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Hrs. Bio Final: Part III

STUDY
PLAY
Carl Linneaus
created binomial nomenclature
taxonomy
the science of naming and classifying organisms
phylogeny
the evolutionary history of an organism
homologous structures
structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry
embryology
study of multicellular organisms as they develop from fertilized eggs to fully formed organisms
biodiversity
the variety of species living within an ecosystem
bacteria
domain eukarya, kingdom protista
unicellular, asexual by binary fission
autotrophs; not usually harmful
virus
DNA or RNA surrounded by protein and reproduce using a host cell, parasitic
protist
domain eukarya, kingdom prostista
uni or multi cellular; auto or heterotrophs
asexual and sexual; animal, plant, and fungus like
some cause disease
fungi
domain eukarya, kingdom fungi
multicellular, heterotrophs
asexual and sexual
some are helpful and some are harmful
plant
domain eukarya, kingdom plantae
multicellular, autotrophs
asexual or sexual
classified by nonvascular or vascular
brophytes
nonvascular, seedless plants (ex. moss)
ferns
vascular, seedless (ex. clubmoss)
gymnosperms
vascular, with seeds (ex. conifers)
angiosperms
vascular, flowers and seeds (ex. apple, tulip)
xylem
tissue in vascular system that carries water around the plant
phloem
tissue in vascular system that carries nutrients around the plant
invertebrates
domain eukarya, kingdom animalia
heterotrophic and multicellular
sexual; body symmetry
classified by body, characteristics, feeding, reproduction
cephalization
concentration of nerve cells near front end of body
segmentation
repetition of body segments
asymmetry
no symmetry
radial symmetry
symmetry in a circular pattern
bilateral symmetry
right/left side symmetry
Porifera
sponges
have openings or pores everywhere
no gut; filter water
Cnidaria
sea anemone
simple, soft bodies
stinging tentacles around mouth in a circle
Worms
flatworm
cephalization, unsegmented
small organs inside
Mollusca
snail
soft with internal/external shell
Arthropoda
spider
segmentation & cephilization
exoskeleton, molting
largest phylum
Echinodermata
starfish
tube feet for eating and moving
water-filled vascular system
vertebrates
domain eukarya, kingdom animalia
heterotrophic and multicellular
have a backbone, sexual
classified by habitats and feeding
Fish
clownfish
aquatic; fins, scales, and gills
some carnivores some herbivores
eggs
Amphibians
frog
1/2 of life on land, 1/2 in water
moist skin, lay eggs in water
Reptiles
chameleon
dry, scaly skin; cold blooded
wide legs for moving fast
Birds
toucan
reptile-like; scaly skin with feathers
strong chest, light bones with air spaces
Mammals
kangaroo
mammary glands, hair, breathe air
most are omnivores; live birth
endothermic
endotherms
organisms that internally regulate body temperature (warm blooded)
ectotherms
organisms that rely on the environment and their behavior to keep warm (cold blooded)
prokaryote
unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei
8 characteristics of life
1. Made of one or more cells 2. Displays organization 3. Grows and Develops 4. Reproduces 5. Responds to stimuli 6. Requires Energy 7. Maintains Homeostasis 8. Adaptations evolve over time
cladogram
diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
binomial nomenclature
two-word naming system that gives all organisms their scientific name
transpiration
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
chordate
animal with a nerve chord extending down their backbone and beyond the anus
7 taxa
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species