BIO 101 Final- Tina Hopper

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Terms in this set (...)

Hypothesis
A tentative explanation that a scientist proposes for a specific phenomenon that has been observed
Theory
A widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence
Pseudoscience
A field of study that is falsely presented or mistakenly regarded as having a scientific basis when it in fact does not
Anecdotal Evidence
An assertion based on a single or just a few examples. Anecdotal evidence is not considered valid proof of a generalized conclusion
Ion
An atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons, thus acquiring an electrical charge
Covalent bond
An attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons
Ionic bond
An attraction between two ions with the opposite electrical charges. The electrical attraction of the opposite charges holds the ion together
Polar molecule
The greater the electronegativity difference, the greater the ionic bond is.
pH
Potential Hydrogen. Refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions
Carbohydrates
A biological molecule consisting of a simple sugar (a monosaccharide), two monosaccharides joined into double sugar (disaccharide), or a chain of monosaccharides (polysaccharides)
Lipids
An organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by non polar covalent bonds and therefore most likely hydrophobic and insoluble in water. Lipids include fats, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids
Proteins
A biological polymer constructed from amino acid
Enzymes
A protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed on the process
Mitochondria
An organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs. Enclosed by two genetically identical daughter nuclei. Mitosis and cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm, producing two daughter cells
Cellular Respiraiton
The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as glucose and the storage of potential energy in a form that cells can use to perform work; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, the electron transport chain, and chemiosmosis
Photosynthesis
The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria transform light energy into chemical energy stored on the bonds of sugars. The process requires an input of carbon dioxide and water and produces oxygen gas as a waste product
Endosymbiosis
Symbiotic relationship in which one species resides within another species. The mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells probably evolved from symbiotic associations between small prokaryotic cells living inside larger ones
Diffusion
The spontaneous movement of particles of any kind down a concentrating gradient; that is, movement of particles from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
Osmosis
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
DNA
The genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents; a double-stranded helical macromolecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and nitrogenous bases ACGT
RNA
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers, with ribose sugar, a phosphate group, and the nitrogenous bases ACGU; usually single stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses
Nucleotide
An organic monomer consisting of a 5-carbin sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids
Transgenic organisms
An organis, that contains genes from another organism, typically of another species
Electrophoresis
is a technique used in labs in order to separate macromolecules based on size
Transcription
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template
Translation
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of :language" from nucleotides to amino acids
Mitosis
The division of a single nucleolus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei. Mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic phase of the cell cycle
Meiosis
In a sexually reproducing organism, the process of cell division that produces haploid gametes from diploid cells within reproductive organs
Karyotype
A display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position
Non-disjunction
Am accident of meiosis or mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate at anaphase
Down syndrome
A human genetic disorder resulting from a condition called trisomy 21, the presence of an extra chromosome; characterized by heart and respiratory defects and varying degrees of mental retardation
Genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype
The expressed traits of an organism
Dominant allele
In a heterozygous, the alley that determines the phenotype with respect to a particular gene
Recessive allele
In heterozygotes, the allele that has no noticeable effect on the phenotype
Gene
A unit of inheritance in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses) consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence that programs the amino acid sequences of polypeptide. Most of the genes of a eukaryote are located in its chromosomal DNA; a few carried by the NDA of mitochondria and chloroplasts
Allele
An alternative version of a gene
Monohybrid
A mating of individuals differing at one genetic locus
Test Cross
The mating between an individual of unknown genotype for a particular character and an individual that is homozygous recessive for that same character
Incomplete Dominance
A type of inheritance in which the phenotype of a heterozygous is intermediate between the phenotypes of the two types of homozygous
Sex-linked traits
A gene found only on an X chromosome, not on Y
Evolution
Descent with modification: genetic change in a population to species over generations; the heritable changes that have produced Earth's diversity of organisms
Population
is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time
Species
a group of populations whose members possess similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed
Microevolution
a generation to generation change
Genetic drift
(chance) change in gene pool due to chance
Artificial selection
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits
Sexual selection
individuals are more likely to attract mates and therefore have more offspring
Phylogenetic trees
a branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships between organisms
Prokaryotic cells
two domains (large groups) of single celled life-bacteria and archaea- are collectively called prokaryotes. All prokaryotes are relatively simple organisms consisting of a single prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cells
An organism whose cells contains a nucleus surrounded by a membrane whose DNA is bound together by proteins (histones) info chromosomes. These cells also contain an endoplasmic reticulum and numerous specialized organelles not present in prokaryotes
Virus
A microscopic particle capable of infecting cells of living organisms and intersecting its genetic material. Viruses have a very simple structure and are generally not considered to be alive because they do not display all of the characteristics associated with life
Innate immunity
Defense mechanisms, physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the blood, and immune system cells that attack foreign cells in the body
Antibodies
A protein that is secreted by a B cell and attaches to a specific kind of antigen, helping counter its effects
Anatomy
is the study of the structure of an organism's body parts (its form)
Physiology
is the study of the functions of those parts
Tissue
An intergrated group of similar cells that performs a specific function within a multicellular organism
Central Nervous System
The integration and command center of the nervous system including the brain and in vertebrates, the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
The network of nerves carrying signals into and out of the central nervous central
Homeostasis
this word means 'steady state', this is the tendency to maintain a constant internal environment. When the external environment changes drastically, the body uses various mechanisms that maintain internal systems
Negative feedback
the results of a process inhibit that very process, most common mechanisms
Endotherms
generate body heat internally, metabolism does not matter in environment, refer to as warm blooded animals
Ectotherm
get their heat primarily from the environment, usually the sun
Kidney
function is to filter toxins and salts out of blood and forming them into urine
Closed Circulatory System
blood is contained within vessels that separate it from interstitial fluid, muscular heart propels blood though vessels to tissues throughout the extracellular spaces inside the body, occurs in insects and most mollusks
Open Circulatory System
no clear distinction within vessels that separate it from interstitial fluid, heart(s) pump the fluid mixture-called hemolymph- through out the extracellular spaces inside the body, occurs in insects and most mollusks
Vein
(and smaller venules) carry blood to the heart
Capillary
join arterioles to venules
Artery
(and smaller arterioles) carry blood away from the heart
Vena Cava
Vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower half go the body to the right atrium of the heart
Aorta
the main artery of the body, supplying oxygenated blood the circulatory system
White blood cells
fight infections that are in immune system/destroys pathogens and foreign organisms in the bloodstream and interstitial fluid, there are many different kinds of WBC
Red blood cells
transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body, flexible disks containing few organelles, packed full of hemoglobin
Platelets
cellular fragments that aid in blood clotting, platelets can form a sticky plug that can seal a minor break
Lymphatic system
network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph ('water') directionally towards the heart
Hemoglobin
is a protein in the lungs, O2 will bind to the protein-hemoglobin- which is in red blood cells. Hemoglobin carries O2 from the lungs to the rest of the body
Alveoli
tiny air sacs in lungs
Motor neurons
central nervous system; reaction to sensory neurons. Initiate an animal's response to stimuli and stimulate action by conveying signals to muscles or glands
Sensory neurons
peripheral nerovous system; sensory neurons collect information from an animal's environment. Then the dendrites are modified to respond to external stimuli, such as temperature, touch, taste, smell, light, or sound
Myelin sheath
are the fatty coating that surrounds icons-are white, so areas of the brain rich in axons appear white. Located in the brain regions and are rich in cell bodies and dendrites appear gray