is inversely related to:
SES, socioeconomic status
What are social factors in obesity?
Ideal body image, culture's dietary customs, barriers to healthy-weight lifestyle
What ethnicity typically has the best health?
What is a food desert?
Affordable, fresh, health food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile
When does weight control need to start?
In childhood, as childhood obesity continues into adulthood
What can be done in schools to help with weight control?
Improved diets/lunches, exercise
How can parents help children with weight control?
Make them exercise, restrict their TV usage, no unhealthy food rewards, no high-cholesterol or sugary food, healthy breakfast, no nighttime snacks
What is the best way to lose weight?
Lose it gradually over time and make it a permanent lifestyle
Miracle diets are:
nutritionally unsound or unpleasant and have unhealthy side effects
What are benefits of exercise concerning weight control?
Increased metabolism, reduced body fat, helps maintain weight loss
Exercise + dieting =
more weight loss than dieting alone
What is the most common cause of death in both men and women?
What is LDL?
What is LDL linked to?
Plaque deposits in blood, development of heart disease
What is HDL?
What does HDL do?
Carries away LDL to be processed or removed by liver; provides protection against heart disease
What are ways that communities can promote weight control?
Promote availability of affordable healthy food/drink, encourage breast feeding, encourage physical activity, limit sedentary activity in children and youth, create communities that support physical activity
What percent of people with eating disorders are women?
What is anorexia nervosa?
The intense fear of gaining weight, less than 85% average weight for height, distorted body image
What is lost when suffering from anorexia?
Menstrual cycle (amenorrhea)
What percent of people with anorexia die?
How do those who die from anorexia die?
Low blood pressure, heart damage, cardiac arrhythmias
You cannot develop anorexia unless:
it is in your genes
What is the only psychological condition that is directly fatal?
What are some hypothesized causes of anorexia?
Family history of OCD, critical perfectionism, or poor conflict resolution; being "perfectionist" irrational about body expectations, feelings of mastery over body, cultural emphasis on being thin
Anorexia happens in:
What is one condition caused by anorexia that does not go away even away the disease is gone?
Poor bone density: once it's lost it cannot be regained
Genes _________, environment _________
load the gun; pulls the trigger
What is the clear indication of anorexia?
Being extremely underweight
What are compensatory behaviors?
Behaviors compensating for the calories taken in
What is bulimia nervosa?
Recurrent binge eating followed by purging, fasting, and/or intense exercising
What are some hypothesized causes of bulimia?
Lower serotonin levels; extreme dieting; normative influence: approval by peers; higher rates of alcoholism, substance abuse, obesity, depression
What is the first priority in treating eating disorders?
Why does no one want to work with patients with eating disorders?
The success rate is very low
Which action is MOST likely to help someone who is in need of social support?
How to choose the right exercise
Why is important that Bernard called his book an introduction to the study of EXPERIMENTAL medicine ? what was his perspective of the study of the biological basis of health and disease?
children who had been abandoned by their parents
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