Piaget's Former Operation
The final stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think abstractly
---- capacity for abstract thought.
Piaget's Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning
Ability to accompany the sate of formal operations, to develop a hypothesis, and design an experiment to test it
Elkind's 6 ImmatureCharacteristics of Adolescent Thought: Idealism and Criticalness
Adolescents envision an ideal world, they realize how far the real world, for which they hold adults responsible, falls short.
Elkind's 6 Immature Characteristics of Adolescent Thought: Argumentativeness
Adolescents are always looking for opportunities to try out their reasoning abilities
Elkind's 6 Immature Characteristics of Adolescent Thought: Indecisiveness
Adolescents can keep many alternatives in mind at the same time yet may lack effective strategies for choosing among them
Elkind's 6 Immature Characteristics of Adolescent Thought: Self-Counsciousness
Imaginary audience- Elkind's term for an observer who exist only in an adolescent's thoughts and actions as the adolescent is.
Elkind's 6 Immature Characteristics of Adolescent Thought: Apparent Hypocracy
The difference between experessing an ideal and making the sacrafaces necessary to live up to it
Elkind's 6 Immature Characteristics of Adolescent Thought: Specialness and Invulnerability
Personal Fable- term for conviction that on is special, unique, and not subject to the rules that govern the rest of the world.
The ability to understand another person's point of view and level of knowledge and tailor their own speech accordingly.
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning: Level I
Preconventional Morality - People act under external controls, obeying rules to avoid punishment, get rewards, or out of self interest (ages 4-10)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning: Level II
Conventional Morality - People are concerned about being "good," pleasing others, and maintaining the social order (after age 10). Standards of authority figures are internalized (Golden Rule)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning: Level III
Post-Conventional Theory - People now recognize conflicts between moral standards and make their own judgments based on right, fairness, and justice principles (young adulthood or never)
Prosocial Moral Reasoning
Moral dilemmas in which one person's needs or desires conflict with those of others in which social rules or norms are unclear or nonexistent