IAH 221 midterm terms

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Pagan
a. One who has no religion.
b. An adherent of a religion other than Judaism, Christianity, or Islam.
Superstition
a :a belief or practice resulting from ignorance, fear of the unknown, trust in magic or chance, or a false conception of causation
b :an irrational abject attitude of mind toward the supernatural, nature, or God resulting from superstition
Isis
is a goddess from the polytheistic pantheon of Egypt. She was first worshiped in ancient Egyptian religion, and later her worship spread throughout the Roman Empire and the greater Greco-Roman world. Isis is still widely worshiped by many pagans today in diverse religious contexts; including a number of distinct pagan religions, the modern Goddess movement, and interfaith organizations such as the Fellowship of Isis.

was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well as the patroness of nature and magic. She was the friend of slaves, sinners, artisans and the downtrodden, but she also listened to the prayers of the wealthy, maidens, aristocrats and rulers.[1] Isis is often depicted as the mother of Horus, the falcon-headed deity associated with king and kingship (although in some traditions Horus's mother was Hathor). Isis is also known as protector of the dead and goddess of children.
Mithras cult
was a mystery religion centred around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE. The religion was inspired by Persian worship of the god Mithra (proto-Indo-Iranian Mitra), though the Greek Mithras was linked to a new and distinctive imagery, and the level of continuity between Persian and Greco-Roman practice is debated.[1] The mysteries were popular in the Roman military.[2]
Herakles cult
The cult of Hercules was one of the oldest and most popular in Italy. Believed to have been introduced from the Greek colonies of Croton and Tarentum in Magna Graecia, statues have also been found as early as 500 B.C.E in Eturia, which bordered Greek Campania. Hercules was regarded as a protector of travellers due to his myth and he was also worshipped by philosophers; Pythagoreans, Cynics, and Stoics viewing him as the ideal man.

The cult of Hercules at the Ara Maxima in the Forum Boiarum in Rome was one of the earliest and most important, mentioned in Livy and others[1] . A common view that a peculiarity of the cult was that women were excluded is questioned by C. Schultz [2]
Orpheus
is a legendary Thracian musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth. The major stories about him are centered on his ability to charm all living things and even stones with his music, his attempt to retrieve his wife, Eurydice, from the underworld, and his death at the hands of those who could not hear his divine music.
Bronze Age
a prehistoric period that followed the Stone Age and preceded the Iron Age, when certain weapons and tools came to be made of bronze rather than stone.
Troy
he city of King Priam, besieged for ten years by the Greeks during the Trojan War. It was regarded as having been a purely legendary city until Heinrich Schliemann identified the mound of Hissarlik on the northeast Aegean coast of Turkey as the site of Troy. The city was apparently sacked and destroyed by fire in the mid 13th century bc, a period coinciding with the Mycenaean civilization of Greece.
Mycenae
an ancient city in Greece, situated near the coast in the northeastern Peloponnese, the center of the late Bronze Age Mycenaean civilization. The capital of King Agamemnon, it was at its most prosperous circa 1400-1200 bc; systematic excavation of the site began in 1840.
Heinrich Schliemann
was a German businessman and a pioneer in the field of archaeology. He was an advocate of the historicity of places mentioned in the works of Homer and an archaeological excavator of Hissarlik, now presumed to be the site of Troy, along with the Mycenaean sites Mycenae and Tiryns. His work lent weight to the idea that Homer's Iliad and Virgil's Aeneid reflect historical events. Schliemann's excavation of nine levels of archaeological remains with dynamite has been criticized as destructive of significant historical artifacts, including the level that is believed to be the historical Troy.[1]
Linear B
is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
Epic Verse
s a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.
Dactylic Hexameter
is a form of meter or rhythmic scheme in poetry. It is traditionally associated with the quantitative meter of classical epic poetry in both Greek and Latin and was consequently considered to be the Grand Style of classical poetry. Some premier examples of its use are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Ovid's Metamorphoses.
Aegis
as stated in the Iliad, is carried by Athena and Zeus, but its nature is uncertain. It had been interpreted as an animal skin or a shield, sometimes bearing the head of a Gorgon.
Mt. Olympus
was the dwelling of the Olympian Gods and it was created after the Titanomachy, the battle during which the Olympians defeated their predecessors, the Titans. The peak Mytikas was then called Pantheon and was the venue where all the fiery discussions among the deities took place.
Olympia
was an important site of the most famous games in history, Olympic games. The first games dated back in 776 BC as they prepared a festival to honor Zeus.
Zeus
was the god of the sky and ruler of the Olympian gods. He overthrew his father, Cronus, and then drew lots with his brothers Poseidon and Hades, in order to decide who would succeed their father on the throne.
Cult Image
is a human-made object that is venerated or worshipped for the deity, spirit or daemon that it embodies or represents
Leda
was admired by Zeus, who raped her in the guise of a swan. As a swan, Zeus fell into her arms for protection from a pursuing eagle. Their consummation, on the same night as Leda lay with her husband Tyndareus, resulted in two eggs from which hatched Helen (later known as the beautiful "Helen of Troy"), Clytemnestra, and Castor and Pollux (also known as the Dioscuri).
Ganymede
is a divine hero whose homeland was Troy. He was the son of Tros of Dardania, from whose name "Troy" was supposedly derived, and of Callirrhoe, the daughter of the river god Scamander. His brothers were Ilus and Assaracus. In one version of the myth, he is abducted by Zeus, in the form of an eagle, to serve as cup-bearer in Olympus.
Poseidon
is the god of the sea and protector of all aquatic features. Brother of Zeus and Hades, after the overthrow of their father, Cronus, he drew lots with them to share the universe.
Medusa
was a monster, one of the Gorgon sisters and daughter of Phorkys and Keto, the children of Gaea (Earth) and Oceanus (Ocean). She had the face of an ugly woman with snakes instead of hair; anyone who looked into her eyes was immediately turned to stone.
Theseus
was a Greek hero in Greek mythology. While having all the qualities of a traditional hero, such as strength and courage, he was also intelligent and wise. His early adventures benefited the city and region of Athens, helping in the consolidation of the Athenian power through shrewd political maneuvering.
Minotaur
was a monster in Greek mythology, half-bull and half-human. He lived in the Labyrinth, which expanded underneath the court of King Minos in Crete, and he was born from the union of Minos' wife Pasiphae with the Cretan Bull.
Polyphemus
was the giant son of the god Poseidon and Thoosa in Greek mythology. He was one of the Cyclopes, having a single eye.
Hades
was the brother of Zeus and Poseidon. After the overthrow of their father, Cronus, he drew lots with them to share the universe. He drew poorly, which resulted in becoming lord of the underworld and ruler of the dead.
Prometheus
had a reputation as being something of a clever trickster and he famously gave the human race the gift of fire and the skill of metalwork, an action for which he was punished by Zeus, who ensured everyday that an eagle ate the liver of the Titan as he was helplessly chained to a rock.
Sisyphus
the cunning king of Corinth who was punished in Hades by having repeatedly to roll a huge stone up a hill only to have it roll down again as soon as he had brought it to the summit.
Tantalus
was a Greek mythological figure, most famous for his eternal punishment in Tartarus. He was made to stand in a pool of water beneath a fruit tree with low branches, with the fruit ever eluding his grasp, and the water always receding before he could take a drink.
Ixion
in Greek legend, son either of the god Ares or of Phlegyas, king of the Lapiths in Thessaly. He murdered his father-in-law and could find no one to purify him until Zeus did so and admitted him as a guest to Olympus. Ixion abused his pardon by trying to seduce Zeus's wife, Hera. Zeus substituted for her a cloud, by which he became the father of Centaurus, who fathered the Centaurs by the mares of Mount Pelion. Zeus, to punish him, bound him on a fiery wheel, which rolled unceasingly through the air or, according to the more common tradition, in the underworld.
Hestia
was the goddess of the hearth, family, and domestic life.
Hera
was Zeus' wife and sister, and was raised by the Titans Oceanus and Tethys. She was the supreme goddess, patron of marriage and childbirth, having a special interest in protecting married women. Her sacred animals were the cow and the peacock, and she favoured the city of Argos.
Demeter
was the goddess of corn, grain, and the harvest. She was the daughter of Cronus and Rhea. It was believed that Demeter made the crops grow each year; thus the first loaf of bread made from the annual harvest was offered to her.
Persephone
was the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, and the queen of the underworld. She was abducted by Hades, the god of the underworld, infuriating her mother who made the crops wither and the earth barren.
Eleusinian Mysteries
were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. They are the "most famous of the secret religious rites of ancient Greece."[1] Their basis was an old agrarian cult,[2] and there is some evidence that they were derived from the religious practices of the Mycenean period
Herakles
is best known as the strongest of all mortals, and even stronger than many gods. He was the deciding factor in the triumphant victory of the Olympians over the giants. He was the last mortal son of Zeus, and the only man born of a mortal woman to become a god upon his death.
Eurystheus
was the king of Tiryns, a stronghold near Mycenae. He was the son of Sthenelus and Nicippe, grandson of Perseus.

Hera and Zeus quarreled at who would be the hero that would destroy all the monsters of the previous era, in order to establish the new age of the Twelve Olympians. Hera's favourite was Eurystheus, while Zeus picked Heracles as his champion.
Nessus
was a famous centaur who was killed by Heracles, and whose tainted blood in turn killed Heracles.
Atlas
was a Titan condemned to hold up the sky for eternity after the Titanomachy.
Garden of the Hesperides
The Garden of the Hesperides is Hera's orchard in the west, where either a single apple tree or a grove grows, producing golden apples that grant immortality when eaten[citation needed]. The trees were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to Hera as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus. The Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, but occasionally picked apples from it themselves
Apollo
was the son of Zeus and Leto, twin brother of Artemis. He was the god of music, and he is often depicted playing a golden lyre. He was also known as the Archer, far shooting with a silver bow; the god of healing, giving the science of medicine to man; the god of light; and the god of truth. One of Apollo's most important daily tasks was to harness his four-horse chariot, in order to move the Sun across the sky.
Niobe
In his archaic role as bringer of diseases and death, Apollo with his poison arrows killed Niobe's sons and Artemis with her poison arrows killed Niobe's daughters.[14] This is related to the myth of the seven youths and seven maidens who were sent every year to the king Minos of Crete as an offering sacrifice to the Minotaur.
Delphi
is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. Moreover, the Greeks considered Delphi the navel (or centre) of the world, as represented by the stone monument known as the Omphalos of Delphi.
Omphalos (Navel)
is a religious stone artifact, or baetylus. In Greek, the word omphalos means "navel". In Greek lore, Zeus sent two eagles across the world to meet at its center, the "navel" of the world.[1] Omphalos stones marking the centre were erected in several places about the Mediterranean Sea; the most famous of those was at Delphi.
Asclepius
was a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts;
Artemis
was the goddess of chastity, virginity, the hunt, the moon, and the natural environment.
Brauron
The sanctuary of Artemis
Athena
was the Greek virgin goddess of reason, intelligent activity, arts and literature. She was the daughter of Zeus; her birth is unique in that she did not have a mother. Instead, she sprang full grown and clad in armour from Zeus' forehead.
Erechthonius
as a legendary early ruler of ancient Athens, Greece. According to some myths, he was autochthonous (born of the soil, or Earth) and raised by the goddess Athena.
Panathenaic Festival
were held every four years in Athens in Ancient Greece from 566 BC[1] to the 3rd century AD.[2] These Games incorporated religious festival, ceremony (including prize-giving), athletic competitions, and cultural events hosted within a stadium.
Hephaistos
was the Greek god of blacksmiths, sculptors, metallurgy, fire and volcanoes; thus, he is symbolised with a hammer, an anvil and a pair of tongs.
Ares
was the god of war, and son of Zeus and Hera. He represented the raw violence and untamed acts that occured in wartime, in contrast to Athena, who was a symbol of tactical strategy and military planning.
Aphrodite
was the goddess of love, desire and beauty. Apart from her natural beauty, she also had a magical girdle that compelled everyone to desire her.
Hermes
was the Greek god of commerce, son of Zeus and Maia. Quick acting and cunning, he was able to move swiftly between the world of man and the world of gods, acting as a messenger of the gods and the link between mortals and the Olympians.
Herm Statue
is a sculpture with a head, and perhaps a torso, above a plain, usually squared lower section, on which male genitals may also be carved at the appropriate height.
Pan
is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds and rustic music, and companion of the nymphs.[2] He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr.
Dionysus
was the god of fertility and wine, later considered a patron of the arts. He created wine and spread the art of viticulture. He had a dual nature; on one hand, he brought joy and divine ecstasy; or he would bring brutal and blinding rage, thus reflecting the dual nature of wine.
Satyr
is the member of a troop of ithyphallic male companions of Dionysus; they usually have horse-like ears and tails, as well as permanent, exaggerated erections
Maenad
were the female followers of Dionysus and the most significant members of the Thiasus, the god's retinue.
Homer
is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems which are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Glory
is the Greek word often translated to "renown", or "glory". It is related to the word "to hear" and carries the implied meaning of "what others hear about you". A Greek hero earns kleos through accomplishing great deeds.
Agamemnon
Legends make him the king of Mycenae or Argos, thought to be different names for the same area[citation needed]. When Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was taken to Troy by Paris, Agamemnon commanded the united Greek armed forces in the ensuing Trojan War.
Menelaus
was a king of Sparta in Greek mythology, husband of Helen. He was one of the main characters involved in the Trojan War.
Achilles
was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad. His mother was the immortal nereid Thetis, and his father, the mortal Peleus, was the king of the Myrmidons.
Patroclus
was the son of Menoetius in Greek mythology, and best friend of the hero Achilles.
Priam
was the king of Troy in Greek mythology, at the time the Greeks launched an attack against the city, known as the Trojan War.
Hektor
was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War. As the first-born son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, who was a descendant of Dardanus and Tros, the founder of Troy,[1] he was a prince of the royal house and the heir apparent to his father's throne.
Paris (Alexander)
he son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy, appears in a number of Greek legends. Probably the best known was his elopement with Helen, queen of Sparta, this being one of the immediate causes of the Trojan War. Later in the war, he fatally wounds Achilles in the heel with an arrow as foretold by Achilles's mother, Thetis.
Helen
was the daughter of Zeus and Leda, and was a sister of Clytemnestra, Castor and Pollux. In Greek myths, she was considered the most beautiful woman in the world. By marriage she was Queen of Laconia, a province within Homeric Greece, the wife of King Menelaus. Her elopement with Prince Paris of Troy brought about the Trojan War
oral epic poem
is poetry that is composed and transmitted without the aid of writing.
Nostoi - "Returns"
is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. It was one of the Epic Cycle, that is, the "Trojan" cycle, which told the entire history of the Trojan War in epic verse. The story of the Nostoi comes chronologically after that of the Iliou persis (Sack of Ilium), and is followed by that of the Odyssey.
Odysseus
was a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. Odysseus also plays a key role in Homer's Iliad and other works in that same epic cycle.
Laertes
was a mythical figure in Greek mythology, son of Arcesius and Chalcomedusa. He was married to Anticlea, daughter of the thief Autolycus; they had two children, Ctimene and the famous hero Odysseus.
Telemachus
was the son of Odysseus and Penelope in Greek mythology.
Penelope
was the wife of the hero Odysseus in Greek mythology. She was the daughter of Icarius and Periboea.
Circe
was a minor goddess of magic in Greek mythology, daughter of the Titans Helios, god of the sun, and Perse, an Oceanid. She had two brothers, Aeetes, who was the guardian of the Golden Fleece (which Jason and the Argonauts sought after), and Perses; and a sister, Pasiphae, who was the wife of Minos, king of Crete.
Calypso
was a nymph who captured Odysseus for many years, before he finally managed to escape. She lived on the mythical island of Ogygia.
Nausicaa
was a female character in Greek mythology, who appeared in the Homeric epic Odyssey. She was the daughter of King Alcinous and Queen Arete of Phaeacia. In the Odyssey, the ship of Odysseus was destroyed and washed ashore on the island of Phaeacia.
Suppliant
A humble petitioner; in ancient Greece it was customary for a suppliant to kneel and grasp the knees of the person from which mercy or favors were desired.
Guest freindship
A sacred tradition in ancient Greece that bonded guest and host by the exchange of gifts; the bond lasted for generations and anyone who dared to break the sacred bond risked the wrath of the Immortals.