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Nutrition 130 Carbohydrates (4.2, 4.3, 4.5)
Terms in this set (35)
made up of monosaccharides and disaccharides and are commonly referred to as sugars
glucose, fructose, galactose
3 most common monosaccharides
maltose, sucrose, lactose
3 most common disaccharides
made up of polysaccharides, not sweet tasting like simple carbohydrates, include starches and fibers
lowers risk for type 2 diabetes, lowers serum cholesterol and lowers risk for cardiovascular disease, promotes regular bowel movements, lowers risk of diverticulosis, increases sensation of fullness by delaying stomach emptying, prevents sharp rises in blood glucose, provide fuel for microbiome
What are the health benefits of dietary fiber?
citrus, berries, oats, beans/legumes
What are food sources of soluble dietary fiber?
wheat brans, whole grain bread, beans, vegetables
What are food sources of insoluble dietary fiber?
a carbohydrate made up of a single sugar unit
a carbohydrate made up of 2 sugar units
a carbohydrate made up of many sugar units linked together
fiber that dissolves in water or absorbs water and is readily broken down by intestinal microflora, digested by bacteria in colon
fiber that does not dissolve in water and is less readily broken down by bacteria in the large intestine
the storage form of glucose in humans and other animals found in the liver and muscles
How much fiber a day should a woman consume?
How much fiber a day should a man consume?
Legumes - navy beans, Fruits - blackberries, Vegetables - broccoli, Breads - oatmeal
What are the best sources of fiber from the list shown in class?
first ingredient should be a whole grain, should have 2g fiber/100 kcal
How do you identify a food which is a good source of whole grains?
What hormones are involved in blood glucose control?
Which hormone is released when blood sugars are high?
Which hormone is released when blood sugars are low?
Where are insulin and glucagon made?
Insulin secreted by pancreas enters bloodstream, insulin stimulates glucose transport into cell, glucose in blood enters cells
Regulation of blood glucose insulin process
Glucagon secreted by pancreas enters bloodstream, glucagon stimulates glycogen breakdown, glucose is secreted into bloodstream and transported to cells
Regulation of blood glucose glucagon process
tooth decay resulting from bacteria eating simple carbohydrates and producing acids, blood lipids that increase hear disease risk, obesity
Heath risks of simple sugars
increase in blood lipids, lowers body's system to indicate fullness, increase in visceral fat
Health risks of fructose
a fructose-glucose liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose, produced by chemically altering corn
women should have 6.5 teaspoons/day or 26g, men should have 9.5 teaspoons/day or 38g
American Heart Association (AHA) recommendation for added sugar intake
12-15 teaspoons/day or 50-60 g/day
Myplate recommendation for added sugar intake
affect of fructose on health is dose related
Why is it healthy to eat fruit when it contains fructose?
disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to either insufficient production of insulin or decreased sensitivity of cells to insulin
damages the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, and nerves
Health consequences of diabetes
obesity, genetics, sedentary lifestyle, age
Risk factors for diabetes
caused by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency
Type 1 diabetes
characterized by insulin resistance and relative, rather than absolute, insulin deficiency
Type 2 diabetes
make half your grains whole grain, eat 3 oz of whole grains every day, eat 2 cups of fruit every day, eat 2 1/2 cups of veggies every day, go easy on fruit juice, have 50 g or 12 tsp of added sugar
Myplate carbohydrate recommendations
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