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Lesson 10 - ArchDesign Terms (Residential Construction)
Terms in this set (88)
A method of framing in which the wall studs rest directly on the sill plate, runs straight up the house (sill plate to eave/roof line), and each floor "hangs" from the studs.
Fiberglass or rock-wool insulation, with various thicknesses, in between the framing members (studs) . May or may not have a paper covering.
Horizontal boards which are held in place by vertical stakes and used during initial sitework as reference points to mark the building's footprint and finished grade.
A long, thick, horizontal piece of wood, metal, concrete, etc., used in construction.
Any wall serving as a vertical support for a floor, the roof, or other loads of a building other it's self-weight.
A trowel mastic asphaltic compound for joint sealing.
A number of small pieces of wood for filling interstices, or for spacing, joining, or reinforcing members.
A header joist lies ontop of the sill plate and is nailed across the ends of floor joists at the sill.
The second plaster coat, after the scratch coat, which is used to level the surface. (about 1/4").
Helps to support loads at the joints of structure. Horizontal wooden boards (joists) that are between and connect the header joist and the double joist.
Any of various soft, sticky, calcined mixtures of clay and limestone, usually mixed with water and sand, gravel, etc., that dry hard or stonelike (concrete) used for mending mending broken objects, making things adhere, or as a building material.
The actual clear distance or opening between supports for a structural member, i.e., the distance between walls or the distance between the edges of flanges of beams.
A roof rafter that runs parallel to the main slope of the roof and has no function other than to bear the roof's load.
An artificial, stonelike material used for various structural purposes, made by mixing cement and various aggregates, as sand, pebbles, gravel, or shale, with water and allowing the mixture to harden.
It's a formed, sawed, or tooled groove in a concrete structure to create a weakened plane and regulate the location of cracking resulting from the dimensional change of different parts of the structure.
A molding at the corner between the ceiling and the top of a wall. Any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element— the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall. The function of the projecting cornice of a building is to throw rainwater free of the building's walls
The tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of stresses. It occurs as a result of long-term exposure to high levels of stress that are below the yield strength of the material. The rate of this deformation is a function of the material properties, exposure time, exposure temperature and the applied structural load. Depending on the magnitude of the applied stress and its duration, the deformation may become so large that a component can no longer perform its function
A wood wall framing member that is shorter than full length studs because it is interrupted by a header or sill.
Diagonal bracing between adjacent floor joists, placed near the center of the joist span to prevent joists from twisting. Bridging composed of crisscross pieces of wood.
Nonbearing walls that are used to separate the inside and outside of the building, but that are not part of the support structure for the building.
The weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building, which never seem to change, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding, and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed service equipment.
A vertical pipe for conveying rain water from a roof or gutter to the ground or to a drain. It is also called a leader.
An assembly designed to safely absorb the heat-induced expansion and contraction of various construction materials, to absorb vibration, to hold certain parts together, or to allow movement due to ground settlement or earthquakes. They are commonly found between sections of buildings, bridges, sidewalks, railway tracks, piping systems, ships, and other structures.
A United States government agency. It insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying. The goals of this organization are to improve housing standards and conditions, provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans, and to stabilize the mortgage market.
Third and final coat of plaster that provides final leveling and the desired texture to the surface (1/8" thick). , The last coat applied in plastering intended as a base for further decorating or as a final decorative surface. Finish coat usually consists of calcified gypsum, lime and sometimes an aggregate. Some may require the addition of lime or sand on the job. The three basic methods of applying it are (1) trowel (2) flat and (3) spray.
A sloping end cut on a wood beam or joist where it enters a masonry wall. The purpose of the firecut is to allow the wood member to rotate out of the wall without prying the wall apart if the floor or roof structure burns through in a fire.
Pieces of sheet metal or the like used to cover and protect certain joints and angles, as where a roof comes in contact with a wall or chimney, especially against leakage. Thin pieces of impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water into a structure from a joint
A base for a wall in the foundation of a structure (The bottom most part of a building within the ground, underneath or part of the foundation). It is wider than the wall to spread the weight over a larger area (Height of footer=width of foundation walls=1/2 width of footing).
The part of a classical entablature between the architrave and the cornice, usually decorated with sculpture in low relief. Any decorative band on an outside wall, broader than a stringcourse and bearing lettering, sculpture, etc.
A type of structural timber product comprising a number of layers of dimensioned timber bonded together with durable, moisture-resistant structural adhesives. A single large, strong, structural member is manufactured from smaller pieces. These structural members are used as vertical columns or horizontal beams, as well as curved, arched shapes.
In architecture, it largely refers to the top of the ground. Buildings can above grade, below grade, or grade). Can also refer to the inclination of that surface to the horizontal.
Thick sheets of steel that are used to connect beams and girders to columns or to connect truss members. A gusset plate can be fastened to a permanent member either by bolts, rivets or welding or a combination of the three. Gusset plates not only serve as a method of joining steel members together but they also strengthen the joint. They can be used in bridges and buildings along with other structures.
A narrow trough or duct which collects rainwater from the roof of a building and diverts it away from the structure, typically into a drain (Rain Gutter). A depression which runs alongside a city street, usually at the curb and diverts rain and street-cleaning water away from the street and into a storm drain (Street Gutter).
A.k.a. "post an beam" construction. (Of a building, wall, etc) having an exposed timber framework or principal supports of timber and interstices filled with brick, stone (masonry), or plastered laths, as in Tudor architecture. Building with heavy timbers rather than "dimension lumber" such as 2"x4"s.
A brick or stone laid in a wall or the like so that its shorter ends are exposed or parallel to the surface. A framing member crossing and supporting the ends of joists, studs, or rafters so as to transfer their weight to parallel joists, studs, or rafters.
Department of Housing and Urban Development. The United States federal department that administers federal programs dealing with better housing and urban renewal. Its mission is to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities and quality affordable homes for all, meet the need for quality affordable rental homes: utilize housing as a platform for improving quality of life; build inclusive and sustainable communities free from discrimination.
A rolled or extruded metal beam having a cross section resembling an I. a beam with an I- or H-shaped cross-section. The horizontal elements of the "I" are flanges, while the vertical element is termed the "web". The web resists shear forces, while the flanges resist most of the bending moment experienced by the beam.
The vertical, shorter stud framing member on either side of a window or door rough opening that supports the header over the opening.
One of the horizontal supporting members that run from wall to wall, wall to beam, or beam to beam to support a ceiling, roof, or floor. It may be made of oriented strand board, parallel beams of timber, plywood, wood, steel, or (reinforced) concrete.
The stud running from top to bottom plate on either side of a window or door. Nailed alongside a jack stud. The framing member that supports the outside of the rough opening for windows and doors in a framed wall.
Kip (unit of measure)
A non-SI unit of force. It equals 1000 pounds-force, used primarily by American architects and engineers to measure engineering loads. Also considered a unit of mass; equal to 1000 pounds, i.e., one half of a short ton.
A thin, narrow strip of wood, used with other strips to form latticework, a backing for plaster or stucco, a support for slates and other roofing materials, etc.
A horizontal architectural member supporting the weight above an opening, as a window or a door (post & lintel contruction). a load-bearing building component, a decorative architectural element, or a combined ornamented structural item. It is often found over portals, doors, windows, and fireplaces.
Any load, object, or thing added onto the structure. Forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to a structure or its components.
A type of research in which the same people or thing are studied over a long time period.
A wooden joist that extends in cantilever out from the exterior wall (or wall plate) of a building, supporting the roof sheathing and providing a nailing surface for the fascia boards. When not exposed it serves to fasten the finish materials of the eaves.
Laminated Veneer Lumber. Made from veneers stacked parallel to each other. A product that uses multiple layers of thin wood assembled with adhesives. It is typically used for headers, beams, rimboard, and edge-forming material. LVL offers several advantages over typical milled lumber: Made in a factory under controlled specifications, it is stronger, straighter, and more uniform. Due to its composite nature, it is much less likely than conventional lumber to warp, twist, bow, or shrink.
Consisting of one piece; solid or unbroken. Characterized by massiveness, total uniformity, rigidity, invulnerability. A monument or natural feature consisting of a single massive stone or rock.
A workable paste used to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between them. The blocks may be stone, brick, cinder blocks, etc. Mortar becomes hard when it sets, resulting in a rigid aggregate structure. Modern mortars are typically made from a mixture of sand, a binder such as cement or lime, and water.
The lowest sill of a structure, usually placed in or on the ground. The sill plate on top of the concrete foundation wall of the basement, with a layer of insulation in between.
Oriented Strand Board or a.k.a. Sterling Board. An engineered wood particle board formed by layering strands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations. In appearance, it may have a rough and variegated surface with the individual strips lying unevenly across each other. A material with high mechanical properties that make it particularly suitable for load-bearing applications in construction. The most common uses are as sheathing in walls, flooring, and roof decking.
A thin coat of a cementitious or polymeric mortar applied to concrete or masonry for refinement of the surface. The typical parge coat is 1/4"-1/2" in thickness. Parging is usually applied with a trowel and pressed into the existing surface. The intent is to create a contiguous surface by filling surface air voids and bugholes (eliminating bughole-induced outgassing), to level a surface with extreme rugosity, or to prep a surface for topcoating with a high-performance protective coating.
Foundation style in which partly submerged columns (piers) support the foundation slab, with an air pocket (crawlspace) between the slab and the ground.
A shallow rectangular feature projecting from a wall, having a capital and base and usually imitating the form of a column (most likely on the interior). A slightly projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column
The vertical members (studs) only run from platform to platform rather than sill to roof line (separated by floors/levels).
Plywood layers (called veneers) are glued together, with adjacent plies having their wood grain at right angles to each other, to form a composite material. This alternation of the grain is called cross-graining and has several important benefits: it reduces the tendency of wood to split when nailed at the edges; it reduces expansion and shrinkage, providing improved dimensional stability; and it makes the strength of the panel consistent across both directions. There is usually an odd number of plies, so that the sheet is balanced—this reduces warping. Because plywood is bonded with grains running against one another and with an odd number of composite parts, it is very hard to bend it perpendicular to the grain direction.
A strong piece of timber, metal, or the like, set upright as a support. Include columns, piers, or walls. They support the horizontal members (beams or lintels) in Post and Beam Framing.
Post & Beam Construction
It is the most ancient and structurally simple type of construction where the vertical members (columns, posts, piers, or walls) support horizontal members (beams or lintels).
One of the 4 basic types of foundations where the footing is a square foundation with a trapezoid top to it, and a wooden pier (cylinder) is placed upon that to act as a structural support.
Parallel Strand Lumber. It's made from thin strands of wood connected by adhesives to form solid, wooden boards.
One of a series of sloped structural members (beams) that extend from the ridge or hip to the wall plate, downslope perimeter or eave, and that are designed to support the roof deck and its associated loads.
An architectural term for an eave or cornice which runs along the gable end of the roof of a modern residential structure. It may also be called a sloping cornice, a raking cornice, or a rake board. It is a sloped timber on the outside facing edge of a roof running between the ridge and the eave. On a typical house, any gable will have two rakes, one on each sloped side. The rakes are supported by a series of lookouts (sometimes also called strong arms) and may be enclosed with a rake fascia board on the outside facing edge and a rake soffit along the bottom.
The horizontal timber or member at the top of a roof, to which the upper ends of the rafters are fastened. Structural beam supporting the upper ends of rafters in a sloped roof, required where the rafters are not tied to their lower ends
A type of thermal insulator which is preformed, nonstructural insulating board of foamed plastic or cellular glass, usable in all parts of a building.
Rigid Paving System
Pavement structures composed of a flexible layer (top-most layer) over a rigid base.
The description of the angle of the roof that compares the horizontal run and the vertical rise.
A framed opening in a structure into which doors, windows and other finished trim are set. The horizontal and vertical measurement of a window or door opening before drywall or siding is installed.
(In plastering) a rough, deeply scored first coat upon which the brown coat is laid. The first coat of plaster, which is scratched to form a bond for a second coat.
A type of siding application. The outer covering, cladding, or layer of metal, wood, or other material, as one of the first covering of boards on a house, meant to shed water and protect from the effects of weather. When the siding (horizontal or vertical boards, shingles, or sheet materials of wood, metal, plastic (vinyl), masonry, or composite materials) is attached directly to an intermediate layer of wood (boards, planks, plywood, oriented strand board).
A thin piece of wood, slate, metal, asbestos, or the like, usually oblong, laid in overlapping rows to cover the roofs and walls of buildings. A type of siding material.
A horizontal timber, block, piece, member, or the like serving as a foundation of a wall, house, door, window, etc.
Foundation system that combines concrete footings with a concrete floor slab that rests directly on a bed of gravel that has been placed over the ground. Also called slab-on-grade. A flat, poured concrete foundation that is just a few inches above the surface of the ground. A monolithic structure (concrete poured all at once), which doesn't provide foundation walls for a basement.
The underside of an architectural feature, as a beam, arch, ceiling, vault, or cornice. Often refers to the material forming a ceiling from the top of an exterior house wall to the outer edge of the roof, i.e., bridging the gap between a home's siding and the roofline, otherwise known as the eaves.
A plate upon which studding is erected. The bottom horizontal member of a wall or building to which vertical members are attached. The word plate is typically omitted in America and carpenters speak simply of the "sill". Other names are ground plate, ground sill, groundsel,and mud sill. Sill plates are usually composed of lumber but can be any material.
Change levels in stages to accommodate a sloping grade and maintain the required depth at all points around a building
area where there is sloped ground. A spread footing which changes elevation in several places in a series of vertical "steps" in order to follow the contours of a sloping site or accommodate changes in soil strata.
Any construction, as walls or the like, of stone; stone masonry. The craft of shaping rough pieces of rock into accurate geometrical shapes, mostly simple, but some of considerable complexity, and then arranging the resulting stones, often together with mortar, to form structures.
An exterior finish for masonry or frame walls, usually composed of cement, sand, and hydrated lime mixed with water and laid on wet.
Any of various fine plasters for decorative work, moldings, etc.
Any of a number of slender, upright (vertical) members of wood, steel, etc., forming the frame of a wall or partition and covered with plasterwork, siding, etc. Located every 16" within the wall.
A rough floor beneath a finished floor. Attached to the top of the floor joists and provides a work surface during construction.
A type of foundation where the footing is placed first and then the foundation wall goes on top of that in a T-shape, most common type. A groove is cut into the footing and an extrusion of the groove is on the foundation wall to connect the two and prevent movement/shifting between them.
A horizontal structural member located on top of the studs used to hold the wall together. The top horizontal member of a frame wall supporting ceiling joists, rafters, or other members.
A type of ceiling joist construction where the wood or metal beams follow the roof's slope and the roof decking runs parallel to the roof ridge.
A.k.a. Jack Stud. The inside stud of a window, door, or other opening's frame. Shorter than the King Stud (Extends from the sill plate up to the bottom of the header).
A rigid framework designed to support a load over a span. Floor trusses are used in place of floor joists in residential construction and consist of a top and bottom chord (wooden boards/flanges) and a web (metal bars connecting the two chords and creating a triangular pattern).
The rafter directly below the the valley formed by the intersection of two sloping roofs. Usually runs from the valley to the ridge, connecting to the joists of perpendicular roofs.
A thin layer of wood or other material for facing or inlaying wood. Any of the thin layers of wood glued together to form plywood. A facing of a certain material applied to a different one or to a type of construction not ordinarily associated with it, as a facing of brick applied to a frame house.
Interior truss framework, usually in a triangular shape. Consists of metal bars that connect to the top and bottom chords (flanges).
One of the 4 basic types of foundations that consists of a square or rectangular concrete footer with a wooden post on top of it extending up and acting as a foundation wall for the basement.
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