A patron of those who wished to explore, he established a court for sailors, mapmakers, astronomers, and others interested in navigation.
a sailing vessel that uses square and triangular sails to help it sail against the wind
tool that helps sailors navigate by the position of the stars
In 1488, he became the first European attempt to sail around the Cape of Good Hope.
On his voyage to India, he sailed far to the west and saw and claimed Brazil for Portugal.
Vasco da Gama
In 1497, he sailed from Portugal to Calicut, India and back.
Believed he could reach Asia by sailing west rather than east.
It was his expedition that showed Columbus had not made it to the Indies, but rather a new land.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
First European to see the Pacific Ocean
His crew became the first to circumnavigate the globe.
Dutch born, sailing for England, he searched for a Northeast Passage around Europe. Later, sailing for the Dutch, he explored North America looking for a Northwest Passage.
Sir Francis Drake
Sent by the Queen of England to explore the west coast of the new world. Was also a "sea dog" for England who attacked Spanish treasure ships at sea.
Spanish colonial system in which a colonist was given a certain amount of land and a number of Native Americans to work the land in exchange for teaching the Native Americans Christianity.
Spanish conquistador; from 1519-1521, he defeated the Aztec Empire, conquering Mexico for Spain.
A Spanish soldier and explorer who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain.
Aztec ruler from 1502-1520; he was the emperor of the Aztecs when Cortes and his army conquered the empire. He was taken prisoner and killed during battle with the Spanish army.
Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Peru; founder of Lima, Peru. From 1530-1533, he conquered the Inca Empire.
The last Incan king; he was taken prisoner by Pizarro and his army after refusing to accept Christianity and surrender his empire to the Spanish. He was killed by the Spanish and his empire was taken over.
Officials who ruled Spain's American empire.
Bartolome de Las Casas
Spanish missionary and historian; he sought to protect Native Americans from Spanish mistreatment by replacing them as laborers with imported African slaves.
Treaty of Tordesillas
The agreement between Spain and Portugal that created an imaginary north-south line dividing their territory in the Americas.
Grants of money.
The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning with the voyages of Columbus.
An economic system used from about 1500s to the 1700s that held that a nation's power was directly related to its wealth.
balance of trade
The difference in value between what a nation imports and exports over a period of time.
Economic system in which most businesses are privately owned.
Businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses.
another word for a pirate...usually state sanctioned.
Large farms that usually specialized in the growing of one type of crop for profit.
Trading network lasting from the 1600s to the 1800s that carried goods and enslaved people between Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
The name for voyages that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
African American abolitionist; he was an enslaved African who was eventually freed, became a leader of the abolitionist movement.
The dispersal of people of African descent throughout the Americas and Western Europe due to the slave trade.
Large fleet of ships sent to invade England and restore Catholicism in 1588. Was defeated by the British, leading to England becoming the dominant force in the world.