JacksonAnniyah Chemical Bonding Vocabulary

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Aufbau Principle
States the structure of each successive element is obtained by adding one proton to the nucleus of an atom and one electron to the lowest energy orbital that is available
Anion
an ion that has a negative charge
Cation
an ion that has a positive charge
Covalent Bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Electron Affinity
the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
Electron Orbitals ( s, p, d, f)
the different energy levels filled by electrons within an atom
Hund's rule
states that for an atom in the ground state, the number of unpaired electrons is the maximum possible and these unpaired electrons have the same sign
Ion
an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
Ionic Bond
a force that attracts electrons from one atom to another, which transforms a neutral atom into an ion
Lewis Dot Structure
a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds
Metallic Bonds
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
Molecular Geometry
the 3D shape of a covalent molecule as determined by shared and unshared electrons
Non Polar Molecules
bonding electrons are equally attracted to both bonded atoms
Octect rule
elements other than transition metals tend to react so that each atom has eight electrons in its outer (valence) shell
Oxidation Number
a number assigned to an element in usionchemical combination that represents the number of electrons lost or gained by an atom of that element in the compound
Pauli Exclusion Principle
electrons in the same orbital and value must have opposite spins
Polar Molecules
a pair of electrons shared by two atoms is held more closely by one
VSEPR Theory (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion)
unshared electron pairs of atoms in covalent molecules repel each other; thus the shape of the molecule will tend to minimize the net repulsions
Electronegativity
a measure of the ability of an atom has more energy than it does at ground state
Ground State
the lowest energy state of a system
Ionization Energy
the energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion
Valence Electrons
an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
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