Terms in this set (158)
Which class of hormone originates from cholesterol precursor?
Which organs secrete steroids?
ovaries, testis, adrenal cortex
Which organs secrete protein/peptide hormones?
anterior pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas
What organs secrete amino acid hormones?
thyroid, adrenal medulla
what are the three classes of hormones?
steroid, protein/peptide, amino acids
What are the two types of hormone receptors?
where are peptides and amino acids stored?
Which types of hormones use intracellular receptors?
which types of hormones use membrane receptors?
amino acids, peptides
Which two diseases are caused by an an excess production of hormones?
Which two diseases are caused by receptor not working?
testicular feminization syndrome, thyroid hormone resistance
Which disease is caused by a lack of receptors?
type 2 diabetes
Which disease is caused by the transformation of non-endocrine tissue causing production of different hormones?
(cancerous tumor altering hormones)
anal sac tumor producing parathyroid hormone
Which hormones does the hypothalamus synthesize?
Which part of the hypothalamus
oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
which hormone stimulates smooth muscle contractions? It is is inhibited by progesterone
Disease caused by lack of responsiveness to ADH, typically involves abnormalities of ADH production
Which hormone acts on kidneys (decrease water output)
If you drink a lot of water does your brain produce more or less ADH?
If you eat too much salt, or sweat a lot does your brain produce more or less ADH?
Which hormone acts on somatotrophs and stimulates production of GH
Which hormone acts on somatotrophs and inhibits production of GH
which hormone acts on luteotropes and folliculotropes to stimulate production of FSH, LH
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH/LHRH)
which hormone acts on thyrotropes to stimulate TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
Which hormone acts on corticotrophins to stimulate production ACTH (adrenocorticotropic)?
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
Which is the only hormone under inhibitory control? What inhibits it?
What does GnRH do?
stimulates LH, FSH
What are the two main functions of prolactin?
mammary gland development, milk production
What causes hyperprolactinemia?
prolactin secreting tumor inhibiting gonadotropin
What does bST stand for?
bovine somatotropin (GH)
What disease is caused by an excess of GH during adulthood?
what disease is caused by an excess of GH during childhood?
What disease is caused by a lack of GH
where are catecholcholamines synthesized and secreted?
what diseased is associates with excess levels of catecholamines, chromatin cell tumors
excess secretions of catecholamines by more than one tissue
multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)
What organs to T3 and T4 have negative feedback on?
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary
What 3 hormones are catecholamines?
dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
which two classes of hormones use tyrosine as their derivative?
Which cells trap iodine and make thyroid hormones?
follicular epithelial cells
Where are T3 and T4 stored in the thyroid?
colloid in lumen of follicle
What do thyroid hormones bind to in the blood?
thyroxine binding globulin (TBG)
What converts T4 to T3?
If you remove Thyroid gland does TSH/TRH go up or down?
term for developmental hypothyroidism
Disease caused by malfunction of thyroid, not making enough T4
disease caused by abnormality of pituitary, not making enough TSH
disease caused by abnormality in hypothalamus, not making enough TRH
what is the major cause of hypothyroidism
what is the second most common cause of hypothyroidism?
lymphocytic thyroiditis (hashimotos)
What is the major cause of hyperthyroidism?
multi nodular adenomatous goiter
Gel delivery of MMI (methimazole)
pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO)
What are pancreatic beta cells made of?
insulin (stores glucose)
what are pancreatic alpha cells made of?
glucagon (mobilize glucose)
what are pancreatic delta cells made of?
What is the bodies only source of insulin?
What is the bodies only hypoglycemic hormone?
What is the action of insulin on fat metabolism?
what is the action of insulin on protein metabolism?
increases protein synthesis
What is the action of insulin on glucose metabolism?
converts glucose to glycogen, inhibits gluconeogenesis
What is ketoaciduria caused by?
What is the effect of glucagon in the liver?
increases gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis
Does glucagon increase or decrease lipolysis?
What is the effect of glucagon on the muscle?
increases FFA, inhibits glucose uptake
What is the role of somatostatin on insulin/glucagon?
slows down production
What disease is caused by a loss of function of pancreatic beta cells?
What disease is caused by a decrease in the number or responsiveness of insulin receptors
What causes NIDDM?
insulin resistance, obesity
What causes Ketoacidosis?
What is epinephrines effect of insulin
What hormone is the main regulator of in the inner zone of the adrenal gland?
Which hormone is the major regulator of the outer zone of the adrenal gland?
What hormone does the zone glumerulosa produce?
what hormone does the zone fasciculata/reticularis produce?
What is cortisol's effects on proteins, FA, glucose,hypothalamus?
inhibits protein synthesis, promotes FA release, glucose formation, inhibits hypothalamic production of CRH
What is ACTH's effect on the adrenal gland
stimulates cortisol release, growth zone fasiculata/reticularis
What is the only glucocorticoid that animals use
In what animals is corticosterone used?
birds, rats, mice
List the main actions of glucocorticoids
promotes gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, inhibits glucose uptake by the tissue
What part of the adrenal gland do short term stress impulses stimulate?
what part of the adrenal gland do long term stress impulses stimulate?
what are considered "weak" androgens but play a role in development of secondary sexual characteristics?
Which hormone is a mineralocorticoid?
What is the effect of aldosterone on the body?
sodium/water retention, potassium elimination
What two hormones are suppressed in animals with adrenocortical tumors?
What is the term for the non naturally occurring form of cushings? (clinician or medically caused)
iatrogenic canine cushings
What is the most common form of cushings in dogs?
Secondary/PDH (pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism)
What does the low dose DEX test, test for?
suppression of ACTH and cortisol
What is the second most common cause of cushings?
primary hyperadrenocorticism (adrenal tumor)
What does the high dose DEX test, test for?
suppression of cortisol levels in PDH animals
What are the ACTH measurements for determining primary vs secondary cushings
secondary have increased ACTH, primary have decreased ACTH
Which drug is the most common treatment of PDH?
What causes equine cushings?
tumor in the pars intermedia
Which drug is most common treatment of equine cushings?
Which disease is caused by a decreased secretion of ACTH by pituitary or CRH secretion by hypothalamus?
secondary hypoadrenocorticism (addisons)
Which disease is caused by long term exogenous glucocorticoid administration followed by abrubtly stopping?
What is the treatment for primary addisons?
What is the treatment for secondary addison?
Which drug is the most potent glucocorticoid?
What are the three main immunosuppressive drugs?
hydrocortisone, prednisone, dexamethasone
Which gene drives male sexual differentiation?
What two hormones cause sexual dimorphism?
testosterone, mullerian inhibiting substance
Which duct develops in female genitalia?
Which cells does MIS act on to regress the mullerian ducts?
Which cells does testosterone act on to develop wolffian ducts?
Which cells cells act as the scaffolding for development spermatocytes and regulates germ cell development?
Which cells mature spermatogonia to spermatozoa?
Which cells secrete testosterone and is considered the major androgen?
What are the three stages of sperm called?
spermatogonia (proliferation), spermatocyte (meosis), spermatid (differentiation)
what drives spermatogenesis?
What cells do LH act on and what do those cells do?
leydig cells, secrete testosterone
What cells does FSH act on and what do those cells do?
sertoli cells, spermatogenesis, secrete androgen binding protein
What are the only cells that express androgen receptor
what is the main function of androgens in Leydig cells?
which accessory sex gland secretes the majority of the semen volume?
What percent of dogs are cryptorchid?
What disease in dogs results in an enlargement of the prostate gland?
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Which structure in female produces progesterone, estrogen, relaxin, inhibin
what cells do the second messengers signal to create estrogen?
What is the source of ovarian cancer?
Which part of the ovary secretes estrogen?
What two cells work together to create estrogen?
What is gonadotrpin release controlled by?
What is GnRH from the tonic center influenced by?
What is GnRH from the surge center controlled by?
What is LH surge caused by in cats and rabbits?
in what species is semen in the female repro tract important for inducing ovulation?
which hormone initiates follicular growth and stimulates secretion of estrogen?
Which hormone stimulates development, estrogen secretions, triggers ovulation, promotes corpus luteum
What hormone promotes development and maintenance, inhibits release of GNRH, LH, FSH
Which hormone inhibits secretions of GNRH, LH,
What are the three layers of uterine tube?
Mucosa, muscularis, serosa
What is the role of mucosa layer in uterine tube
Provide nutrition to ovum and conceptus
What is the role of the muscularis layer of uterine tube
what hormone stimulates epithelial proliferation
What hormone stimulates glandular secretion in female
Which hormone is responsible for flexibility and dilation of the cervix
What are the three principle organ systems that regulate blood calcium?
gut, bone, kidney
What are the three main hormones that regulate blood calcium
parathyroid, vitamin D, calcitonin
Which hormone increases blood calcium (hypercalcemic)
Which hormone decreases blood calcium
How does PTH function to increase blood calcium?
increase serum calcium, decrease phosphate
How does PTH function in the intestine?
Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium
Where is calcitonin produced?
Perifollicular C cells in thyroid
what is the scientific name of vitamin D
What is the major function of calcitriol
transepithelial transport of calcium in small intestine
how do you treat for milk fever
IV calcium salts
what ages is hypoparathyroidism popular?
what disease does chronic renal disease lead to
what is one cause of hypervitaminosis D
Cholecalciferol ingested in rodenticides
What disease causes the ectopic production of PTH
Effects on PTH and Calcium from malignancies?
low PTH, high calcium
Effects on PTH and Calcium from primary hyperparathyroidism?
high PTH, high calcium
Effects on PTH and Calcium from Hypervitaminois D
low PTH, high calcium
Effects on PTH and Calcium from secondary hyperparathyroidism?
high PTH, low calcium
What is insulins effect on adipose tissue
Which hormones promote lipolysis?
GH, epinephrine, glucagon, cortisol
What protein does adipose tissue produce?
What does the the drug rosiglitazone do?
increase peripheral insulin responsivity