63 terms

Bio 320: Chloroplast

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Which of the following allows photosynthetic organisms to capture solar energy?
A. pigments B. nucleus C. chloroplasts D. glucose E. NAD
A. pigments
The main function of stomata is to
A. expose the chlorophyll to sunlight. B. transport water to the chlorophyll.
C. allow passage of CO2 and O2 into the leaf.
D. store glucose.
C. allow passage of CO2 and O2 into the leaf.
The substance that initially traps solar energy in photosynthesis is

A. chlorophyll. B. RuBP. C. water. D. glucose. E. pyruvate.
A. chlorophyll
The flattened sacs within the stroma of a chloroplast, which are connected to form a single inner compartment, are called

A. stomata. B. thylakoids. C. mesophyll. D. carotenoids. E. CAM units.
B. thylakoids.
What does the term stroma refer to?
A. the cytochrome system in the membranes of the thylakoids
B. a stack of thylakoid membrane structures
C. the double membrane of the chloroplast D. a flattened disk or sac in the chloroplast E. the central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast
E. the central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast
The raw materials or reactants of the photosynthetic process include
A. glucose and oxygen.
B. carbon dioxide and glucose.
C. carbon dioxide and water.
D. carbon dioxide and oxygen.
C. carbon dioxide and water.
What are the products of photosynthesis? A. water and carbon dioxide
B. water and oxygen
C. carbohydrate and water
D. oxygen and carbohydrate
D. oxygen and carbohydrate
Which molecule would you need to radioactively label in order to produce radioactive oxygen during photosynthesis?

A. carbon dioxide B. water C. cytochrome D. glucose E. G3P
B. water
At the cellular level, photosynthesis occurs within
A. the chloroplast.
B. the cristae of the mitochondria.
C. both chloroplasts and mitochondria.
D. all plant cell organelles.
A. the chloroplast.
How many membranes does a chloroplast have?
A. one B. two C. three
D. four E. five
C. three
To what does the term grana refer?
A. the cytochrome system in the membranes of the thylakoids
B. a stack of thylakoid membrane structures C. the double membrane of the chloroplast D. a flattened disk or sac in the chloroplast
B. a stack of thylakoid membrane structures
In which plant structure does photosynthesis primarily occur?
A. root B. stem C. leaf D. petiole E. bark
C. leaf
What are the two sets of reactions for photosynthesis?
A. light reactions, Calvin cycle reactions B. glycolysis, citric acid cycle
C. light reactions, glycolysis
D. Calvin cycle reactions, citric acid cycle
A. light reactions, Calvin cycle reactions
An early experiment by Van Helmont (1600s) describes how he grew a tree in a large pot and found that after five years, the amount of soil in the pot had not changed. He concluded that the increase in weight was due to the addition of water. At that time, the compounds of the air had not yet been identified. Today, it is known that he only discovered half the story. Which of these experiments would NOT provide evidence that materials from a source other than water were involved in photosynthesis?

A. Carbon is discovered as a major element in trees and is lacking in water molecules.

B. Radioactive carbon in carbon dioxide in the air is identified as part of tree structures.

C. A very careful analysis of the water taken in and lost by the tree would have revealed only part of the added weight gained by the tree was from water.

D. After adding radioactive water with labeled oxygen to plant, radioactive O2 is given off.
D. After adding radioactive water with labeled oxygen to plant, radioactive O2 is given off.
The heavy oxygen isotope (18O) could be provided to plants either in the CO2 or in H2O or in both. Today, we know from experimental results that O2 released from chloroplasts comes from H2O and not from CO2. Which of the following experimental results would show conclusively that O2 is released from H2O and not CO2?

A. When heavy oxygen is part of water given to the plant, the plant produces heavy O2.

B. When heavy oxygen is part of both water and CO2 given to the plant, the plant produces heavy O2.

C. When no heavy O2 is part of water given to the plant, the plant produces no heavy O2.
D. When no heavy oxygen is part of CO2 given to the plant, the plant produces no heavy O2.
A. When heavy oxygen is part of water given to the plant, the plant produces heavy O2.
Which two organelles are most directly involved in the flow of energy from the sun through all living things?
A. Golgi apparatus and mitochondria
B. lysosomes and chloroplasts
C. chloroplasts and mitochondria
D. mitochondria and ribosomes
C. chloroplasts and mitochondria
Which cofactor is involved in the Calvin cycle reactions?
A. NAD+ B. FAD C. NADP+
D. both NAD+ and FAD
C. NADP+
Which of the following statements is true concerning sunlight radiation used for photosynthesis?
A. All of the sunlight that hits the atmosphere is used for photosynthesis.
B. Only the highest energy wavelengths are used for photosynthesis.
C. All of the visible light is used for photosynthesis.
D. Only the red, blue, and violet wavelengths of visible light are used for photosynthesis.
D. Only the red, blue, and violet wavelengths of visible light are used for photosynthesis.
Why are plant leaves green?
A. They absorb only green wavelengths of light.
B. They absorb only yellow and blue wavelengths of light.
C. They reflect nearly all wavelengths of light.
D. They reflect green wavelengths of light.
D. They reflect green wavelengths of light.
The reason that deciduous leaves turn bright colors of red and yellow in the fall is

A. chlorophyll is converted into bright carotenoid pigments.
B. when chlorophyll breaks down, the remaining pigments other than green will show through.
C. it is a chemical reaction involving the formation of ice crystals.
D. bright pigments are shifted from the roots and stem to the leaves while sugars and chlorophyll are pumped down to the roots.
B. when chlorophyll breaks down, the remaining pigments other than green will show through.
We set up an experiment where the same species of plant is grown in boxes covered with plastic that only allows a single color of light through. In which box would we expect the least plant growth and even perhaps the death of the plant to occur?

A. white B. blue C. red D. green
D. green
Photosynthesis shows higher activity for violet/blue and orange/red and a lower absorption for green/yellow. If we could create a different photosynthetic pigment that absorbed absolutely all visible wavelengths of light, the leaves would appear which color?

A. white B. black C. red D. green E. orange
B. black
The "antenna" system of a plant that gathers the solar energy consists of
A. the grana.
B. the epidermal cells of the leaf.
C. the pigment complex.
D. the ATP synthase complex.
C. the pigment complex.
Water is split and oxygen is released in

A. the electron transport chain.
B. the cyclic electron pathway.
C. the Calvin cycle reactions.
D. the noncyclic electron pathway.
D. the noncyclic electron pathway.
Which part of photosynthesis does not occur inside the thylakoid membrane?

A. noncyclic electron pathway
B. cyclic electron pathway
C. electron transport chain
E. Calvin cycle reactions
E. Calvin cycle reactions
The cyclic electron pathway produces only A. NADPH.
B. ATP.
C. NAD+.
D. oxygen.
E. carbon dioxide.
B. ATP.
Which of these is most closely associated with the process of electron transport?

A. a sequence of molecules in the membranes of the thylakoids
B. a stack of thylakoid membrane structures C. the double membrane of the chloroplast D. a flattened disk or sac in the chloroplast
A. a sequence of molecules in the membranes of the thylakoids
What are the products of the noncyclic electron pathway?
A. H+, O2, ATP, and NADPH
B. H+ and O2
C. H+, ATP, and NADPH
D. ATP and NADPH
E. O2 and ATP
A. H+, O2, ATP, and NADPH
What pathway moves the e- from water through PS II to PS I and then on to NADP+? A. noncyclic electron pathway B. cyclic electron pathway
C. CO2 fixation stage of Calvin cycle reactions
D. citric acid cycle
A. noncyclic electron pathway
What will cycle the energized electrons from the reaction center of PS I back to the reaction center in PS I?
A. noncyclic electron pathway B. cyclic electron pathway
C. CO2 fixation stage of Calvin cycle reactions
D. citric acid cycle
B. cyclic electron pathway
Biologists are fairly certain that oxygen was built up in the atmosphere by the development of photosynthesis. The production of oxygen and, therefore, the beginning of extensive aerobic life was made possible by the evolution of

A. fermentation. B. photosystem I.
C. photosystem II. D. glycolysis.
C. photosystem II.
Why does the chloroplast utilize a cyclic electron pathway as well as the noncyclic electron pathway?

A. The noncyclic electron pathway does not provide enough NADPH for the cell.
B. The noncyclic electron pathway does not provide enough oxygen for the cell.
C. The Calvin cycle utilizes more NADPH than ATP and the cyclic electron pathway produces NADPH.
D. Calvin cycle utilizes more ATP than NADPH and the cyclic electron pathway produces ATP.
D. Calvin cycle utilizes more ATP than NADPH and the cyclic electron pathway produces ATP.
The H+ (protons) accumulate in the thylakoid space during electron transport between photosystems I and II. The excess of protons in the thylakoid space

A. enters the photorespiration pathway.
B. raises pH of the space until the processes stop.
C. is small enough to diffuse back out through the lipid bilayer.
D. converts NADP to NADPH and generates ATP in the process.
E. moves from the thylakoid space to the stroma through the ATP synthase complex.
E. moves from the thylakoid space to the stroma through the ATP synthase complex.
Which of the following statements comparing the ATP synthase complex in cellular respiration and photosynthesis is not true?
A. Both require the movement of H+ from inside to outside of the compartment.
B. Both produce ATP.
C. Both work via chemiosmosis.
D. Both require a H+ gradient.
A. Both require the movement of H+ from inside to outside of the compartment.
The reservoir for H+ ions for chemiosmotic ATP synthesis during photosynthesis is

A. stroma.
B. thylakoid membrane.
C. thylakoid space.
D. cytoplasm.
C. thylakoid space.
The formation of carbohydrate occurs within the
A. stroma.
B. outer chloroplast membrane.
C. inner chloroplast membrane.
D. thylakoid membranes.
E. thylakoid space.
A. stroma.
NADPH and ATP are used in the
A. noncyclic electron pathway.
B. cyclic electron pathway.
C. Calvin cycle reactions.
D. citric acid cycle.
E. light reactions.
C. Calvin cycle reactions.
In the Calvin cycle, the three-carbon molecule that will be immediately formed after carbon dioxide fixation occurs is

A. PS I.
B. glucose.
C. 3PG.
D. G3P.
E. RuBP.
C. 3PG.
What are the stages of the Calvin cycle?

A. carbon dioxide fixation and reduction
B. CO2 fixation and regeneration of RuBP
C. the noncyclic electron pathway and the cyclic electron pathway
D. the light reactions, regeneration of RuBP, and cyclic electron pathway
E. carbon dioxide fixation, carbon dioxide reduction, and regeneration of RuBP
E. carbon dioxide fixation, carbon dioxide reduction, and regeneration of RuBP
How many total carbons are involved in carbon dioxide fixation with 3 molecules of carbon dioxide and 3 molecules of RuBP? A. 6 B. 12 C. 18 D. 24 E. 30
C. 18
The Calvin cycle reactions are dependent upon a supply of
A. water and carbon dioxide.
B. carbon dioxide and NADPH.
C. carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP.
D. oxygen and carbon dioxide.
C. carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP.
Some herbicides inhibit the electron transport chain in the thylakoid membrane. Without the movement of electrons, hydrogen ions would not be pumped from the stroma to the thylakoid space and the hydrogen ion gradient would not be established. How would this affect the Calvin cycle reactions?

A. ATP would not be produced and, as a result, the Calvin cycle reactions would not occur.
B. CO2 would not enter the cell as a result, and the Calvin cycle reactions would not occur.
C. RuBP carboxylase would not function properly, so CO2 fixation would not occur. D. Sunlight could no longer be used by the chloroplast, but this would have no effect on the Calvin cycle reactions because they do not require light.
A. ATP would not be produced and, as a result, the Calvin cycle reactions would not occur.
What is the function of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) during photosynthesis?

A. It produces the CO2 needed for photosynthesis.
B. It combines with CO2 to produce a 6-carbon compound.
C. It combines with ATP to form G3P.
D. It splits water to release oxygen.
B. It combines with CO2 to produce a 6-carbon compound.
How much of the protein content in chloroplasts is made up of the enzyme RuBP carboxylase? Why?
A. less than 1%; the enzyme is very fast
B. less than 1%; enzyme also catalyzes side Rx
C. 20-50%; the enzyme also catalyzes several side reactions
D. 20-50%; enzyme is very slow
D. 20-50%; enzyme is very slow
During photosynthesis, CO2 is reduced. This means that
A. the molecule gains electrons.
B. CO2 is broken down into two smaller molecules.
C. the molecule loses electrons.
D. the molecule loses protons.
A. the molecule gains electrons.
One of the products of the Calvin cycle is

A. PS I. B. RuBP carboxylase. C. 3PG. D. G3P.
D. G3P.
Plants need other molecules besides glucose. Where do these molecules, such as cellulose and fructose, come from?

A. Glucose must always be produced first; glucose can then be used as the monomer to form everything else.
B. G3P is directly converted to many other organic molecules besides glucose.
C. Plants absorb those molecules from the environment through their roots.
D. Any molecule beyond glucose must be converted from plant tissues already present.
B. G3P is directly converted to many other organic molecules besides glucose.
The hydrocarbon skeleton used to form fatty acids, glycerol, and amino acids (when N is added) is derived from

A. starch. B. sucrose. C. cellulose. D. G3P.
D. G3P.
Most major food plants such as wheat, oats, and rice are in the group of
A. nonphotosynthetic plants.
B. C3 plants.
C. C4 plants.
D. C5 plants.
B. C3 plants.
Which of the following is a CAM plant?

A. rice B. cactus C. corn D. wheat E. sugarcane
B. cactus
Which statement is not true about C3 and C4 plants?
A. C4 plants are more successful in hot climates than C3 plants.
B. C3 plants fix carbon dioxide in the mesophyll cells.
C. In C3 plants, O2 competes with CO2 for the active site of RuBP carboxylase.
D. C4 deliver CO2 to Calvin cycle using bundle sheath cells sheltered from leaf air spaces.
E. CO2 is fixed at night to decrease water loss.
E. CO2 is fixed at night to decrease water loss.
Over time, what would we expect in the evolution of C3, C4, and CAM strategies?

A. As the most complicated plants, CAM plants are most likely to go extinct.
B. As the probable ancestral form of photosynthesis, C3 plants are primitive and most likely to go extinct.
C. Because CAM plants make better usage of metabolism during the night, they are superior and will eventually become the dominant plants.
D. Because CO2 is delivered by the bundle sheath cells in C4 plants, they are superior and will eventually dominate.
E. Each form of photosynthesis has advantages in a heterogeneous world and, as long as environmental conditions vary, all forms will have an adaptive advantage in their unique niche.
E. Each form of photosynthesis has advantages in a heterogeneous world and, as long as environmental conditions vary, all forms will have an adaptive advantage in their unique niche.
CAM plants
A. do not perform any part of photosynthesis during the day.
B. fix CO2 in mesophyll cells during the day. C. include economically important food crops like corn and sugarcane.
D. open their stomata at night to minimize water loss.
E. typically grow very quickly because they are found in hot, moist environments.
D. open their stomata at night to minimize water loss.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic shared by cellular respiration and photosynthesis?
A. Both photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur in plant cells.
B. Both processes produce ATP by chemiosmosis.
C. Both processes produce oxygen.
D. Both processes use an electron transport chain located in membranes of organelles.
C. Both processes produce oxygen.
Which of the following statements is false?

A. During cellular respiration, carbohydrate energy is converted into ATP.
B. During cellular respiration, mitochondria release carbon dioxide.
C. During photosynthesis, energy from the sun is used to form carbohydrates.
D. During photosynthesis, oxygen is used.
D. During photosynthesis, oxygen is used.
In what ways are photosynthesis and cellular respiration not alike?
A. Both will use the electron carrier NADH. B. Both require ATP.
C. Both require a membrane.
D. Both require a cyclical enzymatic pathway.
A. Both will use the electron carrier NADH.
Which statement about photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?

A. Photosynthesis produces water, while cellular respiration uses water.
B. Photosynthesis produces oxygen, while cellular respiration uses oxygen.
C. Photosynthesis occurs in mitochondria, while cellular respiration occurs in chloroplasts.
D. Photosynthesis breaks down carbohydrates, cellular respiration produces carbohydrates.
B. Photosynthesis produces oxygen, while cellular respiration uses oxygen.
What is the value of photosynthesis to humans?

A. It results in the production of fatty acids and oxygen.
B. It results in the production of proteins and oxygen.
C. It will convert carbohydrates into usable forms of energy for humans.
D. It will reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
D. It will reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Which pathway is foundation for majority of ecosystems and food chains on Earth?

A. photosynthesis
B. anaerobic respiration
C. aerobic respiration
D. chemosynthesis
A. photosynthesis
Which photosynthetic mode would be most favorable in a desert environment?

A. CAM
B. C3
C. C4
D. both CAM and C3
A. CAM
Which of the following organisms do not have a dependence on photosynthesis for their energy?

A. white-tailed deer
B. wolves
C. squirrels
D. raccoons
E. All of the answer choices will have a dependency on photosynthesis.
E. All of the answer choices will have a dependency on photosynthesis.
Which statement is accurate about how C4 plants are able to survive hot, dry spells during the growing season?

A. When the stomata close during heat stress, RuBP carboxylase is not exposed to the increase in oxygen concentration experienced in the leaf. This allows the plant to avoid photorespiration.

B. When the stomata close during heat stress, RuBP carboxylase is exposed to the increase in oxygen concentration experienced in the leaf. This allows the plant to avoid photorespiration.

C. When the stomata open during heat stress, RuBP carboxylase is not exposed to the increase in oxygen concentration experienced in the leaf. This allows the plant to avoid photorespiration.

D. When the stomata close during heat stress, RuBP carboxylase is exposed to the increase in oxygen concentration experienced in the leaf. This allows the plant to undergo photorespiration.
A. When the stomata close during heat stress, RuBP carboxylase is not exposed to the increase in oxygen concentration experienced in the leaf. This allows the plant to avoid photorespiration.
Which of the following is a substrate in the photosynthesis equation?

A. CO2 B. O2 C. C6H12O6 D. H2
A. CO2