Government Unit Exam #1 Review
Terms in this set (79)
institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies; the formal institutions and processes through which decisions are made for a group of people.
states that the federal law, treaties, and the constitution are the supreme law of the land, located in article 6 section 2.
McCulloch V. Maryland
state of Maryland attempted to tax the national bank chartered by congress. McCulloch refused to pay the tax and took it to the Maryland court where Maryland won. It was then taken to the supreme court, where the tax was deemed unconstitutional because of the supremacy clause and the necessary and proper clause. The bank was a legitimate federal function with which no state may interfere.
can be exercised by both the national gov and the states.
clearly states in the constitution.
10th amendment, any power not given to the national gov falls to the states, states' powers
only the national gov may do these.
belong to the national gov because it is a sovereign states in the global community, traditionally the job of the national gov.
reasonably suggested in the constitution, basis for these is the necessary and proper clause.
powers of the national gov, three types, our gov is a gov made of these.
a group of people who share political beliefs and seek to control the gov by winning elections.
advisory board to the president, composed of the heads of the executive departments.
3/4 Amendment Process
most common process for ratifying an amendment, 26 of the 27 were passed this way, 3/4 of state legislatures have to be on board.
2/3 Amendment Process
most common process for proposing an amendment, two thirds vote in congress
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments to the constitution, list of the basic rights of the people.
written changes to the constitution.
served as a supreme court justice and helped create judicial review.
Marbury V. Madison
Marbury was one of the midnight justices, madison refused to deliver Marbury's commision, Marbury asked the supreme court to write a writ of mandamus, the court interpreted the constitution, John Marshall ordered that the particular redress was not constitutional, this created judicial review.
gained through the case of Marbury V. Madison, how the courts can influence the meaning of the constitution.
Checks and Balances
each branch can balance the other and limit its power.
Separation of Powers
division of government into three branches.
the government is bound by the rule of law.
the people hold all political power.
ratification, conventions are ratified, consent of the states on september 17th, 1787.
no religious test, supremacy clause- federal law trumps state law, debts and engagements made before the constitution remain valid.
how congress can create and edit amendments.
full faith and credit clause- states must honor other states, power and privileges of the states, relations between states, admitting new states.
judicial power, supreme court.
executive power, president and vice president.
longest part of the constitution, legislative power (senate and house of reps=congress).
the introduction of the constitution, states the purpose for writing the constitution.
a series of essays written and published in newspapers in NY to address the constitution and answer the objections of anti-federalists, written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.
those who do not support federalism and the ratification of the constitution.
those who supported federalism and the ratification of the constitution.
3/5 of the black population would be counted in population figures, for representation and taxation, that way the bigger/southern states with more slaves would not have too much representation compared to the northern states.
(the connecticut compromise, proposed by Roger Sherman, congress should consist of two houses, a state's representation in the House of Reps would be based on population, each state would have two representatives in the senate, the delegates accepted this plan on July 6th.
proposed by Edmund Randolph, written largely by James Madison, three separate branches, congress would consist of two houses, the number of representatives from each state would be based on population in both houses, voters in each state would elect state reps who would choose member of the senate, congress would have all the powers it held under the articles of confed plus the power to make laws for states, to override state laws, and to force states to obey national laws, congress would choose members of the judicial branch as well as a president.
New Jersey Plan
proposed by William Patterson, three branches of government, granted the government more powers than the articles of confed., all states (no matter the size) would have an equal number of representatives in congress, congress would consist of only one house elected by the state legislatures rather than the people, congress would choose several people to serve in the executive branch, these people would have the power to appoint members of the judicial branch.
PA delegate to the constitutional convention, "committee of style", final draft of the constitution.
at the convention, one of the authors of the federalist papers.
first president of the us, elected leader of the convention.
Articles of Confederation
the rules for the gov before the constitution was written, failed miserably, the government was not allowed to tax.
This is when the constitution was written and the convention took place in Philly
economic decisions are made by a central authority (gov).
economic decisions are made by private business and individuals, decentralized system, voluntary exchange.
a legally recognized subject or national of a state or commonwealth, either native or naturalized.
executive branch is the prime minister and their cabinet, legislative =parliament, executive branch is chosen by the legislative branch.
separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches, chief executive is chosen by the people, co-equal, ex.) USA.
alliance of independent states, classified under geographic distribution of power, ex.) european union.
the power is divided between a central gov and regional gov, classified under geographic distribution of power, ex.) USA.
all power is held by a central agency, there are local units of gov, ex.) great britain, classified under geographic distribution of power.
a form of government with a monarch at the head, king or queen.
religious leaders rule, ex.) Iran.
a gov in which the power is held by an elite select group.
a gov in which a single person has unlimited power.
those who rule cannot be held responsible for the will of the people, single person or small group rulers, classified under who can participate.
a small group of chosen people act as representatives and decide, ex.) USA
the will of the people is through the law directly by the people, ex.) new england.
supreme political authority rests with the people, 2 types: indirect and direct, under the classification of who can participate.
explained how a market economy works, Laissez Faire, limited role of gov in the economy, invisible hand.
created the social contract theory, english political thinker and writer, 1690's, believed that the magna carta and bill of rights protect natural rights of citizens; all people have inalienable rights to "life, liberty, and property"; ruler only has power as long as she or he has consent of the governed.
the people of england did not like the royal power, the king's barons resented Henry because his court system took away their traditional powers, in 1215 the barons forced king John to grant a charter that guaranteed their rights (know as this document), said that the kind could not place taxes on the barons without consent of the great council and no free person could be imprisoned without a jury trial.
English Bill of Rights
mid 1600's, parliament forced king james 2 from the throne and selected his daughter Mary and her husband, in exchange for the throne Mary had to sign this, it stated that the monarch could not make or suspend laws/ tax/ maintain an army without consent of the parliament; the monarch cannot interfere with parliamentary elections, the monarch would protect freedom of religion and petition.
Baron de Montesquieu
developed practical suggestions for creating democratic govs, created system of checks and balances and separation of powers, believed that the best way to ensure rights of citizens is to limit the gov and the best way to do that is to divide its basic powers.
Social Contract Theory
created by John Locke, humans agreed with one another to create a state by contract.
Divine Right Theory
God created the state and those of royal birth were given the right to rule, the power was passed down through the generations.
developed naturally out of the early family and eventually became a tribe.
one person/small group claimed control over an area and forced all within it to submit to rule.
people have supreme and absolute power, can decide its own foreign and domestic policies, the people give the gov its power.
a group of people living in a territory with recognized borders.
the power to carry out, enforce, and execute laws (President and cabinet).
the power to interpret law and settle disputes (supreme court).
the right to make laws (congress).
a written plan for gov.
laws and goals a gov follows or pursues.
a state of peace and security.
the power of a government to enforce its decisions and policies and compel obedience.
popular acceptance of the right and power of a gov to exercise authority.
the process of resolving conflicts and "who gets what, when, and how". The struggle over power or influence within organizations or informal groups that can grant or withhold benefits or privileges.