Chapter 8 Tests and Procedures - Detailed
Terms in this set (34)
Microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix.
After inserting a vaginal speculum (instrument to hold apart the vaginal walls), the physician uses a small spatula to remove exfoliated (feeling and sloughing off) cells from the cervix and vagina. Microscopic analysis of the cell smear detects cervical or vaginal cellular abnormalities.
Blood or urine test to detect the presence of hCG.
X-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material.
This radiologic procedure is used to evaluate tubal patency (adequate opening) and uterine cavity abnormalities.
X-ray imaging of the breast.
Women are advised to have a baseline mammogram at 40 years of age for later comparison if needed. A mammogram every year is recommended for women older than 40, to screen for breast cancer. A new method of mammography is digital tomosynthesis. In this procedure, an x-ray tube moves in an arc around the breast as several images are taken. These images are sent to a computer and clear, highly focused 3D pictures are produced. In addition to being less painful, this procedure makes breast cancer easier to find in dense breast tissue.
breast ultrasound imaging and breast MRI
Technologies using sound waves and magnetic waves to create images of breast tissue.
These imaging techniques confirm the presence of a mass and can distinguish a benign cyst from a malignancy. MRI is very useful in detecting masses in young women with dense breasts or in women with a strong family history and at high risk for development of breast cancer. Breast ultrasound imaging is useful to evaluate a specific area of cancer on a mammogram.
Recording images of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvic region.
This technique can evaluate fetal size, fetal maturity, organ development, as well as fetal and placental position.
Uterine tumors and other pelvic masses, including abscesses, also are diagnosed by ultrasonography.
An ultrasound that allows the radiologist a closer, sharper look at organs within the pelvis. The sound probe is placed in the vagina instead of across the pelvis or abdomen; this method is best used to evaluate fluid-filled cysts.
Withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with an instrument using suction.
Aspiration needle biopsy is a valuable evaluation technique for patients with breast disease.
Destruction of tissue by burning.
Destruction of abnormal tissue with chemicals (silver nitrate), dry ice, or an electrically heated instrument. Cauterization is used to treat cervical dysplasia or cervical erosion. The loop electrocautery excision procedure (LEEP) is used to further assess and often treat abnormal cervical tissue.
Visual examination of the vagina and cervix using a a magnifying lens.
Gynecologists prefer this lens for pelvic examination when cervical dysplasia is present because it identifies the specific areas of abnormal cells. A biopsy specimen can then be taken for more accurate diagnosis.
Removal of a cone-shaped section (cone biopsy) of the cervix.
The physician resects the tissue using LEEP, or with a carbon dioxide laser or surgical knife (scalpel).
Use of cold temperatures to destroy tissue.
A liquid nitrogen probe produces the freezing temperature. Also called cryocauterization.
Needle aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac.
The physician inserts a needle through the vagina into the cul-de-sac. The presence of blood may indicate a ruptured ectopic pregnancy or ruptured ovarian cyst.
dilation (dilatation) and curettage (D&C)
Widening the cervix and scraping off the endometrial lining of the uterus.
Dilation is accomplished by inserting a series of probes of increasing size. A curet (metal loop at the end of a long, thin handle) is then used to sample the uterine lining. This procedure helps diagnose uterine disease and can temporarily halt prolonged or heavy uterine bleeding. When necessary, a D&C is used to remove the tissue during a spontaneous or therapeutic abortion.
Removal of internal organs within a cavity.
If pelvic, it is removal of adjacent structures of the pelvis.
Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope.
In this procedure, a form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), small incisions are made near a woman's navel for introduction of the laparoscope and other instruments.Uses of laparoscopy include inspection and removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes, diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis and removal of fibroids. Laparoscopy also is used to perform subtotal (cervix is left in place) and total hysterectomies.
Blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization from occurring.
This sterilization procedure (making an individual incapable of reproduction) is performed using laparoscopy or through a hysteroscope inserted via the cervical os (opening). Ligation means typing off and doesn't pertain solely to the fallopian tubes - which may be "tied" using clips or bands, or by surgically cutting or burning through the tissue.
Spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can exist on its own.
Major methods for abortion include D&C or vacuum aspiration (suction) and stimulation of uterine contractions by injection of saline (salt solution) into the amniotic cavity (in second-trimester pregnancies).
Needle puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysis.
The cells of the fetus, found in the fluid, are cultured (grown), and cytologic and biochemical studies are performed to check fetal chromosomes, concentrations of proteins and bilirubin, and fetal maturation.
cesarean section, CS
Surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus.
Indications for cesarean section include cephalopelvic disproportion (the baby's head is too big for the mother's birth canal), abruptio placentae or placenta previa, fetal distress (fetal hypoxia), and breech or shoulder presentation.
chorionic villus sampling, CVS
Sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis.
The sample of tissue is removed with a catheter inserted into the uterus. The procedure can be performed earlier than amniocentesis, at about 9 to 12 weeks of gestation.
Continuous recording of the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions to reduce fetal distress during labour.
in vitro fertilization, IVF
Egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body in a laboratory dish (in vitro) to facilitate fertilization.
After an incubation period of 48 to 72 hours, the fertilized ova are injected into the uterus through the cervix.
Measurement of the dimensions of the maternal pelvis.
Helps determine if the mother's pelvis will allow passage of the fetus through the birth canal. The examination is important during protracted labour or with breech presentation.
sentinel node biopsy, SNB
Performed to determine whether a tumor in the breast has spread to the lymph nodes. A blue dye or a radisotope is injected into the tumor site and tracks to the axillary (underarm) lymph nodes. By visualizing the path of the dye or radioactivity, it is possible to identify the lymph nodes most likely to contain tumor. These lymph nodes, the sentinel nodes, are removed first, and if tissue studies give negative results, the procedure can be stopped at this point.
uterine artery embolization, UAE
Fibroid removal without surgery, in which tiny pellets are injected into a uterine artery supplying blood to fibroids. Blood flow is blocked by the pellets, cuaing fibroids to shrink in size.
total abdominal hysterectomy, TAH
Removal of the entire uterus (including the cervix) through an abdominal incision.
vaginal hysterectomy, VH
Removal of the uterus through the vagina.
The entire uterus with ligaments, supportive tissues, and the top one third of the vagina are removed.
laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy, LSH
Partial hysterectomy that preserves the cervix.
total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, TAH-BSO
Removal of the uterus as well as both ovaries and fallopian tubes.
Removal of the breast.
A system of scoring an infant's physical condition 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Heart rate, respiration, colour, muscle tone, and response to stimuli each are rates 0,1,2. The maximum score is 10. Infants with scores below 7 require special immediate medical attention such as suctioning of the airways or oxygen to help breathing.
loop electrocautery excision procedure