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Stop Codons


Peptide Chains

Amino acids are bonded together as _____ _____ which fold into proteins

5, 3

mRNA read from _prime to_prime

A Site

One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site in the ribosome holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain.

P Site

one of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. It holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.


the first phase of transcription; RNA polymerase binds to DNA @ the promoter, and unwinds the double helix


addition of amino acids to the polypeptide chain; continues until it reaches a stop codon


last phase of transcription, stop codon


many proteins need to be chemically modified and folded, some may need to be cut into segments or have parts removed


"helper" proteins


cause frameshift, nucleotides added to the sequence


cause frameshift, nucleotides skipped in a sequence


correct nucleotide is replaced with an incorrect nucleotide

Point Mutations

Missense and Nonsense are examples of _____ ________.


change in an important amino acid


change in an amino acid to stop codon

Chromosal Mutations

larger scale mutations, includes deletions, duplications, inversions and translocations


taking a piece and moving it to a different chromosome


a kind of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed

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