Terms in this set (172)
Paying taxes is an example of
When an individual gives something to someone else but expects nothing in return, this is an example of
In what sense are nonindustrial economies embedded in society?
Relations of production, distribution, and consumption are social relations with economic aspects.
What is a mode of production?
The way production is organized in a society
Which of the following is found in all human societies?
Gender-based division of labor
Means of production include
Land, labor, and technology
Horticulture makes intensive use of
none of the factors of production
All humans were foragers until approximately
10,000 years ago
which of the following is not one of the adaptive strategies included in Cohen's typology?
Which of the following is a characteristic shared by most present-day foragers?
They live in marginal environments
What kind of social unit is common among foragers?
For most of human history, people lived in societies characterized by what kind of sociopolitical organization?
Which of the following statements about nonstate societies is true?
Economic, political, and religious activities are often interrelated
In band societies, what typically determines the amount of respect or status that an individual enjoys?
Culturally valued personal attributes
Kin groups whose members are related to a common ancestor are known as
Which of the following statements about leaders in foraging bands is true?
They have no means of forcing people to follow their decisions
What kind of exchange principle was prominent in Polynesian chiefdoms?
What is the name of the postmarital residence pattern in which a married couple is expected to live in the husband's community?
Which of the following is one of the main differences between descent groups and nuclear families?
Descent groups are permanent, while nuclear families are not
Which of the following statements about the incest taboo is true?
The incest taboo does not eliminate incest
What is the name of the family in which a child is raised?
Family of orientation
What is the most stable social group among band societies with a seasonal pattern of population dispersal?
The nuclear family
The incest taboo is a cultural universal, but
not all cultures define incest the same way
What is polygyny?
A situation in which a man has more than one wife at the same time
The gift that a wife's group gives to her husband's family is known as
What term refers to the practice of marrying a person outside of the group to which one belongs?
the lack of a clear public-domestic dichotomy contributes to reduced gender inequality
The term intersex describes
a discrepancy between external and internal genitals
Which of the following statements concerning gender stratification is true?
Gender stratification is generally reduced when the domestic and public spheres are not sharply separated
Which of the following is not culturally constructed
In general, the status of women
is higher in matrilineal societies than it is in patrilineal societies
What term refers to the tasks and activities that a culture assigns to the sexes?
In general, societies with the patrilineal-patrilocal complex are characterized by all of the following except
inheritance of land and prestige through female lines
A political system rules by men in which women have inferior status is known as a
More than half of American households with income below the poverty line
are headed by women
What is the domestic-public dichotomy?
Strong differentiation between the home and the outside world
Which of the following statements about patrilineal-patrilocal societies is true?
Men control the prestige hierarchy
According to Tylor, what is the sequence through which religion evolved?
Animism, polytheism, monotheism
Polytheism refers to
belief in multiple gods
What kind of magic is based on the belief that whatever is done to an object will affect a person who once had contact with it?
According to Tylor, what kind of religion is based on the idea that a person's body is inhabited by two entities- one that is active during the day and another (a double or soul) that is active during sleep and trances?
What term refers to the manipulation of the supernatural to accomplish specific goals?
Rites of passage usually consist of what phases?
Separation, liminality, and incorporation
What is the term for the marginal or in-between phase of a rite of passage?
Witchcraft accusations are often aimed at
socially marginal people
What is communitas
A feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness
The use of voodoo dolls is an example of
What term refers to a custom or social action that operates to reduce status differences and bring standouts in line with community norms?
Which of the following statements about religions is not true?
Religion serves only to maintain social solidarity; it does not create or maintain social divisions
The largest religion in the world, in terms of number of practitioners, is
All of the following are examples of shamans except
Witch hunts are an example of a religion's function as
a form of social control
What fueled the European "Age of Discovery"?
European commercial interest in exotic raw materials
Which of the following resulted from the growing demand for sugar in Europe?
The transatlantic slave trade developed
What term is used to refer to the study of the interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized?
Which of the following statements about world-system theory is not true?
It deals exclusively with non-West, horticultural societies
What are the three positions that nations occupy in the world system?
Core, periphery, and semiperiphery
Which is not generally true of core nations?
They have less control over world finance than do semiperiphery nations
have economies that are shaped to serve the interests of the core
Which of the following statements concerning semiperiphery nations is not true?
Their economic activities are less mechanized than those in the periphery
According to Weber, what are the three dimensions of social stratification?
Wealth, power, prestige
Which of the following statements about the world system is not true?
It depends on each nation producing all that is needed by its own population
In terms of energy consumption, which of the following nations consumes the most nonrenewable resources today?
Modern colonialism began
during the European "Age of Discovery"
The political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time is known as
Neoliberalism entails all of the following except
the belief that property should be communally owned and that people should work for the common good
What is the dominant intervention philosophy today?
Which of the following is not true of 20th-century industrialization?
It had tremendously beneficial effects on the economies, ecologies, and populations of "developing" nations in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific
The term indigenous peoples is used to refer to
the original inhabitants of particular territories
What is the term for identification with, and feeling part of, a cultural group, and exclusion from other cultural groups?
What is the term for ethnic groups that once has, or which to have or regain, autonomous political status?
Which of the following statements about social race is true?
Social races are groups assumed to have a biological basis but actually are defined in a culturally arbitrary manner
What term refers to the view that cultural diversity in a country is something good and desirable?
What is the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States?
What is the term for policies and practices that harm a group and its members?
When a dominant group compels a minority group to adopt the dominant culture, this is known as
People may occupy different social statuses during their lives, or even during the course of a day. What term refers to a person's ability to emphasize different identities in different social contexts?
Situational negotiation of identity (Final '12)/ Ethnic Identity (Quiz)
In what sense are nationalities "imagined communities"?
Despite their shared feelings of comradeship, most members of a nation will never meet
Discrimination that is not legally sanctioned is known as
de facto discrimination
What term refers to the devaluing of a group because of its assumed behaviors, values, abilities, or attributes?
What term refers to the destruction of an ethnic group's culture?
What rule automatically places the children of a union between members of different groups in the minority group?
An examination of racial classifications from around the world indicates that
the classification of racial types is an arbitrary, culturally specific process
Which of the following statements about ethnicity is not true?
Unlike race, ethnicity derives from biological differences among human groups
Segregation in the southern United States under the "Jim Crow laws" and apartheid in South Africa are examples of
de jure discrimination
How does horticulture differ from agriculture?
Agriculture frequently involves the use of terraces, while horticulture does not
Which of the following is not associated with the market principle?
Fixed values for products
Foraging economies are usually associated with which type of sociopolitical organization?
The internalization of a dominant ideology is called
What is a "big man"?
a person of influence and prestige
In which kind of society is it most likely that leaders will acquire their positions as a result of their personal backgrounds or abilities, rather than heredity?
What term do social scientists use to refer to the socially approved use of power?
What is an ascribed status?
A status that a person has little or no choice about occupying
Why does a big man accumulate wealth?
Big men do not keep the wealth they accumulate but rather redistribute it to create and maintain alliances with political supporters
What term refers to a gift made by the husband and his kin to the bride and her kin?
What term refers to a unilineal descent group whose members claim, but cannot demonstrate, common descent from an apical ancestor?
Which of the following statements about the domestic-public dichotomy is true?
It tends to be more pronounced among agriculturalists than among foragers
Kottak argues that the relatively high incidence of expanded family households among poorer North Americans is
an adaptation to poverty
In matrilineal societies
descent groups include only the children of the group's women
What have recent cross-cultural studies of gender roles demonstrated?
The relative status of women is variable, depending on factors such as subsistence strategy, the importance of welfare, and the prevalence of a domestic-public dichotomy
Which type of a situation is most likely to result in a matrilineal-matrilocal society?
Welfare is infrequent
What are the two basic social units typically found in foraging societies?
Nuclear family and band
Which of the following statements about religion is not true?
Religion serves only to maintain social solidarity; it does not create or maintain social division
Who was the founder of the anthropology of religion?
Edward B. Tylor
Which of the following is a major difference between Brazilian and American racial classifications?
In the U.S., social race is determined at birth and does not change, but in Brazil, racial identity can change from day to day
Which of the following statements about Marx is not true?
He viewed socioeconomic stratification in terms of several classes with different but complementary interests
Which of the following is true about the U.S. census form?
The choice of "some other race" has increased since 1980
Which of the following is not a proper role for an applied anthropologist?
Helping to impose development programs designed solely by international authorities
Which of the following statements about television is true?
It can enhance national cultural identity by diffusing the cultures of countries within their own borders
What is an illness?
A health problem as it is experienced by the affected individual
According to Kottak, what is a common problem for international development projects?
They often assume the best way to increase production and income is through industrialization
What is a disease?
A scientifically identified health threat
Which of the following does not describe indigenous identities?
They are fixed
What does it mean for people to live multilocally?
Migrants maintain ties with their native lands through phoning, e-mailing, visiting, sending money, and watching ethnic TV
What is the term for our contemporary world in flux, with people on the move, in which established canons, categories, distinctions, and boundaries are breaking down?
Globalization as fact
is the spread of connectedness of production, communication, and technologies around the world
Which of the following statements about applied anthropology is not true?
Applied anthropology is a recently developed subfield within anthropology and reflects an entirely new concern with the application of anthropology to social problems
Where are most anthropologists employed today?
Universities and colleges
Applied anthropology's systemic perspective recognizes that
changes don't occur in a vacuum, and a program or project has multiple effects
What did Robert Redfield argue regarding the relations between urban and rural communities?
Cities were centers from which cultural innovations were spread to rural and tribal areas
What term refers to the rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures?
Given the mobility of people today, anthropologists increasingly are shifting their attention from local communities to
Which of the following should not be one of the goals of an applied anthropological approach to urban programs?
Create a single universal policy to be applied to all urban communities
What is a common goal of development projects?
To create equity
What term refers to the tendency to view less-developed countries as more alike than they are?
Horticulture makes intensive use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capital, and machinery (T/F)
The San, Inuit, and Kwakiuti are all pastoralists, although the practice is becoming rare because of globalization and state policies (T/F)
With transhumance, the entire group- women, men, and children- moves with the animals throughout the year (T/F)
With market exchange, items are bought and sold, using money, with an eye to maximizing profit (T/F)
Negative reciprocity involves the attempt to get something for as little as possible (T/F)
In bands and tribes, it is difficult to characterize an act or event as political rather than social (T/F)
Sociologist Max Weber defined three related dimensions of social stratification: wealth, power, and prestige (T/F)
Inequalities, which are built into the structure of state-organized societies, tend to persist across the generations. The extent to which they do or don't is a measure of the openness of the stratification system, the ease of social mobility permits (T/F)
Social controls are cultural standards or guidelines that enable individuals to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Norms refer to those fields of the social system (beliefs, practices, and institutions) that are most actively involved in the maintenance of any rules and the regulation of conflict (T/F)
Hegemony, the internalization of a dominant ideology, is one way in which elites curb resistance and maintain power (T/F)
Much of kinship is culturally constructed, that is, based on learning and variable from culture to culture (T/F)
Most of the people whom middle-class North Americas see every day are either nonrelatives or members of the nuclear family (T/F)
Most people in North America belong to only one nuclear family during their lives (T/F)
A person's pater is his or her socially recognized father (T/F)
Endogamy rules dictate mating or marriage within a group to which one belongs (T/F)
Polygyny is plural marriage in which a man has more than one wife (T/F)
Gender is a biological reality (T/F)
Gender stratification refers to oversimplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females (T/F)
Women tend to be the primary child caregivers in most societies, but men often play a role (T/F)
During World War II, the notion that women were biologically unfit for hard physical labor became firmly established in the United States (T/F)
Abuse of women is more common in societies where women are separated from supportive kin (e.g., patrilineal-patrilocal societies) (T/F)
Because religion persists, it must do something more than explain the mysterious (T/F)
Totemism uses nature as a model for society. Diversity in the natural order becomes the model for diversity in the social order (T/F)
Witchcraft accusations are often directed at prominent, socially conformist individuals (T/F)
In the context of comparative religion, the idea that the secular can become sacred is surprising, since most societies separate the secular and the sacred domains (T/F)
The behavior considered appropriate for religious occasions is quire similar from culture to culture (T/F)
Throughout human history, truly isolated cultures probably have never existed (T/F)
During the 16th and 17th centuries, increased demand for potatoes in Europe fueled the development of colonial plantation economies based on this cash crop (T/F)
The pressures of the global economy have led companies in the United States to become more ideologically opposed to unions and more aggressive in discouraging organizing drives (T/F)
Whole countries, along with social groups and divisions within them, were colonial inventions (T/F)
After the fall of Communism (1989-1991), there has been a revival of economic liberalism, now known as neoliberalism, which has been spreading globally because, unlike past influential intervention philosophies, this one works (T/F)
The term "Hispanic" refers to a racial group (T/F)
Social race is defined much less rigidly in Brazil than it is in the United States (T/F)
Human beings fit nicely into discrete categories based on only a few phenotypic traits (T/F)
The "melting pot" model best describes the process of assimilation (T/F)
A refugee is a person who belongs to the dominant culture in a plural society (T/F)
Ethical dilemmas often confront development anthropologists. For example, anthropolgists' respect for cultural diversity is often offended because efforts to extend industry and technology may entail profound cultural changes (T/F)
Successful economic development projects must replace local cultural patterns (T/F)
A commonly stated goal of recent development policy is to promote equity. Increased equity means reduced poverty and a more even distribution of wealth (T/F)
Only societies with naturalistic disease theories have properly developed health care systems (T/F)
Many businesses hire anthropologists because of their expertise in gathering data through observation in their natural settings, and their focus on cultural diversity (T/F)
Globalization as a systemic connectedness reflects the relentless and ongoing growth of the world system. In its current form, that system, which has existed for centuries, has some radical new aspects: (1) the speed of global communication, (2) the scale (complexity and size) of global networks, and (3) the sheer volume of international transactions. (T/F)
Because our planet's climate is always changing, the key question becomes: How much global warming is due to human activities, versus climate variability? On this issue, most scientists agree that the causes are mainly anthropogenic (T/F)
Modernity describes our time and situation: today's world in flux, these people on the move who have learned to manage multiple identities depending on place and context (T/F)
Indigenous groups always benefit from environmental programs intended to save their homelands (T/F)
Social movements worldwide now use the term "indigenous people" as a self-identifying label in their quests for social, cultural, and political rights (T/F)