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19 terms

Translation and Mutations

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Stop Codons
UAA, UAG, UGA
Peptide Chains
Amino acids are bonded together as _____ _____ which fold into proteins
5, 3
mRNA read from _prime to_prime
A Site
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site in the ribosome holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain.
P Site
one of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. It holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.
Initiation
the first phase of transcription; RNA polymerase binds to DNA @ the promoter, and unwinds the double helix
Elongation
addition of amino acids to the polypeptide chain; continues until it reaches a stop codon
Termination
last phase of transcription, stop codon
Modification
many proteins need to be chemically modified and folded, some may need to be cut into segments or have parts removed
Chaperones
"helper" proteins
Insertion
cause frameshift, nucleotides added to the sequence
Deletion
cause frameshift, nucleotides skipped in a sequence
Substitution
correct nucleotide is replaced with an incorrect nucleotide
Point Mutations
Missense and Nonsense are examples of _____ ________.
Missnese
change in an important amino acid
Nonsense
change in an amino acid to stop codon
Chromosal Mutations
larger scale mutations, includes deletions, duplications, inversions and translocations
Translocations
taking a piece and moving it to a different chromosome
Inversion
a kind of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed