In 1274 and 1281, Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, led major military efforts to conquer the Japanese archipelago after the submission of Goryeo (Korea) to vassaldom. The first invasion involved 40,000 soldiers and the second invasion involved 140,000 soldiers attacking the Hakata Bay. Japan built two meter high walls to protect themselves from the attacks. Japan had been saved twice by major storms that often proved devastating to its own 5 population during the typhoon season. From this miracle salvation the Japanese termed the storm 'kamikaze', meaning 'divine wind'. Nevertheless, the Mongol invasion caused a drain on the economy of Kamakura Shōgunate, because new taxes had to be levied to maintain defensive preparations. It also caused disaffection and disappointment among samurai who expected recompense for their help in defeating the Mongols since there were no lands or other rewards to be given to the samurai vassals. This disaffection, combined with overextension and the increasing defense costs, led to a decline of the Kamakura Shōgunate Groups of cultured people = bunjin (wenren in Chinese), Japanese attempt to perform the Chinese literati tradition. Engaged in all different kinds of art and cultural practice: painting,
poetry, calligraphy, prose writing, ceramics, tea ceremony, etc. Kimura Kenkadō (1736-1802) was a sake merchant and major patron of art and culture. People of all different classes: nobles, samurai, peasants, artisans and merchants got involved. Both male and female artists and writers were active.