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Terms in this set (45)
What is the difference between a sound and a valid argument?
Sound argument- valid argument with all true premises.
Valid argument- the speaker presents premises that lead to the conclusion, whether or not the premises are true.
What does conceptual analysis do?
Breaking down concepts to gain knowledge or a better understanding of a philosophical issue.
What is the principle of charity?
Principle of interpretation and communications that says one should present on author's or speakers in the best possible light.
What can we know only by testimony? What can we know independently from testimony?
Testimony- an assertion offered for belief on the basis of trust.. we can trust someone with firsthand experience/ specialized degree, etc.
Can know: someone elses belief.
Independently: what we experience for ourselves
What is receptive cognition, and why does GK count as receptive, according to Lynch?
Receptive cognition- our ordinary trusting and competent interaction with the world.
We don't really think about it, we just trust it (walking up the stairs)
What ideal did Enlightenment philosophers hold up for knowledge?
Enlightenment was an attempt to make each individual responsible for their own beliefs
How did Socrates differ in his approach to philosophy from sophists and natural philosophers?
Socrates is accused of "making the worse argument the stronger" and teaching such things to others.
Sophists were supposed to be "teachers of wisdom"
oTaught people to be able to speak well about any subject .Charge fees.
♣Cared more about eloquence (rhetoric) and persuasion than truth.
•Natural philosophers- everything can be reduced to its most primal form. (you only need your soul)
What did the oracle say about Socrates, and how did he test it?
The Socratic Oracle: 'There is no one wise than Socrates'
Tests the oracle with a prophetic riddle.
Socrates interrogates the experts of his culture.
What must a Socratic definition contain? Provide an example of a definition that could qualify as Socratic.
1. A definition of x should be true of all and only x
2. Often starts with a more general type and then a more specific defining characteristic
3. Free from counterexamples
4. contains no unnecessary information
What is the essence of something?
Essence of something: it is innermost nature (physis)
Ex. Tree- but there are many different kinds of trees.
What is the thesis of recollection? How is it proved in Phaedo?
Recollection- whenever we perceive think (A) which calles to mind something else (B), which we have perceived before. We can recollect what we had forgotten but not what we have never known.
Phaedo- If we have concepts which we can't have learned within life, this suggests that we had knowledge of them before life and had forgotten the,. Conc: our sould must have existed prior to our life.
What is a priori knowledge? Why is mathematics an example of it?
Knowledge that can be obtained independently of sense-experience
Math example: A=B, B=C, therefore A=C
Why does the recollection these inspire Socrates to dialogue with strangers about important concepts?
How does true opinion differ from knowledge?
Knowledge is teachable (teachers exist) and involves recollection
How does science differ from art for aristotle?
Science is knowledge of causes and principles
Art is knowing and applying universal knowledge
What are aristotle's four causes? What role do they play in his theory of knowledge
1. Material Cause: what something is made of (Why is a diamond so hard?
2. Formal Cause: What something is (its essence/concept) (Why is a whale a mammal)
3. Efficient Cause: what brings about a change or movement (Why did the computer stop working?)
4. Final Cause: the purpose of something (why are you attending college?
How do Epistemological Intellectualism (EI) and Epistemological Pragmatism (EP) differ?
EI- Someone's possession of knowledge depends on a definite and explicit mental state.
EP- Someone's possession of knowledge depends on an ability to perform certain actions
Why does EI lead to an 'infinite regress' of justification?
What does Ryle mean by calling knowledge a 'multi-track disposition'?
Is a disposition that is not expressed in a uniform manner
We know the steps to get to the answer but don't have the answer in the top of our head (math)
Why is 'innovation' an essential ingredient of knowledge for Ryle?
?Coming to know why something is the answer
Can you know something without conscious thought for Ryle? How?
We can know without saying; but we can also say without knowing
Test case: can you learn a game without verbal awareness of the rules
Ryle is saying that the action itself is your knowledge, rather than the stuff 'in your head'
What are the manifest and scientific images, and how might they conflict?
Manifest: perception of things in terms of human experience
Scientific: things can be reduced, impersonal perspective
Everything can be expressed in a scientific way but emotions emotions cannot which ties to manifest image.
Why are scientific explanations often 'reductive'? What is 'reductionism'?
Reductive means they can be analyzed down to the simpilest measure.
Reductionism: All 'higher' phenomenal features of human beings can be adequately explained in terms of 'lower' physical functions
Why do Wilson's two dilemmas stem from his reductionism?
1. We have no purpose beyond our "biological imperatives"
oOur brains exist only to promote survival, not to seek a larger purpose.
2. We have to choose between rival (biological) moral instincts
oMorality is just a product of the brain
Rival: everything stems from science. You can get past the emotions of it to survive.
How does the Sapolsky quote from Behave illustrate reductionism?
Goes back to science in that everything stems from something biological
Does not mention thought or the mind.
Why does Mary Midgley think that science cannot prove that the self is an illusion?
She disagrees that scientific explanations should eliminate the Manifest image
How is Descartes' conception of the soul different from his predecessors?
Descartes tries to remove the soul from the natural body. The soul is not dependent of the body or mind.
Cartesian soul = mind; without the soul or mind we are just zombies.
What are the reasons Descartes gives for not trusting the testimony of the senses?
1. They deceive us at least sometimes; not entirely trustworthy
2. Could be dreaming
3. For all I know, my 'dream-world' could have been concocted by God, or an "evil genius"
Why does the 'representational theory of mind' lend support to Cartesian doubts?
How does Descartes conclude that he is essentially a thinking thing?
I think therefore I am
We can think without knowing that we have a body
What does Descartes' wax example prove about his mind's role in understanding nature?
•What do we know about a piece of wax that is melting?
•You may not realize that the wax before it melts is the same thing as the wax after it melts
•This is the decision whether to accept something as true or false
•The mind can play tricks on us.
What is 'substance dualism'? Why does it create the 'mind-body' problem?
•Substance dualism: substance that has two things: mind and body, but they are separate things
•Mind: the software is detachable from the hardware
•Body's have: spatial extension, size, position, mass, motion; hardware
•The body and mind/soul can exist independently (zombies could be possible)
What does Descartes think the body can do without the mind?
Body will still work but mind gives the purpose
How can the mind create an effect on the body? How about the body on the mind?
•Mind: Still feeling the pain of an amputated limb. Placebo effect. Emotions
•Body: concussion or drugs can have an effect on the mind.
What does physicalism state about the mind and brain?
Why does conscious 'phenomenology' or 'what it's like' present a challenge to scientific explanations,
according to Nagel? Why is bat phenomenology a salient example?
•Phenomenology is the qualitative state. Nagel treats phenomenology as common experiences across species.
oBats share a kind of phenomenology (of echo-location) that cannot be understood from the first-person human perspective.
♣If there is bad phenomenology (of echo-location) there are facts that cannot be described in terms of human experience.
How is understanding possible between two beings of the same species?
We can relate via experiences
How might Nagel's conception of consciousness challenge reductive accounts of the humanities?
Mind is outside of consciousness. Watching pain of others does mean you know what they are experiencing until you feel it for yourself.
What is the "extended mind" hypothesis? Why is it consistent with Descartes?
•If we don't define the mind as the main, then it seems possible that the content of mind could be 'outside' the body
oAnd if we are our minds, and our mind is outside our bodies, we can be outside our bodies...
•Descartes: being a mind makes us separable from our bodies; but having a body is being inherently connected to the rest of matter
•Dreyfus: thinks that our use of technology leads us to overestimate our independence from our body. Think technology is an extension of our mind in a negative way.
How does Dreyfus use the notion of "optimal grip" to criticize the role of technology in our lives?
•Uses "optimal grip" to support the idea that we have a bodily orientation in the world, not a purely mental one.
oThere is an ideal (physical) distance between us and the rest of the world
What are some consequences of our being essentially our bodies?
If we are essentially our bodies, then new technology that divorces us from our bodies should make us more distant from ourselves.
How does the chariot analogy illustrate the Buddhist theory of the no-self (anatta)?
There is no chariot- it is just made of all the parts.
What is the difference between something 'conventionally real' and 'ultimately real'?
•Conventionally real- exists because of a law or agreement
•Ultimately real- the idea that things can be broken down into their constituents.
Why does our belief in the self cause suffering, according to the Buddha?
•Thinking that there is a self is the reason for suffering
oIf nothing owns the effects of suffering, nothing suffers
•Buddhism strives for selflessness- wants you to put others first.
What does the 'worthlessness argument' claim about the relation of material things to our supposed self?
•We can say that one part, say the mind or consciousness or the living body, should be the whole self.
oAccording to the Buddha, each part of 'us' is too impermanent to be 'worth' to be called us
oNothing is worthy to be us if there is no 'agent' in us, instead of all 'patients'
•It all about not relying on one specific thing (such as your cell phone- losing that would lead to suffering.)
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