Biology quiz; trees, deciduous forest and jungle
Terms in this set (50)
How do the trees of the deciduous forests differ from the coniferous forests? Why are they different?
they are dominated by broadleaf trees; thin and delicate
They trees spread out tiers of leaves to capture sunlight; water is much more available
What adaptations do the woodpeckers have for utilizing its tree habitat?
they have excellent hearing that allows them to hear the insect in the bark, tail feathers that act as a prop and a resilient pad at the base of the bill to protect the skull
What different uses do the woodpeckers make of the trees?
the sapsucker drills sap holes
the acorn woodpecker hammers acorns into the holes it drills into the trees
Why do deciduous trees shed their leaves in the autumn? What does this even create? What inhabits this environment?
Their thin leaves would be damaged by freezing and lose too much water
Leaf litter; insects such as beetles, pseudoscorpions, salamanders, shrews
why must the small hibernating animals of the deciduous forests wake occasionally during the course of the winter? What animal sleeps through the winter?
Their body temperature cannot fall below freezing; black bears
why do the ground flowers of the deciduous forest germinate, grow and flower so quickly in the early spring?
they must grow, flower and produce their seeds before the trees produce their leaves and cut off the light
How does the forest change as you go reach the Southeastern United States? What trees are especially successful here?
the trees tend to keep their leaves throughout the year
the pines can survive fire
List some of the animals of the southern pine forests
Rattlesnake, gopher tortoise, indigo snake, red cockaded woodpecker, rat snake
How does fire enrich the pine barrens?
The burned pine needles release their nutrients into the soil resulting in a burst of growth including beautiful flowers
what are the largest and oldest conifers? Where are they found?
Sequoias; high up in the western Sierra Nevada mountains
the trees shed their leaves in the fall; aka temperate hardwood forest
area with four seasons including hot summers and cold winters
much harder than the wood that makes up pine trees
bulb that attaches itself to the main part of the branch
many leaflettes; gives a play for the air to go by
leaves are alternate
been brought over and it overgrows everything else
the leaves are directly aligned with one another
relative of the pine tree, looses leaves in the fall
male and female on the same plant
male and female on different plants
pin oak, redbud, bradford pear, tulip poplar, northern red oak
honey locust, kentucky coffee tree
flowering dogwood, silver maple
green ash, white ash
produced on the silver maple; "helicopter"
invasive bug from Asia that is destroying trees
emerald ash borer
what tree is bipinnately compound?
kentucky coffee tree
what type of tree is deciduous conifer?
which tree is monoecious?
Why is the top of the tropical rain forest known as the canopy?
because it forms a continuous cover over the forest broken only by rivers
where geographically can you find the jungle?
in a belt around the world just north and south of the equator
how is the kapok tree different from other trees of the jungle
a breaks through and towers over the canopy; very dependent on wind to distribute its seeds
what does the term arboreal mean? how does it apply to the forest
arboreal means "tree-dwelling"
most of the organisms in the jungle are arboreal
name some of the animals of the canopy
eagles, monkeys, weaver ants, fruit bats, poison arrow frog, flying squirrel, lizards, marmosets, termites, macaws
do the trees of the canopy have a growing or flowering season? how do they reproduce
no they flower at different times throughout the year
trees of the same species flower at the same time
how are the epiphytes especially successful in the canopy
epiphytes are plants that grow on other plants for support. in the canopy, they do not need roots as they get their nutrients from the host trees. EXAMPLE: pineapple plants
what special adaptations does the paradise tree snake of Borneo have for moving about the rain forest?
it can glide from tree to tree
Why is the soil of the jungle not a very fertile place? how are the trees of the rain forest adapted to deal with this problem?
the rain washes away the nutrients (leaching)
jungle trees have shallow roots to collect nutrients from the rapidly decomposing leaf litter
what special adaptations does the jungle plant Rafflesia have?
it is a tree parasite, growing its roots into the host tree and stealing nutrients
it produces a foul-smelling flower that attracts flies for pollination
why are termites so important to the ecology of the jungle
they recycle the nutrients in the wood of dead trees
what are some of the other inhabitants of the jungle floor?
planarian worm, beetles, peripatus, blind skink, rodents, jaguar
what is the main form of communication in the jungle? why?
sound; it carries well in cool, early morning air
how do the pheasants of Borneo and the cock-of-the-rock of South America attract mates
they have spectacularly colored plumage (feathers) and perform elaborate dances to show off their vigor
why is the tropical rain forest such a stable ecosystem?
there is little wind, especially down on the forest floor, and the humidity and temperature remain pretty much constant
what is diversity? how does it apply to the jungle?
diversity is defined as a variety of living things in a given area
there are more different kinds of trees
what "race" begins with the death of an old tree
the death opens a hole in the canopy allowing sunlight to reach the forest floor
seedlings grow rapidly to fill that gap before a competitor cuts off the light
why does human activity pose such a threat to the survival of the tropical rain forests?
deforestation decreases the biodiversity and eliminates the trees we need as a carbon dioxide "sink" (a place for the growing levels of co2 to be removed from the atmosphere)