Honors Biology Chapter 4

To enter and leave a cell, substances must pass through the...
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Rough E.R. tomaking and folding proteinsSmooth E.R. tomanufacturing lipidsProkaryotic do not have...membrane enclosed organellesA cell has Mitochondria, Rough and Smooth E.R., Ribosomes, etc. Based on this, it could not be...prokaryoticScanning objective magnifies at...4xlow power objective magnifies at...10xhigh power objective magnifies at...40xWhich organelles comprise the endomembrane system of a cell?ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomeWhat are the three organelles that plant cells have but animal cells do not?chloroplast, central vacuole, cell wallIf you wished to observe a white blood cell as it engulfed a viral particle, which type of microscope would you choose?light microscopeWork by use light and glass lenses to magnify an imagelight microscopeWork by focusing electron beams to create a magnified image of an objectelectron microscopeThe idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells definescell theoryA scientist wants to magnify a pollen grain 8,000 times and examine the ridges and pores on its surface. What microscope should he use?scanning electronA scanning electron microscope is used to study ________, whereas a transmission electron microscope is used to study ________.cell surfaces/internal cell structuresPlasma membranes are permeable to...nonpolar molecules(CO2)In the plasma membrane, the phospholipid heads are ________ and face _______ towards the aqueous solution on both sides of the membrane.hydrophilic/outwardThe nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell contains...DNAWhat part of the cell allows different chemical conditions to be maintained in different parts of the cell?membranous compartmentalizationWhat name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA?transcriptionWhat name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein?translationWhat name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA?RNA processingPolypeptides are assembled from _____.amino acidsRNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____.mRNAThe function of the nucleolus is to manufacture...ribosomal RNARequires the use of mRNA, which is translated by the ribosomes into the amino acid sequences of proteins.protein synthesisIn eukaryotic cells the first step in protein synthesis is the transferring of information from...DNA to mRNAPhospholipid bilayer membranes are semipermeable. Which of the following can move across the membrane without assistance?O2How are cell surface proteins exported out of the cell?The two main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the production of _______ and _______ secreted by the cell.membrane/proteinsHow are cell surface proteins exported out of the cell?golgi apparatusThe Golgi apparatus...stores, modifies, and packages proteinsA manufacturing company dumps its wastes into a nearby pond. One of the wastes is found to paralyze the contractile vacuoles of certain protists. A biologist looking at individual samples of these organisms taken from the pond would find that they have...gained water and burstT/F:Lysosomes synthesize proteins from the recycled amino acids.FT/F:The central vacuole of a plant cell may digest chemicals for recycling.FInsulin is a protein that is produced by pancreatic cells and secreted into the bloodstream. What is the correct order of the structures through which insulin passes from its production to its exit from the cell?rough ER, transport vesicles, golgi apparatus, transport vesicles, cell membraneThe ________ of a mitochondrion is/are an adaptation that increases the surface area and enhances a mitochondrion's ability to produce ATP.cristaeThe thick fluid enclosed by the inner chloroplast membrane.stromaT/F:mitochondria contain membrane folds called cristae, whereas chloroplasts contain disk-like vesicles in stacks called grana.TThis hypothesis proposes that a small cell lived inside a larger cell to the benefit of both cells.endosymbiosis hypothesisT/F:Most animal cells are embedded in an extracellular matrix.TT/F:Plant cell walls protect plant cells by forming an impermeable layer around the cell.FCell structure that is associated with the breakdown of harmful substances or substances that are no longer needed by the cell?peroxisomeA child dies following a series of chronic bacterial infections. At the autopsy, the physicians are startled to see that the child's white blood cells are loaded with vacuoles containing intact bacteria. Which of the following explanations could account for this finding?A defect in the lysosomes of the white blood cells prevented the cells from destroying engulfed bacteria.Mitochondria appear in the greatest numbers in cells that are _____.metabolically activeSmall with plasma membranes, cell wall, cytoplasm, ribosomes, bacterial flagellumprokaryotic cellLarge with nucleus, membranious organelles, chloroplasts, cell wall, central vacuoleplant cellLarge with nucleus, membranious organelles, lysosomes, centrioles, flagellumanimal cellLipids manufactured heresmooth ERSmall structure that makes proteinribosomeContains chromatin (DNA)nucleusSac of digestive enzymeslysosomeCarries secretions for export from celltransport vesicleBreaks down drugs and toxins in liversmooth ERMakes cell membranessmooth ERCell control centernucleusNumerous ribosomes give it its namerough ER"Ships" products to plasma membrane, outside, or other organellesgolgi apparatusMay store water, needed chemicals, wastes, and pigments in plant cellcentral vacuoleBuds odd from Golgi apparatustransport vesiclesProteins made and modified here for secretion from cellrough ERNonmembranous organelleribosomeTakes in transport vesicles from ER and modifies their contentsgolgi apparatusBoundary between the cell and its surroundingsplasma membraneSurrounded by double layer of membrane with poresnucleusHow proteins, other substances get from ER to Golgi apparatustransport vesiclesMarks and sorts molecules to be sent to different destinationsgolgi apparatusBuds from here become lysomesgolgi apparatusDigests food, wastes, foreign substanceslysosomePhosopholipid bilayer with proteins controls flow in and out of the cellplasma membraneDrug tolerance results from enlarging thissmooth ERFuses with food vacuole and digests contentslysosomeWhich group below is involved in manufacturing substances needed by the cell?ribosome, rough ER, smooth ERWhat are the advantages of an electron microscope over a light microscope? For what tasks would it be preferable to use a light microscope?Electron microscopes have much higher resolving power. Light microscopes would be used to see living things moving.A cell has a mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth ER, etc. Based on this information, it could not be...a bacteriumIf a cell's chromatin (DNA) were damaged, the cell would run out of _______ needed for its activities.energyA cell possess ribosomes, a plasma membrane, a cell wall, etc. Based on this information, it could not be...an animalA mutant plant cell unable to manufacture cellulose would be unable to build a ______cell wallA plant cell was grown in a test tube containing radioactive nucleotides. This was concerning to the...nucleusPlace where you put your eye?ocular lens(10x)Shaft connecting to eye piece?eye tubeThing that switches the objectives?revolving nosepieceThing you hold when picking it up (______ and ______)arm and baseSlide is placed on the ______ and held down with the ______.stage/slide clipsThe _____ light into the slide through the _____.light source/diaphragmBig knob is the ______. Small knob is the ______.rough focus/fine focus