Assessment #2

Global PreHistory, Ancient Near East, Ancient Egypt
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Terms in this set (...)

Pre History
-period before writing or written records existed
-ended around 3200 BCE (cuneiform and hieroglyphics/oldest written known language)
Paleolithic
-Old stone age
-hunter/gatherer societies
-roughly 2.5 Million years ago
-small art so they can travel
-art also has a function to keep bringing it
BCE
Before Common Era
-count backwards (smaller number=closer to present)
CE
Common Era
-counts forwards
c.
century
ca.
circa
...
Apollo 11 stones
-Namibia, Africa (ca. 25,500-25,300 BCE)
-charcoal on stone
-discovered between 1969-72 in Huns mountains
-steer (utters)
-depicted in a profile view (easiest to draw and identify)
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Great Hall of Bulls
-Lascaux, France (ca. 15,000-13,000)
-rock painting
-created by Magdalenian people
-discovered in cave on top of a hill (defensive measure/warfare)
-no people (not a hunting scene, food source)
-Shamanistic beliefs: alter/impact nature, control population by painting a lot
-hunting practice/throw spears? NO
-composite view: mixing frontal (horns) and profile (body and head)
-used holes and pegs to paint ceiling
-completed over a period of time (overlapping and fading)
...
Camelid Sacrum in the shape of a canine
-Tequixquiac, Central Mexico (c. 14,000-7,000)
-bone
-bone from camelid (llama/alpaca)
-sacrum is near hips/pelvis
-believer sacrum was a second head in the spiritual world
-reductive
-fertility states (for animals?): wanted animals that they hunt to reproduce
-mask?
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Running Horned Woman
-Tassili n'Ajjer, Algeria, Africa (c. 6,000-4,000 BCE)
-pigment on rock
-found in mountain range
-composite view
-figure's body covered in tattoos, paint, or scars
-veil or rain?
-wearing fiber skirt? debate
-hierarchical scale
-overlapping: painted over time
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Bushel with Ibex Motifs
-Cylindrical Earthenware Pot (bushel)
-Susa, Iran (c. 4,200-3,500 BCE)
-painted terra cotta
-located in Louvre
-found at the foot id the acropolis (elevated land) in a necropolis (dead place/cemetery)
-primary and secondary burial in Susa
-taken out of original place and moved
-bushel would be given at the secondary burial after the bones were exhumed
-cranes standing on water (uniform, large quantity)
-canine like (at rest? in motion?)
-Ibex/ mountain goat (exaggerated horns, composed of 2 triangles, goatee, grain as tail)
-motif (tribe? family symbol?)
Neolithic
-New Stone Age
-domestication of wild
-roughly 10,000 BCE
-settled once they could provide food in surplus
--allowed people to have specialties
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StoneHenge "Hanging Stone"
-Wiltshire, England
-(c. 2,500-1,600 BCE)
-assorted stone
-56 pits containing bluestones (3000BCE)
-older than pyramids
-engineering marvel
-built in stages (started 3000 BCE)
-Pembrokeshire to Stonehenge: 57hr/173 mile walk
-2500BCE: bluestones moved to interior and saracen stones in circle
-burial/cremation ground
-males 25-40
-exclusive/leaders
-post and lintels to lock in place
-astronomical significance? entrance faces sun on summer solstice and back faces sun on winter solstice
-WHY were solar events significant to people?
...
Anthropomorphic Steele
-to have human like characteristics
-large upright slab of stone
-Arabian Peninsula
-(c. 4000-3000 BCE)
-sandstone
-headstone/tombstone?
-stylized-reduced/lacking human characteristics
-3ft tall
...
Jade Cong
-Liangzhu, China
-(c. 3300-2200BCE)
-carved nephrite (jade)
-"true jade"=china
-found amongst graves and grave sites
--some value that lead to them being buried with it
-nephrite=true jade, very hard material (neolithic), objects would last much longer
-faces? on it
-cong (thicker)=earth?
-bi (thin disk)= heaven?
...
The Ambum Stone
-Ambum Valley, Enga Province, New Guinea
-(c. 1500BCE)
-graywacke/sandstone
--very hard medium to work with (neolithic)
-ant eater: large deposits of fat
-function: mortal and pestle?ceremonial
...
Tlatilco Female Figurine
-Central Mexico
-(c. 1200-900BCE)
-ceramic
-duality,symmetrical/bifurcated (split down middle)
-exaggerated breasts and hips
--fertility figure?
-painted: braids are orange
-neolithic (approaching year 0)
...
Terra Cotta Fragments
-Solomon Islands, reed islands (1,000BCE)
-incised terra cotta (baked clay with engravings)
-face with motif as hands
-emphasis on shapes/geometric
-"very restricted range of motifs"
-"defined design system"
Ancient Near East
-showcasing power
-sumerians, babylonians, Assyrian, Persian
-mesopotamia:first civilization/ written language(cuneiform)
--"land between two rivers"
--modern day Iraq
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White Temple and Ziggurat
-Sumerian
-Uruk/modern day Warka, Iraq
-(ca. 3500-3000BCE)
-mud brick: not most efficient, used when lacking timber or stone
-pre dates pyramids but at least 1000 years
-ziggurat:temple mound
--elevate the temple to be closer to god
--serves as a middle ground
...
Votive Figures
-Sumerian
-Eshunna/modern day Tell Asmar, Iraq
-(ca. 2700BCE)
-gypsum inlaid with shells and black limestone
-"surrogate supplicants": a replacement for someone who is offering, leave in temple for gods when you're not there
-cups offering alcohol/offering
-libation:giving something to dead or gods
...
Standard of Ur
-Sumerian
-the royal tombs at Ur/modern day Tell el-Muqayyar, Iraq
-(ca. 2600-2400BCE)
-wood inlaid with shells, lapis lazuli, and red limestone
-registers: left to right, bottom to top, continuous narratives telling a story
-shows power: lapis lazuli from Afghanistan and red limestone
-function: standard (hole in bottom) but too small, lets people know peace/war time
-Peace side: carrying stuff-feast (top register)
-hierarchical scale: man seated in feast on top register is almost too big for register/bigger than servants
-man playing bulls head lyre
-war side: 4 horses (shows depth through 4 sets of legs), trampling enemy (couldn't depict running yet), top register: Sumerians win, smirking/easy for them (shows power in art),enemies don't know their fate, enemies are naked, king is now too big for register
...
Law Code Stele of Hammurabi
-Babylonian
-modern Iran
-(ca. 1792-1750BCE)
-basalt
-laws of Hammurabi
-sun god (shamash) wearing horned helmet of divinity (8horns=the boss)
-action depicted shows he is accepting of the laws
-bas relief: low relief/noticeably still attached to the medium
-hierarchical scale
-smoke coming off of shoulders because sun god
-shamash passes rod/ power to Hammurabi
--he is accepting laws
--Hammurabi's hand in front of mouth is a sign of respect
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Lamassu from the Citadel of Sargon II
-Assyrian (violent, bloody, hunting and war scenes)
-Dur Sharrukin/modern day Khorsabad, Iraq
-(c. 720-705BCE)
-alabaster
-Lamassu: guardians of the entryway
--on either side
--large, strong, intimidating
--body of bull, wings, 4 horned helmet of divinity
-stylized beards: ancient near east work
-cuneiform between legs of creature
-5 legs (when looked at from wrong angle)
...
Royal Apadana of Darius and Xerxes
-Persian
-Persepolis, Iran
-(c. 520-465 BCE)
-limestone
-persians tried to take greece
--despite fail, large empire
-founded by Darius the great in persepolis
-72 columns (size shows power)
-bas relief
-diff clothing to show where they travelled from and cultures they controlled
--shows how much power kings had to rule over large territory
Ancient Egypt
-theme: afterlife
--not meant to be seen by public eye
-upper crown (bowling pin)
-lower crown (swirly)
-double crown
-lower Egypt closer to nile river delta
Amarna Period
-"avant garde" movement
-short lived/ hasn't been done before
...
Great Pyramids at Giza
-Old kingdom
-Giza, Egypt
-(c. 2550-2490BCE)
-cut limestone
-pyramidal structures emulated the rays of the sun allowing rulers to use rays to approach afterlife
-represents the Egyptian creation story of land appearing for the first time
-the pyramid represented the first land to appear at the beginning of time- a hill called Ben Ben
-Pyramid of Khafre's causeway leads to the sphinx
-mastaba: tombs with death statue and opening on top to get body buried beneath
-mastaba-stacked mastabas-stepped pyramid-giga pyramids
-steps allow leader to walk to afterlife
-Khufu: largest in complex, over 481 ft tall, over 2 million blocks, boat pits to use in afterlife
-Khafre: Khufu's second son, partially intact outer layer of limestone
-sphinx: lion body with human head
-Menkaure: grandson of Khufu, sarcophagus was lost at sea being transported to British museum, statues at end of causeway and valley temple
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Pylon Temple of Amun-Re
-New kingdom
-Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt
-(c. 1550-1250BCE)
-cut sandstone and mud brick
-near nile river
-karnak was where Amun would walk the earth
-Thebes was a burial place for kings
-amun-re: patron god of Thebes (Amun) and sun god (re)
-named from pylon walls (tapered at top)
-spinxes-obelisks- colossal statues of pharaoh- pylon walls-courtyard-hypostyle hall- sanctuary
-gets darker the further you progress into (life-death)
-becomes more elevated
-courtyard was exclusive and became more exclusive the further you went
-tall columns: blossomed lotus
-short columns: budded lotus
-light comes through clerestory
-134 columns
-12 central columns are large enough to hold up to 100 people
-1.3 acres
-santuary: only high priests or pharaoh
-axial plan: symmetrical right down center
-sacred lake: supplied water for rituals and daily use/ presents Egyptian creation story
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Palette of Narmar
-predynastic Egypt
-(c. 3000-2920 BCE)
-greywacke
-so sacred, can never leave egypt
-2 feet tall
-left: Narmar conquering upper Egypt
-right: conquering lower egypt
-hierarchical scale
-Narmar is barefoot: religiously important scene, person next to him is holding sandals
-upper Egypt: Horace is looking down and is okay with it
-serpopards: serpent+leopards
-space between necks is recessed to mix mascara
--too big
--no residue
--ceremonial (about power, not afterlife)
-lower Egypt: hieroglyphics for Narmar's name
-foes decapitated with heads between their legs
-bull trampling city walls, conquering
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Seated Scribe
-old kingdom
-saqqara, Egypt
-(c. 2620-2500 BCE)
-painted limestone
-realistic: less important
--chubby, not muscular, facial flaws
-why: scribes were well respected bc most people weren't literate
--educated: held power
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King Menkaure and Queen
-old kingdom
-(c. 2490-2472)
-greywacke
-closed form: arms stuck right by side (no gap)
--easier to carve
--simplistic in execution and easier to preserve
-originally in high relief, but now sculpture in the round
-function: placed in tombs as substitute abodes for the soul after death
-standing with left foot more forward than wife to show power
--physically not possible
-egyptian stylized beard
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Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
-new kingdom
-near Luxor, Egypt
-(c. 1473-1458)
-sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite
-contained as many as 200 statues of Hatshepsut
-first great female monarch recorded, almost erased from history
-axial plan (for most part)
-built into cliff face from stone or cliff
-designed by Senmut- "architect/engineer"
-shrines for other gods that existed in her lifetime
-kneeling statue with offering jars
--many looking (no boobs, stylized beard)
--beard: how rulers before her were depicted
-cracks: son tried to destroy her image after she died
-kneeling: for when Amun-re passed in front of her and would take her offerings
-secluded: prevents thieves
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Akhenaten, Neferiti, and Three Daughters
-New Kingdom (armana period)
-(c.1353-1335 BCE)
-limestone
-canon: a way of portraying a figure
-Akhenaten: decides Amun is no longer patron god, but aten is
-amun (polytheistic)-aten (monotheistic)
-Akhenaten changes belief style
-realistic: belly, feminine, elongated (change in canon)
-context: change in religion=change in canon
-sunken relief: image carved into stone/ reductive
-function: glorification of new god of monotheistic religion
-baby alien heads: head misshapen by vacuum
-aten: disc with hands coming off with ankhs: providing the gift of life
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King Tut's Innermost Coffin
-new kingdom
-(c. 1323 BCE)
-gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones
-Tutencamun: polytheistic/amun: patron god
-organs put into canonic cards (left heart, extracted brain through nose)
-take salt from nile and coat human body in it/keeps out moisture
-construction of temple above tomb caused debris to keep it unfound for so long
-sylized/idealized
-Howard Carter: found in 1922
-225 pounds of gold
-lapis lazuli, rare, imported from Afghanistan (power to import)
-crook and flail (lets you know they were in power)
--held in crossed arms over chest
-canopic jars: stomach, liver, lungs, intestines
--preserved to be used in afterlife
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Last Judgement of Hu-Nefer
-new kingdom
-(c. 1275BCE)
-painted papyrus scroll
-continuous narrative; telling of ones story in a single scene
-first scene: Anubis (holding ankh), leading Hu Nefer
-Anubis:associated with funerals and weighing of the heart (where the soul resided)
-Maat (top god); truth, watching over weighing of heart
-if heart weighed more than feather of Meat, not worthy of afterlife/impure
-Ammit (crocodile, lion, hippo) would then eat heart
-Thoth: recording the outcome
-Hu Nefer's heart doesnt weight more, progressing to after life
-Horus (falcon headed god)(1 top god) (holding ankh): pointing to his father
-Osiris: god of afterlife
-Isis and Nephthys: sisters to Osiris
-Horus flying above= approval
-Osiris's throne resting on salt of nile (preserves body)
-lotus with 4 jars emerges from salt
-function: buried with mummies to use In afterlife, had to chant songs to progress through diff stages of underworld, scroll was in case they forgot chants
-canon doesn't change over time
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