Exam #2 Ch. 6, 7, 8, & 9
Terms in this set (81)
Broad as they are long and are shaped like cubes. . Ex: wrist, tarsal bones of the ankle
Thin, flat, often curved; protect organs such as the skull, the ribs and breastbone. Ex: femur of the thigh, humerus of the arm they work like levers to move limbs
Head of each end of a long bone.
Central shaft-like portion of the bone.
What covers the surface of the epiphysis of a long bone?
How long does it take an uncomplicated fracture to heal?
8 to 12 weeks
In most adults, what is the medullary cavity filled with?
Which bone cell assists in forming bone in the matrix?
Which cell assists with the regulation of calcium blood levels?
How is a bone different from other connective tissue?
What does calcium salts do for bone?
Allow bones to resist strong squeezing forces.; compressional strength.
What happens when bone has an increase in load?
Osteocytes stimulate the creation of new bone.
Why are trabeculae arranged in a certain way?
To offer maximum strength.
What is the basic unit of compact bone?
How does blood and nutrients get from the bone's exterior to the osteocytes?
What does the face and skull of the fetus begin as?
Fibrous connective tissue
What does most bones begin as in a fetus?
Cartilage and Fibrous connective tissue
What is red bone marrow?
It is charged with producing red blood cells. Nearly all of a child's bones contain it.
Where does endochondral ossification begin?
Begins in the long bone
What makes bone matrix form in the fetus?
Clusters of osteoblasts
When does bone begin to form?
After about 3 months gestation
When is the skull completely ossified?
What is endochondral ossification?
Process in the fetus whereby cartilaginous skeleton transforms into bone.
What is an epiphyseal plate? 89
A layer of hyaline cartilage at each end of the bone.
When does bone lengthening stop?
Somewhere between the ages of 16 and 25, all of the cartilage of the epiphyseal plate is replaced with spongy bones.
What does physical exercise do to bone?
Increases bone density
How many bones are in the adult human?
What does bone surface markings do?
Flat or rounded allow for joint formation, Projections allow for muscle attachment, and depressions or passages that provide routes for blood vessels and nerves
What are some of the bones found in the appendicular skeleton?
Pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, and lower limbs
Which bones join to form the top of the cranial cavity?
If a child falls backward and hits the lower portion of the back of their head, which bone is most likely to be injured?
If a boxer gets a hard upward blow to the nose, if clear fluid leaks from his nose later, what the most likely explanation?
This can drive bone fragments through the cribriform plate and into the brain. If this happens cerebrospinal fluid will leak out of the nose.
The temporal bone is a part of which structure?
What is the suture between the parietal and frontal bones called?
Which 2 bones form the upper jaw?
Which bones help to make the orbit?
Which bones help to form the foundation of the face?
What do the sinuses do?
The lighten the skull and act as resonators for sound production.
How do you explain the widened suture line in infants?
Hydrocephalus, a condition in which excessive amounts of cerebrospinal fluid accumulate in the brain.
What are the vertebral column 5 main sections if you start at the neck?
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx
What did the Hunchback of Notre Dame suffer from?
What are the bumps that are felt as you run your hand along the spine called?
The weight bearing portion of the vertebra is called?
What do the intervertebral disks do?
Support weight and absorb shock.
Which ribs are connected to the sternum?
True ribs 1-7
Where does the arm and the scapula attach to the rest of the skeleton?
The long bone of the upper arm is called? Pg. 110
What's in the wrist?
Distinguish between the female and the male pelvis?
The true pelvis is wide in shallow in females and narrow and deep in males
How do you measure the pelvic outlet?
The distance between the two ischial bones
Two bones are joined by cartilage in which type of joint?
What are the suture joints in the skull called?
What is the most versatile joint in the body?
The sheet of connective tissue that covers the cavity of synovial joints is called?
Which joint provides friction-free movement?
What is synovial fluid?
Slippery, viscous fluid that has the consistency of an egg white; Lubricates the joint, nourishes the cartilage, and contains phagocytes to remove debris.
Which synovial joint is the least mobile?
Which synovial joint gives the widest range of movement?
The joint that gives flexion and extension and side to side movement is?
Which joint is more mobile than stable?
Where is the rotator cuff found?
When does osteoarthritis occur?
Over the age of 70; The articular cartilage softens and degenerates, sometimes to the point of bone is exposed to bone
Describe skeletal muscle.
Striated, voluntary and is attached to bone and causes movement of the body.
The connective tissue that covers each muscle fiber is called?
Bundles of muscle fibers
The connective tissue that surrounds the muscle is called?
Explain how muscle attaches to another muscle.
Aponeurosis; fuses with the covering of the other muscle.
Flat, broad tendon that attaches a muscle to another muscle or to bone.
Long protein bundles that fill the sarcoplasm of a muscle fiber.
Describe the function of T tubules.
Allow electrical impulses to travel deep into the cell.
The units of contraction in a muscle is?
How does muscle contraction occur according to the myofilament model of contraction?
When the myosin heads latch on the actin myfilaments.
What does muscle contraction require besides ATP?
Describe the sequence of events in muscle contraction?
1. Impulse reaches the end of a motor neuron and causes small vesicles to fuse with the cell membrane and release ACh in synaptic cleft.
2. ACh diffuses across the synaptic cleft, then stimulates receptors in the sarcolemma.
3. Sends electrical impulse over the sarcoplasmic and inward along the T tubules. This causes the sacs in the sarcoplasmic to release calcium.
4. Calcium binds with troponin to expose attachment points. Myosin heads grab onto thin filaments and muscle contraction occurs.
If a patient has myasthenia gravis, their body will produce antibodies against receptors for Ach. Not all the Ach will find a receptor, what symptoms do you expect the patient to exhibit?
Profound muscular weakness
What influences the strength needed for a muscle fiber to contract?
The strength depends upon the length of the fibers before the contractions begin.
If impulses happen too quickly so that fibers can't relax completely prior to the next impulse arrives, what will happen?
Skeletal muscle remains in a state of?
If a sprinter is running the 400 yard dash in 50 seconds, where does the muscles get most of their energy?
After 10 minutes of exercise, how does muscle get its energy and what is the benefit over other methods?
What happens when you extend the forearm?
Triceps is the prime mover and brachialis is the antagonist