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Social Science
Psychology
Psychometrics
HD 310 Quiz #2
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Gravity
Terms in this set (69)
Process of specifying how a construct(concept) is to be coded, measured or quantified (specify how your going to measure it)
Operationalization (Operational Definition)
True or False
First thing we have to do is have a Operational Definition of working memory?
True
True or False
Working memory is called a scale of measurement
False;
Working memory is called a construct or concept
What is this an example of?
If Dana was interested in something a idea or thing that is not directly observable
A construct
True or False
A construct are directly observable?
False
Are not directly observable(you can't see a construct)
How many indicators does a construct have and why? What is an indicator?
Typically have multiple indicators and because you can see it & measure it, indicators are things you can observe and measure
If the construct is intimacy what are the different indicators?
Indicator of intimacy;
kissing, hugging, hand holding, Sex
True or False
If the construct is Intelligence then the indicators should be Smiling, Laughter, and Eye contact .
False
should be logical reasoning, Vocabulary, and "Basic" factual info
True or False
(how do you operationally define friendliness)If the construct is Friendliness then the indicators should be logical reasoning, Vocabulary, and "Basic" factual info .
should be Smiling, Laughter, and Eye contact .
When we deal with the Scales(Levels) of Measurement we are talking about?
The kind of numbers we are collecting in doing research
True or False
Our operational definition determines (impacts) our scale (level) of measurement ?
True
True or False
Nominal Scale of Measurement is also called categorical or qualitative data
True
What Scale of Measurement is this?
The numbers we collect are used to describe something, we assign a number for the purposes of using that number to describe something
With a Nominal Scale of Measurement
True or False
With using the Nominal Scale of Measurement, The numbers have MATHEMATICAL VALUE (as in we can have "more or less than", and we can add/subtract/multiple/or divide things)
False;
With using the Nominal Scale of Measurement, The numbers have NO MATHEMATICAL VALUE (there is no "more or less than", and we can't add/subtract/multiple/or divide things)
True or False
With using the Nominal Scale of Measurement, The numbers are not Mutually exclusive
False;
With using the Nominal Scale of Measurement, The numbers are Mutually exclusive (or independent)
This is an example of what Scale of Measurement?
Gender:
1= Male
2= Female
This is a Nominal Scale of Measurement
This is an example of what Scale of Measurement?
Ethnicity :
1= Hispanic
2= Caucasian
3= Asian
This is a Nominal Scale of Measurement
True or False
Ordinal Scale of Measurement is also called Rank Order ?
True
What Scale of Measurement is this:
Numbers have an inherent order, BUT there is no set difference between successive numbers, the distance between two successive numbers isn't set (can be any number of different distances)
This is the Ordinal (Rank Order) Scale of Measurement
True or False
With Ordinal (Rank Order) Scale of Measurement The numbers have NO MATHEMATICAL VALUE
False;
Numbers DO HAVE MATHEMATICAL MEANING (which means there is a sense of "more than" or "less than" or "better than"( we can put from lowest to biggest)
True or False
With Ordinal (Rank Order) Scale of Measurement The numbers ARE NOT Mutually Exclusive
False;
The numbers ARE Mutually Exclusive (or independent)
If Kayla and her friends raced at school and the order of finish was 1st,2nd,3rd Place?
This is an example of what Scale of Measurement & why?
Ordinal (Rank Order) Scale of Measurement
because:
(can put in order)
If Joshua and 3 other college students needed extra credit and they used SONA and they all did survey's and the survey answers were 1------2----3-----4------5
1= not at all satisfied 5= Completely Satisfied
This is an example of what Scale of Measurement and why?
Ordinal (Rank Order) Scale of Measurement
because:
(no distance between)
What Scale of Measurement is this?
Numbers that have an inherent order & the difference between two points is set (distance between numbers is set and is the same distance for each number)(think of a ruler every number is set and has the same distance)
Interval Scale of Measurement
True or False
With Interval Scale of Measurement the Numbers DO NOT HAVE MATHEMATICAL MEANING ?
False;
the Numbers DO HAVE MATHEMATICAL MEANING
(can + - X / )
True or False
With Interval Scale of Measurement the Numbers are NOT Mutually Exclusive ?
False;
the Numbers ARE Mutually Exclusive (or independent)
True or False
With Interval Scale of Measurement there is NO ABSOLUTE ZERO ( which means theirs no point at which "zero" is truly associated with "nothing"; can't say how many times more or less one thing is compared to another)
True
This is an example of what Scale of Measurement?
The temperature is expressed as F
Interval Scale of Measurement
This is an example of what Scale of Measurement?
Time of day (12, 1, 2, etc.)
Interval Scale of Measurement because every hour is 60 minutes between and the distance doesn't change
What Scale of Measurement is this:
Same as Interval scale BUT HAS AN ABSOLUTE ZERO
Ratio Scale of Measurement
These are examples of What Scale of Measurement?
¬ Money
¬ A ruler
¬ GPA
¬ Number of children
¬ Money because its possible to have zero dollars and broke
¬ A ruler because starts at 0
¬ GPA because can have a zero.zero GPA
¬ Number of children because can have zero children (like me)
True or False
Reliability is the Consistency of results provided by the measure
True
What form of Reliability is the following:
If(DOES) a measure yield a similar result for each individual across two administrations
Test-Retest
This is an example of what form of Reliability:
Time 1 and Time 2 are administered twice and their results are similar
Test-Retest
If the sets don't look similar then not reliable
True or False
A correlation will help us establish the similarities of the test-retest
True
True or False
A Correlation is a statistical procedure that numerically describe the relationship between one or two things (Numerical Correlation -1, 0, +1) ( If one goes up the other goes up and if one goes down the other goes down) (If something is similar then I would be on the positive side) (0 means there is NO relationship between this thing and that thing) (don't want anything negative, negative means not similar) ( we don't want a perfect 1 we just want something closer to 1 then 0 or -1)
True
What form of Reliability is the following:
Does each individual score similarly on two halves of the measure (measure will be administered once(1) (ex: Odds and even) (Sample of 50 1 half is 25 and 2nd half is 25 but from one administration) (They are called artificial halves because we haven't looked at every single halve we just looked at one)
Split-Half Estimate
What is the pro of Split-Half Estimate (reliability) ?
to save time and money because measure will be administered once
What is the downside of Split-Half Estimate (reliability) ?
we are conceptionally only using one artificial half
What is the Best possible solution of Split-Half Estimate (reliability)?
we could consider all possible halves then we would no longer have the limitation because we are considering all possible halves
True or False
A correlation will help us establish the similarities of the Split-Half Estimate
True
What form of Reliability is the following:
Do all possible halves of a measure correlate strongly (will take 50 item measure and will find every possible half and it will correlate every possible half with one another)?
Cronbach's Alpha
This is an example of what form of Reliability:
Dave will create 7 possible halves and correlate those 7 halves with one another (half one will be correlated with half one and the correlation will be positively correlated because you correlate the same half so its perfectly correlated) (have different correlations of different halfs) (are mirrored image whats on one side is on the other side)( to get to one correlation from all of the possible halves you average all of the correlations to get one correlation) (administered one time) ?
Cronbach's Alpha
(averaged correlation = Cronbach's Alpha)
True or False
We typically want correlations greater than or equal to .50 (They should all be this number if reliable for each type
False;
.70
What form of Reliability is the following:
DO the data across two observers correlate strongly?
Interrater Reliability
(OBSERVATION) RELIABILITIES
True or False
Validity means Does the measure tap what it is intended to evaluate? (we want to know does it actually measure what its suppose to measure)(every measure has a purpose)
True
What form of validity is the following:
Index of whether test accurately and appropriately measures construct of interest (does this test accurately and appropriately measure that construct)(experts determine content, to indicate if accurate...)(experts are looking at the actual content of the test)
Content Validity
True or False
Content validity is only Logically determined ?
False;
Content validity is both
Logically determined vs. Statistically determined
What form of validity is the following:
does the test appear to measure what is it intended to measure? (test doesn't look like it measures what it's suppose to measure)(when you notice if something is right or wrong)
Face Validity
True or False
Content Validity is informally determined by test takers (test takers look at test and make sure it appears to be the right test)
False;
Face Validity is informally determined by test takers (test takers look at test and make sure it appears to be the right test
True or False
High face validity(a lot) comes with potential problems because high face validity can turn into a social desirability bias
True
What is the Downsize to Content Validity & Face Validity
There is a great degree of subjectivity
What form of validity is the following:
does the measure taps into the concept (construct) that you are interested in assessing (I want to see if those things measure that construct)
Construct Validity
True or False
Do the indicators measure the construct ?
True
yes if it is construct validity
What are the ways to establish Construct Validity?
Convergent Validity & Discriminant Validity
True or False
Convergent Validity are Two different traits measured by the same test are not related ?
False;
Same trait measured by two different methods yields similar results (our measure says the same thing as another measure of construct)(two measures are saying the same thing)
True or False
Discriminant Validity are Same trait measured by two different methods yields similar results (our measure says the same thing as another measure of construct)(two measures are saying the same thing)
False;
Two different traits measure d by the same test are not related
This is an example of :
¬ Mood measure #1 both are no depression
¬ Mood measure #2 both are no depression
Convergent Validity
This is an example of :
Mood Measure # 1
(two traits)
mood anxious
Discriminant Validity
True or False
If you have both Convergent Validity & Discriminant Validity then we have Construct validity (also makes construct validity objective instead of subjective)
True
For example
If Dave wanted to evaluate the quality of study he would have to decide between what types of validity?
Internal Validity & External Validity
True or False
Internal Validity means Does the method/design allow for hypothesis to be tested adequately (are you allowing for distractions and different situations)(trying to create a situation where you take care of all the confounding variables)
True
True or False
Must think about Internal validity after designing study?
False;
Must think about Internal validity when designing study (not after study is done)
True or False
when using external validity you must account for confounding variables?
False;
Internal validity must account for confounding variables
What are Cofounding variables?
Anything that can impact with what you are interested in that will cause an effect (something that can effect the study)
True or False
External Validity means the extent to which results can be extended beyond the setting and sample employed in study (generalize from to the broader context)(study that can generalize has higher external validity) (study that can't generalize has lower external validity.
True
True or False
We want both Internal Validity & External Validity to judge the quality of study but the dilemma is Internal Validity & External Validity share an inverse(one is going up and the other is going the opposite) relation, but we do want both!
True
True or False
If basic research THEN HIGH external validity ?
False;
If basic research THEN HIGH internal validity
True or False
If applied research THEN HIGH internal validity?
False;
If applied research THEN HIGH external validity
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